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” CalWORKs California Families Working Together ANNUAL SUMMARY MARCH 2019 CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SERVICES FAMILY ENGAGEMENT AND EMPOWERMENT DIVISION California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary March 2019 California Families Working Together i THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY BLANK California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Preface March 2019 California Families Working Together ii Preface This report is being produced pursuant to a Supplemental Report of the 2014-15 Budget Package, which reads: The Department of Social Services shall collaborate with legislative staff, the Legislative Analyst’s Office (LAO), and key stakeholders on the creation of an annual report on California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs), covering children living in poverty and deep poverty in the program, caseload dynamics, demographics of families, and impacts and implementation of recent policy changes, and other components to be decided in the course of those discussions. The report will also address the use and outcomes of research funds. Progress shall be provided in the form of a verbal update by January 15, 2015, with the first iteration of the report to be presented by April 1, 2015, at which date there shall be consideration regarding the annual date ongoing. The 2019 CalWORKs Annual Summary is the fifth iteration of this report. (http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/CalWORKs\/Reports) Senate Bill (SB) 1041 (Chapter 47, Statutes of 2012, Section 22), added the following provision into law: Welfare and Institutions Code 11334.6(a) The California Department of Social Services shall provide to the budget committees of the Legislature, no later than February 1, 2013, and, notwithstanding Section 10231.5 of the Government Code, on February 1 annually thereafter, a report that includes all of the following information: o The number of counties implementing a Cal-Learn Program. o The number of recipients being served in each county with intensive case management services. o Outcomes for recipients, including graduation rates and repeat pregnancies. The CalWORKs Annual Summary fulfills that reporting requirement. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/CalWORKs\/Reports California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Preface March 2019 California Families Working Together iii A Note about Data from the Research and Development Enterprise Project (RADEP) This report contains data from RADEP, a data tool used to report California’s federal work participation rates for the federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. The RADEP data is collected from a random sample of approximately 3,000 active CalWORKs cases over each federal fiscal year. Additional Note on Data Sources The CalWORKs Annual Summary provides data from numerous sources on several types of cases. Data does not always match precisely due to differences between data sources. Data from the Research and Development Enterprise Project (RADEP), a random sample of CalWORKs cases collected throughout a federal fiscal year and primarily used to fulfill federal data reporting requirements, is statistically accurate for that purpose but is subject to the usual limitations of sample data. Different portions of the CalWORKs Annual Summary report caseload in terms of individuals, work-eligible individuals, or families\/cases. Please refer to any table headings, narrative or footnotes to identify the total population identified in each table and chart. Some tables and charts in the summary reflect the overall CalWORKs caseload while others may reflect specific types of cases, e.g. only cases with earnings or only cases that receive federal TANF or Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) funding. Maintenance-of-Effort is a requirement that states expend a specified minimum amount of matching funds on benefits for lower-income families in order to participate in the federal TANF program. California allocates $2.9 billion annually in MOE. The CalWORKs Annual Summary also provides data from the Welfare-to-Work 25 and 25A (WTW 25 & 25A), the CalWORKs 237 (CA 237 CW) and other administrative data reports. Data presented in the CA 237 CW, WTW 25 and 25A are reported by each county to the state every month. Occasionally these data are revised to reflect new or changed information. Therefore, data provided from the WTW 25 and 25A, CA 237 CW, and certain other administrative data sources, are subject to periodic revision. Assembly Bill (AB) 959 (Chapter 565, Statutes of 2015) requires the Department of Social Services (CDSS), and other state organizations that collect and report demographic information, to collect voluntary self-identification information pertaining to sexual orientation and gender identity. Since the demographic information reported in the 2019 CalWORKs Annual Summary is based on previous years data, collected primarily before the implementation of the AB 959 requirements, this information will not be provided in this iteration of the Annual Summary. The AB 959 reporting requirements will be included in the 2020 CalWORKs Annual Summary. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Table of Contents March 2019 California Families Working Together iv Table of Contents Preface …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ii A Note about Data from the Research and Development Enterprise Project (RADEP) ………. iii 2019 CalWORKs Annual Summary – Executive Summary …………………………………………….xi Highlights ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. xi Chapter Summaries …………………………………………………………………………………………………. xi Introduction and Overview ………………………………………………………………………………………..xv California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) ……………………………… xv Purpose and Objectives ………………………………………………………………………………………….. xv Summary of Key Features of CalWORKs …………………………………………………………………… xv Eligibility ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. xvi Time Limits and Time Clocks …………………………………………………………………………………… xvi Work Requirements ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. xvi Federal Participation Mandate ………………………………………………………………………………… xvii Supportive Services ………………………………………………………………………………………………. xvii Parental Responsibility ………………………………………………………………………………………….. xviii Benefit Levels ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. xviii Program Administration …………………………………………………………………………………………. xviii Legal Authority …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. xviii Chapter 1 Caseload Dynamics ………………………………………………………………………………… 1 Key Terms in This Chapter ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 Tables and Figures in This Chapter ……………………………………………………………………………. 3 Characteristics of CalWORKs Cases ………………………………………………………………………….. 8 CalWORKs Applications, Approvals and Denials: FY 2017-18 ……………………………………….12 Chapter 2 Benefits, Earning Levels, and Employment ………………………………………………19 Key Terms in This Chapter ……………………………………………………………………………………….19 Tables and Figures in This Chapter ……………………………………………………………………………21 MAP Levels ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………22 CalWORKs Caseload and Grants with CalFresh Benefits ……………………………………………..24 CalWORKs Recipient Earned Income Limits ……………………………………………………………….25 Earnings Distribution for Work-Eligible Adult Cases with Earnings ………………………………….26 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Table of Contents March 2019 California Families Working Together v Chapter 3 Fiscal Overview ………………………………………………………………………………………31 Funding Sources …………………………………………………………………………………………………….31 Expenditures ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….31 Key Terms in This Chapter ……………………………………………………………………………………….31 Tables and Figures in This Chapter ……………………………………………………………………………32 Fiscal Overview of the CalWORKs Program ………………………………………………………………..33 CalWORKs Funds by Program Area and Funding Source ……………………………………………..33 Chapter 4 Program Chronology ………………………………………………………………………………37 Key Terms in This Chapter ……………………………………………………………………………………….37 A Brief History of What Led to the Present Version of CalWORKs …………………………………..39 Chapter 5 Welfare-to-Work (WTW) Participation ……………………………………………………….53 Key Terms in This Chapter ……………………………………………………………………………………….54 Tables and Figures in This Chapter ……………………………………………………………………………56 CalWORKs WTW Activities and Hourly Requirements ………………………………………………….57 During Adults’ 48 Months on Aid ………………………………………………………………………………..57 Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-To-Work Population ………………………………………………….59 Education and Training …………………………………………………………………………………………….64 Work or Work-Related Activities and the TANF Work Participation Rate Policy …………………68 Work Participation Rate Compliance ………………………………………………………………………….70 Table 5H Penalty Amounts ……………………………………………………………………………………….71 Status of Penalty Disputes and Corrective Compliance Plans ………………………………………..72 Chapter 6 Recent Program Changes and Outcomes …………………………………………………75 Tables and Figures in This Chapter ……………………………………………………………………………76 Welfare-to-Work 24-Month Time Clock and Post24-Month Time Clock ……………………………77 Other key elements: ………………………………………………………………………………………………..77 Update…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..77 Maximum Family Grant (MFG) Repeal ……………………………………………………………………….78 Family Stabilization (FS) Program ……………………………………………………………………………..78 Overview ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….78 Budget Information ………………………………………………………………………………………………….78 Implementation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….78 Program Data …………………………………………………………………………………………………………79 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Table of Contents March 2019 California Families Working Together vi Outcomes ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………79 Expanded Subsidized Employment (ESE) …………………………………………………………………..81 Program Overview …………………………………………………………………………………………………..81 ESE Program Highlights …………………………………………………………………………………………..82 Work Incentive Nutritional Supplement (WINS) ……………………………………………………………83 Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool (OCAT) ………………………………………………………………….84 OCAT Overview ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..84 Implementation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….84 Tool Structure and Recommendations………………………………………………………………………..85 The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) …………………………………………………87 Cal-Learn Program ………………………………………………………………………………………………….88 Post-Aid Earnings ……………………………………………………………………………………………………89 Chapter 7 Supportive Services ……………………………………………………………………………….91 Key Terms in This Chapter ……………………………………………………………………………………….91 Tables and Figures in This Chapter ……………………………………………………………………………92 Child Care Resources for CalWORKs Participants ……………………………………………………….95 Characteristics of Stage One Child Care Cases …………………………………………………………..96 Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation: ………………………………………………..99 Chapter 8 Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates ……………………………………………………. 105 Key Terms in This Chapter …………………………………………………………………………………….. 105 Tables and Figures in This Chapter …………………………………………………………………………. 106 California’s Poverty Rate and National Ranking ………………………………………………………… 107 Measuring Poverty with the OPM and SPM ………………………………………………………………. 107 Major Differences between the OPM and SPM ………………………………………………………….. 107 California Poverty Rates Based on the OPM and the SPM ………………………………………….. 109 Why is the SPM Higher than the OPM in California? ………………………………………………….. 109 CalWORKs Benefit and Resource Model 2017 ………………………………………………………….. 112 Background …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 112 Data Sources ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 113 Chapter 9 Research Funds and Program Oversight ……………………………………………….. 117 Tables and Figures in This Chapter …………………………………………………………………………. 117 TANF Research Funds ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 118 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Table of Contents March 2019 California Families Working Together vii SB 1041 Statewide Evaluation ……………………………………………………………………………….. 120 Department of Health Care Services (DHCS) ……………………………………………………………. 121 Child Care Characteristics Survey Research Project ………………………………………………….. 121 Home Visiting Initiative Program Evaluation ……………………………………………………………… 122 Chapter 10 Homeless Assistance and Housing Support ………………………………………… 123 Key Terms in This Chapter …………………………………………………………………………………….. 123 Tables and Figures in This Chapter …………………………………………………………………………. 123 CalWORKs Homeless Assistance Program ………………………………………………………………. 124 CalWORKs Housing Support Program (HSP) ……………………………………………………………. 125 Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and Acronyms ……………………………………………………….. 129 Appendix B: List of Data Sources Used …………………………………………………………………… 137 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary List of Tables and Figures March 2019 California Families Working Together viii List of Tables and Figures Chapter 1 Caseload Dynamics ………………………………………………………………………………… 1 Figure 1A. FFY 2018 Total CalWORKs Cases Breakdown: …………………………………………… 4 Table 1A. Characteristics of TANF\/MOE Funded CalWORKs Cases: FFY 2017 ………………. 5 Table 1B. Characteristics of TANF\/MOE Funded CalWORKs Cases: FFY 2017 ………………. 7 Table 1C. Time on Aid Characteristics of CalWORKs Cases …………………………………………. 8 Figure 1B. CalWORKs Quarterly Caseload Analysis: FY 2009 -10 through FY 2017-18 ……. 9 Table 1D. CalWORKs Quarterly Caseload Analysis: FY 2009-10 through FY 2017-18 ……..10 Table 1E. CalWORKs Annual Application Approvals by County: FY 2017-18 …………………..12 Table 1F. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by County: FY 2017-18 ………………………14 Table 1G. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by Reasons by County: FY 2017-18 …….16 Chapter 2 Benefits, Earning Levels, and Employment ………………………………………………19 Table 2A. CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment (MAP) Levels ………………………………………..22 Table 2B. CalWORKs Caseload and Grants with CalFresh Benefits Recent History and Projections: FY 2008-09 through FY 2018-19 ………………………………………………………………24 Table 2C. CalWORKs Recipient Earned Income Limits: FY 2018-19 ……………………………..25 Table 2D. Earnings Distribution for Work-Eligible Adult Cases with Earnings for FY 2017-18 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….26 Figure 2A. Quarterly Earnings for CalWORKs Adult Recipients: 2003-2018 …………………….27 Figure 2B. Proportion of Adult Recipients with Earnings: 2003-2018 ………………………………28 Figure 2C. CalWORKs Welfare-to-Work Participants in Employment Activities: FFYs 2014-2018 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..29 Chapter 3 Fiscal Overview ………………………………………………………………………………………31 Figure 3A. CalWORKs Funds for FY 2018-19 …………………………………………………………….33 Table 3A. CalWORKs Funding by Program Area & Fund Sources: FY 2018-19 ……………….34 Table 3B. Funding Reconciliation for CalWORKs: FY 2018-19 ………………………………………35 Chapter 4 Program Chronology ………………………………………………………………………………37 Chapter 5 Welfare-to-Work (WTW) Participation ……………………………………………………….53 Table 5A. CalWORKs WTW Activities and Hourly Requirements …………………………………..58 Figure 5A. Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population: FY 2009-10 through FY 2017-18 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………60 Table 5B. Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population: FY 2009-10 through FY 2017-18 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………61 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary List of Tables and Figures March 2019 California Families Working Together ix Table 5C. CalWORKs Welfare-to-Work Education Activities …………………………………………63 Table 5D. Number of Community College Degrees, Certificates, and Awards CalWORKs Recipients Received: 2011-2018 ……………………………………………………………………………….64 Table 5E. Average Monthly Percent of Exemptions Granted to WTW Adults: FFYs 2010-2018 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..65 Table 5F. Welfare-to-Work (WTW) Time Clock Exemptions\/Good Cause ……………………….66 Table 5G. Participation in Work or Work-Related Activities (TANF cases only): FFYs 2009-2017 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..69 Table 5H. Summary of WPR Assessed Penalties and Compliance Status ($ in millions)……71 Table 5I. California’s TANF Work Participation Rate (WPR) History: FFYs 2008-2018 ………73 Chapter 6 Recent Program Changes and Outcomes …………………………………………………75 Table 6A. CalWORKs Family Stabilization Status Report: FY 2017-18 ……………………………79 Figure 6A. Subsidized Employment Caseload: 2014-2018 ……………………………………………81 Table 6B. WINS Households: July 2017- September 2018 (Includes Both CalFresh and California Food Assistance Program) …………………………………………………………………………83 Table 6C. OCAT Appraisals by Month: FY 2017-18……………………………………………………..84 Table 6D. OCAT Tool Design …………………………………………………………………………………..85 Table 6E. Cal-Learn Average Monthly Participation and Outcomes: FY 2014-15 through FY 2017-18 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………88 Table 6F. Welfare-To-Work Annual Earnings by County: One Year After Exit: SFY 2016-17 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………89 Chapter 7 Supportive Services ……………………………………………………………………………….91 Table 7A. Monthly Average Number of Individuals Receiving Supportive Services: FY 2017-18 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………93 Table 7B. Age, Provider Setting, and Time in Care for Stage One Children: FY 2017-18 ….96 Table 7C: CalWORKs Stage One Child Care: Monthly Average Trends and Participation from FY 2013-14 to FY 2017-18 ……………………………………………………………………………………….97 Figure 7A. Children in CalWORKs Stages One, Two, and Three Child Care Programs: 2008-2018 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..98 Table 7D. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation: FY 2017-18 All (Other) Families ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 100 Table 7E. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation: FY 2017-18 Two-Parent Families ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 102 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary List of Tables and Figures March 2019 California Families Working Together x Chapter 8 Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates ……………………………………………………. 105 Table 8A. Official Poverty Measure and California’s Ranking: 2013-2017 …………………….. 107 Table 8B. Comparison of the Official and Supplemental Poverty Measures ………………….. 108 Table 8C. Comparison of the OPM and SPM in California and the U.S.: 2013-2015 to 2015-2017 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 109 Figure 8A. Children in TANF as a Percentage of Children in Poverty: California and the U.S., 2004-2017 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 110 Table 8D. Child Poverty Rates and Share of Poor Children in TANF: California and the U.S. 2004 2017 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 111 Table 8E. Monthly Benefit Values for a CalWORKs Family of Three in Region One: One Aided Adult and Two Aided Children ……………………………………………………………………….. 114 Figure 8B. Monthly Resources Available to a Family of Three (One Adult and Two Children) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115 Figure 8C. CalWORKs Benefit and Resource Model 2017: Cases with No Earnings and with Median Earnings ……………………………………………………………………………………… 116 Chapter 9 Research Funds and Program Oversight ……………………………………………….. 117 Table 9A. Allocation of TANF Research Funds Research Project Names and Budgets by Year, FY 2015-16 through FY 2019-20 …………………………………………………………………….. 118 Chapter 10 Homeless Assistance and Housing Support ………………………………………… 123 Table 10A. Application Approvals and Shelter Expenditures: FY 2017-18 …………………….. 124 Table 10B. Application Approvals and Families Housed …………………………………………….. 126 Table 10C. HSP Allocation and Caseload FY 2017-18 ………………………………………………. 126 Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and Acronyms ……………………………………………………….. 129 Appendix B: List of Data Sources Used …………………………………………………………………… 137 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Executive Summary March 2019 California Families Working Together xi 2019 CalWORKs Annual Summary – Executive Summary The Supplemental Report of the 2014-15 Budget Package included a requirement for an annual report on the CalWORKs program to cover various relevant components of the program, including caseload dynamics, demographics of families and children living in poverty and deep poverty, the Welfare-to-Work program and impacts of recent policy changes. The first of these reports, The CalWORKs Annual Summary, was presented in July 2015, subsequent editions were presented in January 2016, January of 2017, and February of 2018. This is the fifth iteration of the report, which will be presented each year to coincide with the budget calendar. The Annual Summary consists of ten chapters that highlight the components of the CalWORKs program required in the supplemental report language as well as other topics decided through an inclusive stakeholder process. Highlights The CalWORKs caseload continues to decline. The CalWORKs Outcomes and Accountability Review (Cal-OAR) stakeholder process is continuing and Cal-OAR metrics, processes and timelines are being developed. A revised benefit and resource model infographic incorporates the Supplemental Poverty Measure, along with the National School Lunch Program, the California Earned Income Tax Credit and the utility assistance programs (Chapter 8). Chapter Summaries Chapter One – Caseload Dynamics provides a comprehensive overview of the CalWORKs caseload. The chapter begins with the Characteristics of TANF\/MOE funded CalWORKs cases, a look at the CalWORKs caseload that reflects the move-out of the Safety-Net, Fleeing Felon, and Long-Term Sanction population from the TANF\/MOE funding stream. This characteristics analysis presents the important attributes of this TANF\/MOE funded CalWORKs cases population, including average Assistance Unit (AU) size, benefit amounts, average number of children in CalWORKs families, percentage with monthly earnings, average and median time on aid, and many others. Chapter One concludes with a longitudinal depiction of the quarterly CalWORKs caseload from FY 2009-18, as well as data reporting CalWORKs annual applications and denials (by county) in FY 2017-18. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Executive Summary March 2019 California Families Working Together xii Chapter Two – Benefit and Earning Levels provides information about income levels required for benefit eligibility and corresponding benefit levels. This chapter presents data describing the average monthly CalWORKs caseload and grant, a historical look at the Maximum Aid Payment (MAP) and maximum CalFresh (California’s version of the federal Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program, or SNAP) allotment, figures displaying changes in the mean and median average earned income for CalWORKs adult recipients over time, and others. Chapter Three – Fiscal Overview provides a brief financial picture of the CalWORKs program including funding sources and major expenditure categories. California receives the majority of funds for CalWORKs from an annual federal TANF block grant, and the state and counties contribute additional financial resources in Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) funding. Chapter Three also includes a figure displaying the distribution of funds across various program components which illustrates that more than 90 percent of CalWORKs expenditures go to grants, services, child care, and mental health and substance abuse assistance programs. Chapter Four Program Chronology provides a brief history of CalWORKs and its predecessor programs, beginning with the 1935 federal Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program and the programs that led up to the creation of CalWORKs in 1998 to today. Changes highlighted in the 2019 Annual Summary include the CalWORKs Outcomes and Accountability Review (Cal-OAR), a continuous improvement process for county CalWORKs programs. Chapter Five Welfare-to-Work Participation provides details of California’s Welfare-to-Work program and population. The chapter includes a description of the differences between CalWORKs and TANF participation requirements and a historical quarterly analysis of the Welfare-to-Work caseload. The chapter continues with California’s work participation rate (WPR) trends through Federal Fiscal Year 2018 and concludes with an account of California’s WPR compliance status. The State has been in WPR noncompliance for several years and has been preliminarily assessed federal penalties each year since 2007. Seven Corrective Compliance Plans have been submitted to the Federal Administration for Children and Families to reduce or eliminate those penalties. California has achieved compliance with the Overall WPR since 2015 resulting in successful completion of the CCPs, and complete elimination of penalties assessed for FFYs 2008-2011 as well as a recalculation of all outstanding penalties. Chapter Six – Recent Program Changes and Outcomes describes the most significant recent changes in the CalWORKs program and provides updates on the impact of many of these recent program changes. The 2019 Annual Summary updates information about the 24-Month Time Clock, the Family Stabilization (FS), and Expanded Subsidized Employment (ESE) programs, the Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool (OCAT), the Cal-Learn program, the 2016 repeal of the Maximum Family Grant, and the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA). California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Executive Summary March 2019 California Families Working Together xiii Chapter Seven – Supportive Services provides details about the support CalWORKs families could receive in addition to their cash aid, including food benefits via the CalFresh program and Medi-Cal coverage. Additionally, this chapter presents information about the Child Care resources available to CalWORKs recipients, and the number and type of other supportive services provided to participants in the Welfare-to-Work program. Chapter Eight – Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates describes how poverty is defined and measured, using both the Official Poverty Measure (OPM) and the Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) concepts that are essential to understanding CalWORKs’ design and impact. One of the main goals of CalWORKs is to reduce child poverty. The chapter details California’s poverty level using both measures. The chapter compares the much greater share of California children in poverty served by CalWORKs compared to TANF programs across the nation; and A revised benefit and resource model infographic details the benefits available to a typical CalWORKs family at various income levels and incorporates the SPM. Chapter 9 Research Funds and Program Oversight discusses the general purpose of CalWORKs program oversight: to review, monitor, and supervise the implementation of public policy, and the resources available for these purposes. This chapter describes the ways in which oversight occurs in the CalWORKs program, including how research funds are used to strengthen and evaluate program performance. Chapter highlights include a table detailing the historical allocation of TANF research funds and a description of previous and ongoing research projects, including the multi-year SB 1041 Program Evaluation, a Child Care Characteristics Study, a program evaluation of the new CalWORKs Home Visiting Program, and various collaborative research projects with the University of California at Davis. The chapter concludes with a brief exposition of program oversight efforts including a description of the CalWORKs Outcomes and Accountability Review (Cal-OAR). Chapter 10 Homeless Assistance and Housing Support provides an overview of the housing support available in the CalWORKs Homeless Assistance and CalWORKs Housing Support Programs. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Executive Summary March 2019 California Families Working Together xiv THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY BLANK California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Introduction and Overview March 2019 California Families Working Together xv Introduction and Overview California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) This annual summary was developed as an information tool to provide an overview of the CalWORKs program. Purpose and Objectives The CalWORKs program is California’s version of the federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. CalWORKs provides temporary cash assistance to meet basic family’s basic needs. It also provides education, employment, and training programs to assist the family’s progress toward self-sufficiency. Components of CalWORKs policy include time limits on eligibility, work requirements, supportive services to encourage program participation, and parental responsibility. California is among a minority of states that provide TANF benefits to children in need even after their adult caregiver reaches the lifetime 48-month time limit for receipt of cash aid; and, California continues to provide aid to children when adults are not aided due to failure to meet program requirements. Summary of Key Features of CalWORKs Cash Grants for Families; 48 Months of Cash Assistance and Welfare-to- Work (WTW) Services; 24 Months of Flexible Work Activities (24-Month Time Clock); Federal Work Participation Mandates and Penalties; Exemptions from Time Clock and Participation; Safety Net for Children; Subsidized Employment Opportunities; County Flexibility to Design WTW Program; Holistic Appraisal of Basic Needs and Barriers; Immediate Needs Intervention; Cash Bonuses for Teen Academic Success; Earnings Disregard; Child Care\/Supportive Services; Substance Abuse, Mental Health and Domestic Violence Services; and Homelessness Assistance. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Introduction and Overview March 2019 California Families Working Together xvi Eligibility Families must meet income and asset tests and children must be deprived of parental support and care due to the incapacity, death, or absence of a parent, or unemployment of the principal wage earner. Time Limits and Time Clocks State law provides for a cumulative 48-month lifetime limit on cash aid for adults. Children of adults who exhaust the 48-month time limit may continue to receive cash aid, if otherwise eligible, up to age 18. There are effectively three categories of time clocks associated with the CalWORKs program: The TANF 60-month time limit refers to the cumulative lifetime 60-month federal cash aid time limit for adult recipients of aid; The CalWORKs 48-month time limit refers to the cumulative lifetime 48-month cash aid time limitation for adult CalWORKs recipients; and The Welfare-to-Work 24-Month Time Clock (24MTC) refers to a cumulative 24-month period in a Welfare-to-Work participant’s lifetime, during which he or she may participate in any approved activity, so long as participation is consistent with his or her assessment and addresses the need for barrier removal activities, education, or career goals of the participant. Work Requirements CalWORKs provides a wide array of services and supports for families to enter and remain in the workforce. Parents and caretaker adults, unless exempt from work requirements, are required to participate in Welfare-to-Work (WTW) activities as a condition of receiving aid. WTW activities include unsubsidized and subsidized employment, work experience, on-the-job training, grant-based on-the-job training, work study, self-employment, community service, adult basic education, job skills training, vocational education, job search\/job readiness assistance, mental health counseling, substance abuse treatment, domestic abuse services, and other activities necessary to assist recipients in obtaining employment. An adult in a one-parent assistance unit (AU) is required to participate in WTW activities for an average of 30 hours per week or 20 hours per week if he or she has a child under the age of 6. In a two-parent AU, one or both adults must participate in WTW activities for a combined total of an average of 35 hours per week. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Introduction and Overview March 2019 California Families Working Together xvii Adults may receive a total of 24 months of flexible CalWORKs services and activities to address any barriers to employment. These 24 months need not be consecutive and can be used at any time during the adult’s 48 months of eligibility. Once the 24 months have been exhausted, adults must meet CalWORKs federal participation standards, unless they are exempted or receive an extension. CalWORKs has a universal engagement requirement to ensure recipients are participating in appropriate WTW activities as soon as possible. Counties are required to develop WTW plans with a recipient within 90 days from the date an individual begins receiving cash aid. Federal Participation Mandate State work participation requirements are designed to assist in meeting federal work participation rates for California to avoid fiscal penalties. Federal work participation rate requirements are as follows: 50 percent of all families with work-eligible adults (both one- and two-parent) must be working or in a countable work activity for 20 or 30 hours per week, depending on family configuration; and 90 percent of families with two work-eligible adults must be working or in a work activity for a combined total of 35 hours each week. The federal government can assess penalties on the state for not achieving work participation rates. In California, counties that do not achieve the federal participation rates will share in any such fiscal penalties unless a statutory exception applies. Supportive Services Supportive services, including child care, transportation, ancillary expenses, barrier mitigation, and personal counseling, are available for families participating in WTW activities. If needed supportive services needed are not available, the recipient has good cause for not participating. Special supportive services and intensive case management services are also available for pregnant and parenting teens. These services are provided through the Cal-Learn Program, which is designed to encourage pregnant and parenting teens to return to and\/or stay in school. Cal-Learn teens can get bonuses or be sanctioned up to four times a year depending on the teen’s grades. An additional bonus is given to each teen upon earning a high school diploma or equivalent. Participation in Cal-Learn is mandatory for pregnant or parenting teens ages 18 and under and voluntary for specified 19-year olds. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Introduction and Overview March 2019 California Families Working Together xviii Parental Responsibility CalWORKs encourages parental responsibility by requiring parents to immunize their aided children under the age of six and cooperate with the child-support enforcement process. Failure to meet these requirements results in a reduction of the adult’s portion of the grant. If a child age 16 or older does not attend school and is deemed a chronic truant, this may result in a reduction of the child’s portion of the grant unless certain conditions apply. Benefit Levels Grant levels and amounts vary according to family size, exempt status, and geographic location. Families in high cost-of-living areas (Region 1) receive slightly more money than families in other areas (Region 2 [see page 22]). A family in which all adults are disabled or otherwise exempt from work requirements is eligible for the higher exempt grant amount. A non-exempt family of three with no other income living in Region 1 currently receives a monthly grant of $714 while the same family living in Region 2 receives $680. If that family were exempt, it would receive $799 in Region 1 and $762 in Region 2. Program Administration The CalWORKs Program is administered by county welfare departments under supervision of CDSS. Although eligibility requirements and grant levels are uniform throughout the state, counties are given considerable latitude to design WTW programs that will work best for their diverse populations, size, and culture. Each county must have a CalWORKs county plan describing specific program outcomes and how those outcomes are to be achieved. Legal Authority Assembly Bill (AB) 1542 (Ducheny, Chapter 270, Statutes of 1997), the Welfare-to-Work Act of 1997, established the CalWORKs Program in California. AB 1542 eliminated the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program and the Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) program and replaced them with the CalWORKs program. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Introduction and Overview March 2019 California Families Working Together xix THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY BLANK California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 March 2019 California Families Working Together 1 Chapter 1 Caseload Dynamics This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the CalWORKs caseload, including the number of cases receiving CalWORKs assistance delineated by case type: the percentage of cases with individuals who are exempt from Welfare-to-Work participation requirements; cases in sanction, child-only, and safety-net status; a longitudinal analysis of CalWORKs cases over time; tables illustrating the number of applications for aid and the number of those approved and denied; and the benefits provided to CalWORKs recipients. In 2015, the Work Incentive Nutritional Supplement (WINS) program became fully operational. WINS cases are provided with a ten-dollar monthly cash nutritional benefit funded from state General Fund that counts toward the Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) requirement and, therefore, are counted in the federal TANF caseload, that is, WINS cases have been moved in to the TANF caseload. The WINS caseload is not reflected in the CalWORKs caseload tables provided in this chapter, but WINS issuances are displayed in Table 6C. Key Terms in This Chapter The CalWORKs caseload is characterized using the following key terms. Assistance Unit (AU) An AU is a group of related persons living in the same home who have been determined to be eligible for CalWORKs and for whom cash aid has been authorized. An AU is sometimes referred to as a CalWORKs case. An AU or case differs from a household in that a household includes all persons in the same dwelling regardless of their relationship to members of the AU, or their eligibility for CalWORKs aid. Definitions of Assistance Units (AU) Types: o Single-Parent or 1-Parent Includes one or more children, and one aided adult who is a natural or adoptive parent, a stepparent, or another caretaker relative. o Two-Parent or 2-Parent Includes at least one child and two natural or adoptive aided adult parents. o WTW Participants Includes Single-Parent and Two-Parent households with an aided adult who is NOT exempt from work activities and NOT sanctioned. o WTW Exempts Includes Single-Parent and Two-Parent households where the aided adult(s) are exempt from work activities. o WTW Sanction Adults were removed from aid due to non-compliance with program requirements without good cause or compliance efforts have failed. Aid continues for eligible children in the AU. o Child-Only or Zero-Parent Cases in which only the children in the case are aided because the parents are ineligible due to immigration status or being an SSI recipient or a non-parental, non-needy caretaker is caring for the children. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 March 2019 California Families Working Together 2 o Safety-Net Cases in which only the children in an AU are aided because the parent(s) are discontinued for cash aid due to their reaching the 48-month lifetime assistance limit. Safety-net cases are funded with non-MOE state-only funds and not subject to federal TANF reporting rules. o TANF-Timed Out Cases in which the head of household or spouse of the head of household (parent, stepparent, or caretaker relative) has reached federal TANF assistance time limit of 60 months, but still has time left on CalWORKs assistance. o Fleeing Felon Cases in which only children in an AU are aided because parent(s) are fleeing to avoid prosecution. Long-Term Sanction Cases with a parent or caretaker who has been sanctioned due to failing to comply with Welfare-to-Work program requirements, without good cause, for 12 consecutive months or longer. Non-MOE Moved Out All cases that are funded with non-MOE General Fund dollars (Safety Net, Fleeing Felon, and Long-Term Sanctioned) and, as such, are moved out of the Work Participation Rate calculation. Time on Aid Time on aid for WTW Cases is calculated by the aided adult on aid longest (as an adult) since the beginning of the look-back period. Time on aid for CalWORKs Non-MOE cases (Safety Net, Fleeing Felon and Long-Term Sanction) as well as the Child-Only cases is determined by the child member on aid longest since the beginning of the look-back period. WDTIP The Welfare Data Tracking Implementation Project (WDTIP) is a statewide welfare time-on-aid tracking and reporting system. WDTIP collects information relative to the TANF 60-month, CalWORKs 48-month, and 24-month time limits for Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) and California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) applicants and recipients including time-on-aid, exemption, exception, sanctions and others. Funding Source Definitions o General Fund (GF) The GF is California’s main governmental operating account. GF revenues come primarily from the state income tax, but state sales and corporate taxes also contribute to the GF. o Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) The MOE is a requirement that states expend a specified minimum amount of matching funds on benefits for lower-income families in order to participate in the federal TANF program. California allocates $2.9 billion annually in MOE. o Non-MOE (State-Only) General Fund CalWORKs cases that receive assistance from federal TANF, state MOE funds, or some combination, are subject to work participation requirements. Non-MOE General Funds originate in California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 March 2019 California Families Working Together 3 the state GF but are allocated for assistance that is not subject to the federal TANF work participation requirements. o Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Funding The federal government allocates $16.6 billion annually for TANF. States receive a portion of this total in an annual block grant. To participate in TANF, states must expend a specified amount of dollars in MOE funds that match the TANF funds. California receives approximately $3.7 billion annually in federal TANF funding, and this is matched with roughly $2.9 billion in state-contributed MOE. Tables and Figures in This Chapter Figure 1A. FFY 2018 Total CalWORKs Cases Breakdown: …………………………………………… 4 Table 1A. Characteristics of TANF\/MOE Funded CalWORKs Cases: FFY 2017 ………………. 5 Table 1B. Characteristics of TANF\/MOE Funded CalWORKs Cases: FFY 2017 ………………. 7 Table 1C. Time on Aid Characteristics of CalWORKs Cases …………………………………………. 8 Figure 1B. CalWORKs Quarterly Caseload Analysis: FY 2009 -10 through FY 2017-18 ……. 9 Table 1D. CalWORKs Quarterly Caseload Analysis: FY 2009-10 through FY 2017-18 …….10 Table 1E. CalWORKs Annual Application Approvals by County: FY 2017-18 …………………..12 Table 1F. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by County: FY 2017-18 ………………………14 Table 1G. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by Reasons by County: FY 2017-18 …….16 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 March 2019 California Families Working Together 4 Figure 1A. FFY 2018 Total CalWORKs Cases Breakdown: This chart provides a representation of the CalWORKs caseload based on status of the adult(s) in the case1. Cases with adults subject to WTW program rules are represented in Exempt, Sanctioned, and Participant categories. Cases without an aided adult, and not subject to WTW, comprise the Child Only category. Cases in the Non-MOE Moved Out category are funded with state-only General Fund (outside the federal funding structure) and include cases where the adult(s) reached the maximum allowable 48 months of CalWORKs assistance or who have been in WTW sanction for 12 months or longer. Definitions: Child-Only cases reflect cases without an aided adult (excluding Safety Net, Fleeing Felon and Sanctioned cases). Non-MOE Moved Out cases reflect the Safety Net, Fleeing Felon and Long-Term Sanctioned CalWORKs cases. Data Sources: Medi-Cal Eligibility Data System (MEDS) Monthly Extract File, Quarter 3 2018 and the Welfare Data Tracking Implementation Project (WDTIP) Data, November 2018. Note: 1 Includes all TANF\/MOE Cases (from Table 1A) as well as Non-MOE funded cases. WTW PARTICIPANTS 27% WTW EXEMPT 14% WTW SANCTION 7% CHILD ONLY 30% NON-MOE MOVED OUT 22% California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 March 2019 California Families Working Together 5 Table 1A. Characteristics of TANF\/MOE Funded CalWORKs Cases: FFY 2017 The Safety Net, Fleeing Felon and Long-Term Sanctioned CalWORKs cases are now funded by Non-MOE GF and detailed characteristics information are no longer collected for these cases in the RADEP system. Child-Only cases reflect cases without an aided adult (excluding Safety Net and Sanctioned cases). Characteristic WTW Participants WTW Exempt WTW Sanction Child- Only All TANF\/ MOE % of Cases 32.6 19.7 8.3 39.4 100.0 Average AU Size 3.0 3.0 1.9 2.0 2.5 Average Benefit $582 $600 $454 $502 $543 Average # of Children in AU 1.9 1.8 1.9 2.0 1.9 Average Age of Oldest Child 7.4 7.3 9.1 11.4 9.1 Average Age of Youngest Child 4.6 4.3 6.1 7.9 6.0 % with Children Under 1 Year 9.6 27.3 8.8 5.3 11.3 % with Children Under 6 Years 67.3 66.8 57.3 37.6 54.7 Average Age of Head of Household 30.6 32.6 32.5 41.3 35.4 % with Monthly Earnings 42.6 17.6 16.5 8.8 22.2 Average Monthly Earnings of Cases w\/ Earnings $1,193 $1,185 $961 $1,330 $1,199 % Female 88.3 86.6 85.3 92.5 89.5 % Hispanic 47.8 49.0 53.0 75.5 59.4 % White (Non-Hispanic) 23.6 28.8 24.0 11.2 19.7 % Black (Non-Hispanic) 20.9 15.1 17.9 11.1 15.6 % Asian (Non-Hispanic) 4.4 4.1 2.9 1.1 2.9 % Other 3.2 2.9 2.1 0.9 2.3 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 March 2019 California Families Working Together 6 Table 1A. Characteristics of TANF\/MOE Funded CalWORKs Cases: FFY 2017 (continued) Characteristic WTW Participants WTW Exempt WTW Sanction Child- Only All TANF\/ MOE % English 87.0 87.5 89.9 41.4 69.5 % Spanish 6.9 8.2 7.8 57.3 27.1 % Other 6.0 4.1 2.1 1.2 3.4 % of Head of Household Completed High School or Equivalent 59.8 56.5 49.6 17.8 41.9 % Unknown 0.0 0.0 1.6 6.6 2.8 % Citizen 89.8 91.6 91.1 34.1 68.4 % Legal Non-Citizen 9.4 7.3 3.5 4.0 6.4 % Other\/Unknown 0.6 0.9 5.1 61.9 25.2 Data Source: RADEP FFY 2017 and WDTIP Notes: AU represents assistance unit. Sanctioned cases have no aided adult because the work-eligible adult is not complying with Welfare-to-Work program requirements and has been removed from the grant calculation (the family is aided with a child-only grant). Safety Net cases have no aided adult because all work-eligible parents in the AU have exceeded their 48-month time limit of support and the family is receiving a child-only grant. Child-Only cases have no eligible adult due to immigration status, receipt of Supplemental Security Income (SSI), or income exceeding the CalWORKs threshold (in the case of non-needy caretakers of foster children). Percentages do not add to 100 percent due to missing\/unknown values. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 March 2019 California Families Working Together 7 Table 1B. Characteristics of TANF\/MOE Funded CalWORKs Cases: FFY 2017 This table provides an alternate breakout of some characteristics of the WTW categories in the previous Characteristics table ( Participants , Exempt and Sanction ). Characteristics Aided Adult (1-Parent) Aided Adult (2-Parent) % of WTW Cases 83.9 16.1 Average Benefit $556 $645 Average AU Size 2.7 3.8 % with Earnings 27.7 47.7 Average Monthly Earnings of Cases w\/ Earnings $1,091 $1,426 Data Source: RADEP FFY 2017 and WDTIP California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 March 2019 California Families Working Together 8 Characteristics of CalWORKs Cases Time on Aid is the total number of months a case has received assistance during the look-back period. It is a different calculation than the CalWORKs 48-Month Clock, as a case may receive assistance in a month that does not count toward their 48-Month Clock due to a qualifying exemption. Time on aid for WTW Cases is calculated by the aided adult on aid longest (as an adult) since the beginning of the look-back period. Time on aid for CalWORKs Non-MOE cases (Safety Net, Fleeing Felon and Long-Term Sanction) as well as the Child-Only cases is determined by the child member on aid longest since the beginning of the look-back period. Average Months on Aid is most useful for mathematical calculations (i.e., for developing budget estimates). Median Months on Aid is most useful for describing a typical case, as most of the caseload would be found near this center point. Table 1C. Time on Aid Characteristics of CalWORKs Cases Data Source: MEDS September 2018 WTW (Participants) WTW (Exempt) WTW (Sanction) Child Only Non-MOE Moved Out All Cases Average – Months on Aid Since 1998 29.8 49.8 9.9 102.9 102.3 75.6 Median – Months on Aid Since 1998 23 38 9 102 99 68 Average – Months on Aid in Last 8 Years 25.2 41.8 9.7 67.0 70.4 53.8 Median – Months on Aid in Last 8 Years 20 35 9 77 76 55 Average – Months on Aid in Last 6 Years 22.4 37.0 9.6 53.8 56.3 44.1 Median – Months on Aid in Last 6 Years 18 32 9 64 63 48 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 March 2019 California Families Working Together 9 Figure 1B. CalWORKs Quarterly Caseload Analysis: FY 2009 -10 through FY 2017-18 The chart below illustrates changes in caseload categories over the last decade. In 2009, AB X4 4 exempted parents or caretakers providing primary care to a child age 12 months through 23 months, or two or more children under the age of 6, from participating in Welfare to Work activities. As a result, the number of exempt individuals increased from 2009 through 2013. SB 1041 ended the young child exemptions as of January 1, 2013. Data Source: CalWORKs Cash Grant Caseload Movement Report (CA 237 CW) 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 Q u ar te r 1 Q u ar te r 3 Q u ar te r 1 Q u ar te r 3 Q u ar te r 1 Q u ar te r 3 Q u ar te r 1 Q u ar te r 3 Q u ar te r 1 Q u ar te r 3 Q u ar te r 1 Q u ar te r 3 Q u ar te r 1 Q u ar te r 3 Q u ar te r 1 Q u ar te r 3 Q u ar te r 1 Q u ar te r 3 FY 09-10 FY 10-11 FY 11-12 FY 12-13 FY 13-14 FY 14-15 FY 15-16 FY 16-17 FY 17-18 N u m b e r o f c a s e s Single-Parent Zero-Parent Cases Safety Net Two-Parent TANF Timed- Out Cases http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/CA-237-CW California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 March 2019 California Families Working Together 10 Table 1D. CalWORKs Quarterly Caseload Analysis: FY 2009-10 through FY 2017-18 Fiscal Year Total CalWORKs Cases Single- Parent Two- Parent TANF Timed- Out Cases Zero-Parent Cases Safety Net FY 09-10 Quarter 1 537,063 222,600 48,163 30,421 187,768 48,110 FY 09-10 Quarter 2 550,639 227,689 50,816 30,626 191,929 49,579 FY 09-10 Quarter 3 561,243 230,280 52,548 30,823 198,748 48,844 FY 09-10 Quarter 4 564,443 231,583 53,411 31,673 198,862 48,913 FY 09-10 Monthly Average 553,347 228,038 51,234 30,886 194,327 48,861 FY 10-11 Quarter 1 573,710 241,413 56,028 32,701 194,050 49,519 FY 10-11 Quarter 2 582,262 245,470 56,587 33,939 196,014 50,252 FY 10-11 Quarter 3 593,424 247,487 58,060 34,727 202,393 50,758 FY 10-11 Quarter 4 597,226 249,014 58,443 36,138 202,551 51,079 FY 10-11 Monthly Average 586,655 245,846 57,280 34,376 198,752 50,402 FY 11-12 Quarter 1 583,769 238,622 55,226 25,879 193,472 70,570 FY 11-12 Quarter 2 577,446 234,889 53,473 24,893 191,973 72,218 FY 11-12 Quarter 3 574,910 229,740 52,677 25,367 195,419 71,707 FY 11-12 Quarter 4 567,516 226,252 51,597 26,143 191,747 71,777 FY 11-12 Monthly Average 575,910 232,376 53,243 25,570 193,153 71,568 FY 12-13 Quarter 1 561,772 228,533 51,033 27,186 183,741 71,279 FY 12-13 Quarter 2 560,642 226,824 50,083 27,986 184,229 71,519 FY 12-13 Quarter 3 562,656 221,132 49,531 28,642 190,407 72,944 FY 12-13 Quarter 4 554,414 216,238 47,673 29,451 187,924 73,128 FY 12-13 Monthly Average 559,871 223,182 49,580 28,316 186,575 72,218 FY 13-14 Quarter 1 547,125 215,844 46,208 30,301 182,037 72,735 FY 13-14 Quarter 2 546,917 217,414 46,605 31,636 177,952 73,311 FY 13-14 Quarter 3 555,316 220,224 49,037 32,101 176,544 77,410 FY 13-14 Quarter 4 554,076 220,055 50,041 32,658 170,279 81,045 FY 13-14 Monthly Average 550,859 218,384 47,973 31,674 176,703 76,125 FY 14-15 Quarter 1 550,169 221,446 49,725 32,909 165,367 80,723 FY 14-15 Quarter 2 541,354 216,023 48,254 33,212 163,674 80,192 FY 14-15 Quarter 3 531,157 205,319 46,370 32,926 163,693 82,850 FY 14-15 Quarter 4 517,426 194,900 45,134 31,640 159,751 86,001 FY 14-15 Monthly Average 535,027 209,422 47,371 32,672 163,121 82,442 FY 15-16 Quarter 1 511,507 194,980 43,947 30,784 155,036 86,760 FY 15-16 Quarter 2 504,078 189,890 42,275 30,604 153,862 87,447 FY 15-16 Quarter 3 494,044 181,363 40,533 29,960 154,905 87,283 FY 15-16 Quarter 4 477,568 170,927 38,490 29,688 150,119 88,343 FY 15-16 Monthly Average 496,799 184,290 41,311 30,259 153,481 87,458 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 March 2019 California Families Working Together 11 Table 1D. CalWORKs Quarterly Caseload Analysis: FY 2009-10 through FY 2017-18 (Continued) Fiscal Year Total CalWORKs Cases Single- Parent Two- Parent TANF Timed- Out Cases Zero-Parent Cases Safety Net FY 16-17 Quarter 1 464,513 164,544 36,799 28,970 144,424 89,776 FY 16-17 Quarter 2 455,808 157,704 35,821 28,787 142,678 90,819 FY 16-17 Quarter 3 453,987 151,032 35,402 28,440 145,442 93,671 FY 16-17 Quarter 4 442,561 145,018 35,067 27,737 140,300 94,439 FY 16-17 Monthly Average 454,217 154,574 35,772 28,483 143,211 92,176 FY 17-18 Quarter 1 434,961 143,565 34,104 27,252 135,164 94,876 FY 17-18 Quarter 2 428,217 139,577 32,477 27,297 133,836 95,031 FY 17-18 Quarter 3 420,447 133,799 31,051 26,205 134,388 95,003 FY 17-18 Quarter 4 408,761 128,500 29,510 25,484 130,618 94,649 FY 17-18 Monthly Average 423,097 136,360 31,786 26,559 133,502 94,890 Data Sources: CalWORKs Cash Grant Caseload Movement (CA 237 CW) Note: The numbers displayed in the table for each quarter are monthly averages. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/CA-237-CW California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 March 2019 California Families Working Together 12 CalWORKs Applications, Approvals and Denials: FY 2017-18 There were a total of 428,213 CalWORKs applications in FY 2017-18. Tables 1E, 1F, and 1G detail the number of CalWORKs applications that were approved (182,626) and denied (245,587) in the 2017-18 state fiscal year by county and the reasons for those denials. Single-Parent families, the most common type of CalWORKs family, comprised the greatest number of applications, approvals, and denials. Table 1E. CalWORKs Annual Application Approvals by County: FY 2017-18 COUNTY TOTAL CW APPLICATIONS APPROVED SINGLE- PARENT TWO-PARENT TANF TIMED- OUT CASES ZERO- PARENT FAMILIES SAFETY NET Statewide 182,626 94,203 19,761 7,136 35,950 25,576 Alameda 5,046 2,828 419 181 896 722 Alpine 5 4 0 0 1 0 Amador 94 53 11 7 15 8 Butte 1,258 663 174 62 200 159 Calaveras 203 99 42 8 29 25 Colusa 73 35 5 5 21 7 Contra Costa 3,055 1723 252 140 593 347 Del Norte 284 140 49 18 33 44 El Dorado 460 267 67 11 76 39 Fresno 9,268 4,327 1,293 424 1,715 1,509 Glenn 197 91 39 11 41 15 Humboldt 410 227 61 12 70 40 Imperial 1,718 983 217 57 226 235 Inyo 90 49 13 2 13 13 Kern 8,595 4,250 940 385 1,848 1,172 Kings 1,318 673 169 35 260 181 Lake 419 238 67 11 64 39 Lassen 183 92 29 13 26 23 Los Angeles 54,175 28,604 4,440 1,581 10,833 8,717 Madera 1,265 474 121 37 485 148 Marin 300 193 17 12 62 16 Mariposa 101 49 22 10 9 11 Mendocino 549 312 58 12 100 67 Merced 2,595 1,217 326 103 599 350 Modoc 98 50 13 3 20 12 Mono 22 11 4 0 3 4 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 March 2019 California Families Working Together 13 Table 1E. CalWORKs Annual Application Approvals by County: FY 2017-18 (Continued) COUNTY TOTAL CW APPLICATIONS APPROVED SINGLE- PARENT TWO-PARENT TANF TIMED- OUT CASES ZERO- PARENT FAMILIES SAFETY NET Monterey 2,336 794 104 51 1,247 140 Napa 210 124 10 11 58 7 Nevada 242 149 29 5 43 16 Orange 6,033 3,244 633 217 1,570 369 Placer 592 332 69 19 117 55 Plumas 63 31 11 0 11 10 Riverside 11,208 6,425 1,243 471 1,793 1,276 Sacramento 11,142 5,188 2,090 481 1,503 1,880 San Benito 235 138 23 8 43 23 San Bernardino 18,181 9,398 2,105 984 2,916 2,778 San Diego 8,816 4,732 1,131 407 1,437 1,109 San Francisco 1,482 858 78 89 268 189 San Joaquin 5,598 2,763 657 211 858 1,109 San Luis Obispo 775 404 58 37 222 54 San Mateo 263 134 18 16 68 27 Santa Barbara 1,918 767 103 57 848 143 Santa Clara 2,772 1,634 220 97 586 235 Santa Cruz 492 289 30 7 141 25 Shasta 1,142 585 140 52 213 152 Sierra 21 13 3 0 4 1 Siskiyou 245 128 48 8 35 26 Solano 1,767 1,052 137 54 292 232 Sonoma 857 497 54 41 217 48 Stanislaus 3,394 1,611 519 178 641 445 Sutter 649 293 127 25 119 85 Tehama 411 169 52 27 111 52 Trinity 85 42 22 0 13 8 Tulare 5,949 2,661 757 288 1,417 826 Tuolumne 255 149 41 12 34 19 Ventura 2,512 1,367 229 96 650 170 Yolo 671 357 88 22 136 68 Yuba 529 223 84 25 101 96 Data Source: CalWORKs Cash Grant Caseload Movement Report (CA 237 CW, Line Items 7a & 7b) http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/CA-237-CW California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 March 2019 California Families Working Together 14 Table 1F. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by County: FY 2017-18 COUNTY TOTAL CW APPLICATIONS DENIED SINGLE- PARENT TWO-PARENT TANF TIMED- OUT CASES ZERO- PARENT FAMILIES SAFETY NET Statewide 245,587 183,284 29,324 1,661 26,739 4,579 Alameda 4,877 3,211 344 67 1,027 228 Alpine 4 4 0 0 0 0 Amador 315 225 69 4 7 10 Butte 2,196 1,608 463 23 71 31 Calaveras 345 259 65 2 12 7 Colusa 156 113 24 1 15 3 Contra Costa 4,980 2,929 346 52 1,501 152 Del Norte 326 225 63 4 16 18 El Dorado 1,536 1,384 105 5 33 9 Fresno 7,304 4,434 1,224 76 1,254 316 Glenn 249 150 51 5 37 6 Humboldt 1,285 967 218 10 76 14 Imperial 2,157 1,621 414 11 80 31 Inyo 89 77 7 2 2 1 Kern 14,370 12,567 959 125 492 227 Kings 2,342 2,180 97 10 36 19 Lake 886 592 178 3 102 11 Lassen 258 217 36 1 2 2 Los Angeles 61,028 51,792 7,632 165 1,110 329 Madera 1,642 1,155 299 9 150 29 Marin 493 408 22 4 52 7 Mariposa 157 122 21 0 7 7 Mendocino 530 456 44 0 22 8 Merced 4,387 3,531 495 32 247 82 Modoc 96 73 14 1 7 1 Mono 42 40 2 0 0 0 Monterey 4,660 3,492 539 8 576 45 Napa 642 540 68 3 29 2 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 March 2019 California Families Working Together 15 Table 1F. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by County: FY 2017-18 (continued) COUNTY TOTAL CW APPLICATIONS DENIED SINGLE- PARENT TWO- PARENT TANF TIMED- OUT CASES ZERO- PARENT FAMILIES SAFETY NET Nevada 575 458 89 0 19 9 Orange 6,278 3,901 750 32 1,507 88 Placer 1,411 856 247 3 288 17 Plumas 142 83 44 1 12 2 Riverside 22,348 17,555 2,932 129 1,409 323 Sacramento 11,938 5,010 1,629 113 4,434 752 San Benito 361 304 33 4 9 11 San Bernardino 25,156 20,315 3,350 168 1,009 314 San Diego 16,535 11,209 1,129 173 3,656 368 San Francisco 1,547 1,080 93 22 316 36 San Joaquin 7,086 5,760 721 61 309 235 San Luis Obispo 1,264 753 106 11 372 22 San Mateo 1,959 1,102 145 23 668 21 Santa Barbara 2,490 1,382 232 14 814 48 Santa Clara 3,722 2,150 429 29 1,048 66 Santa Cruz 595 273 69 3 239 11 Shasta 2,006 1,479 379 16 81 51 Sierra 7 4 3 0 0 0 Siskiyou 553 384 140 3 10 16 Solano 2,475 1,903 144 13 341 74 Sonoma 911 733 44 3 117 14 Stanislaus 6,364 4,279 1,349 38 598 100 Sutter 912 811 73 9 12 7 Tehama 910 659 192 5 40 14 Trinity 88 70 9 0 8 1 Tulare 4,327 2,318 481 79 1,195 254 Tuolumne 410 290 97 2 21 0 Ventura 3,932 2,638 295 49 895 55 Yolo 938 484 120 7 294 33 Yuba 995 669 201 28 55 42 Data Source: Report on Reasons for Denials and Other Non-Approval of Applications (CA 255 CW, Line Items 2-12) http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/CA-255-CW California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 March 2019 California Families Working Together 16 Table 1G. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by Reasons by County: FY 2017-18 Table 1G illustrates the reasons for application for aid denials in the 2017-18 state fiscal year. Of the 245,587 applications denied in the year, the most common reason (40 percent) was for failure to comply with procedural requirements (98,835); the next most common reason (22 percent) was denial for other reasons (54,479). COUNTY TOTAL DENIALS FAILURE TO COMPLY NO ELIGIBLE CHILD\/NO DEPRIVATION FINANCIAL OTHER Statewide 245,587 98,835 44,977 47,296 54,479 Alameda 4,877 1,487 1,074 1,350 966 Alpine 4 1 – – 3 Amador 315 158 29 55 73 Butte 2,196 1,247 146 229 574 Calaveras 345 122 39 56 128 Colusa 156 82 6 35 33 Contra Costa 4,980 1,205 1,425 721 1,629 Del Norte 326 148 34 66 78 El Dorado 1,536 384 840 171 141 Fresno 7,304 2,532 2,096 1,132 1,544 Glenn 249 107 18 57 67 Humboldt 1,285 785 205 148 147 Imperial 2,157 865 113 337 842 Inyo 89 29 11 24 25 Kern 14,370 8,438 1,094 1,756 3,082 Kings 2,342 792 465 468 617 Lake 886 467 27 84 308 Lassen 258 122 50 42 44 Los Angeles 61,028 25,410 7,002 15,127 13,489 Madera 1,642 857 190 298 297 Marin 493 182 73 120 118 Mariposa 157 56 24 18 59 Mendocino 530 224 84 117 105 Merced 4,387 1,840 179 597 1,771 Modoc 96 57 2 16 21 Mono 42 24 3 – 15 Monterey 4,660 1,788 789 1,231 852 Napa 642 244 10 69 319 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 March 2019 California Families Working Together 17 Table 1G. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by Reasons by County: FY 2017-18 (Continued) COUNTY TOTAL DENIALS FAILURE TO COMPLY NO ELIGIBLE CHILD\/NO DEPRIVATION FINANCIAL OTHER Nevada 575 353 60 53 109 Orange 6,278 1,349 1,493 1,196 2,240 Placer 1,411 464 613 69 265 Plumas 142 65 8 17 52 Riverside 22,348 11,473 3,335 4,085 3,455 Sacramento 11,938 3,637 3,846 2,284 2,171 San Benito 361 154 13 64 130 San Bernardino 25,156 11,720 5,087 5,174 3,175 San Diego 16,535 4,554 5,281 2,600 4,100 San Francisco 1,547 550 453 311 233 San Joaquin 7,086 2,610 1,372 1,373 1,731 San Luis Obispo 1,264 296 344 104 520 San Mateo 1,959 585 488 379 507 Santa Barbara 2,490 718 680 460 632 Santa Clara 3,722 796 809 593 1,524 Santa Cruz 595 196 209 66 124 Shasta 2,006 1,252 180 254 320 Sierra 7 4 1 1 1 Siskiyou 553 324 40 47 142 Solano 2,475 643 573 360 899 Sonoma 911 284 257 83 287 Stanislaus 6,364 3,129 1,130 1,096 1,009 Sutter 912 538 36 137 201 Tehama 910 567 19 61 263 Trinity 88 45 7 18 18 Tulare 4,327 1,091 1,196 1,066 974 Tuolumne 410 138 20 55 197 Ventura 3,932 879 1,025 637 1,391 Yolo 938 316 216 144 262 Yuba 995 452 158 185 200 Data Source: CalWORKs Report on Reasons for Denials and Other Non-Approvals of Applications (CA 255 CW, Line Items 2-12) Notes: Failure to Comply includes but is not limited to failure to include all mandatory persons on the application form, failure to comply with fingerprint\/photo image requirements, refusal to participate in the gathering of evidence to support eligibility and refusal to participate in the face-to-face interview. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/CA-255-CW http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/CA-255-CW California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 March 2019 California Families Working Together 18 No Eligible Child refers to the CalWORKs requirement that the family include a minor child who resides with a custodial parent or other adult caretaker relative of the child. No Deprivation refers to the CalWORKs requirement that a child live in a home where at least one parent is absent, deceased, or not working, or is considered disabled. Financial refers to CalWORKs requirements that applicants must have earned income below the stated earned income limits for the family size. Applicant limits for unearned income are generally $1 less than the Minimum Basic Standard of Adequate Care (MBSAC). Applicants with property valued at more than $2,250 or $3,250 (if over 60 or disabled) are ineligible. Other includes cases not approved for reasons not previously listed, including but not limited to nonresident status; the application was cancelled or withdrawn; and the client moved and\/or cannot be located. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 March 2019 California Families Working Together 19 Chapter 2 Benefits, Earning Levels, and Employment This chapter provides information about income levels required for initial CalWORKs program eligibility and income levels and grant levels for recipients of CalWORKs. The chapter contains data describing the earnings distribution of CalWORKs cases, historical average CalWORKs grants, grant levels, income level limits for recipients, and an account of participant employment activities. Key Terms in This Chapter Assistance Unit (AU) An AU is a group of related persons living in the same home who have been determined to be eligible for CalWORKs and for whom cash aid has been authorized. An AU is sometimes referred to as a CalWORKs case. An AU or case differs from a household in that a household includes all persons in the same dwelling regardless of their relationship to members of the AU, or their eligibility for CalWORKs aid. CalFresh CalFresh is California’s version of the federal Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP). The CalFresh program helps to improve the health and well-being of qualified California households and individuals by providing monthly benefits that can be used to buy most foods at grocery stores to supplement their nutritional needs. Child-Only Child-only cases are cases in which only the children in an AU are aided because the parents are ineligible due to immigration status, SSI recipient, or non-needy caretaker relative. Earnings Earnings includes wages, salary, commissions, and self-employment earnings. Earned income comes from various payment methods such as cash, paycheck or personal check, or \”in-kind\” (such as housing that is included with employment). Family Family is used interchangeably with AU (see definition above) in CalWORKs. Household A household includes all persons in the same dwelling regardless of their relationship to members of the AU, or their eligibility for CalWORKs aid. Maximum Aid Payment (MAP) The MAP is the maximum grant level provided for CalWORKs families. The MAP levels are established in law and are based on family size, whether the adults in the household are able to work (exempt or non-exempt), and the geographical location of the family residence (Region 1 or Region 2) o MAP Exempt The MAP for families with adults who are unable to work because of a temporary or permanent incapacity and cases where no adult is receiving aid (e.g., child-only cases) is higher than for those with adults who are able to work. This higher MAP amount is called the MAP exempt level. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 March 2019 California Families Working Together 20 o Non-Exempt MAP The MAP for families with adults who are able to work is lower than for those with adults who are unable to work. This lower MAP amount is called the Non-Exempt MAP. Maximum CalFresh Allotment (MCA) The MCA is the maximum food aid benefit level a family may receive from CalFresh. The MCA varies according to family size. Maximum Earned Income Limit The maximum earned income level is the income threshold for CalWORKs recipient families after they become eligible. Minimum Basic Standards of Adequate Care (MBSAC) The MBSAC is the income threshold to determine an applicant family’s eligibility for CalWORKs. If a family’s income falls below the MBSAC (after an initial $90 earned income disregard) for the region in which they reside, they may be eligible for CalWORKs assistance. Region 1 and Region 2 California is divided into two regions for determining grant amounts, based on cost of living: o Region 1 counties (higher cost of living): Alameda, Contra Costa, Los Angeles, Marin, Monterey, Napa, Orange, San Diego, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, Sonoma, and Ventura. o Region 2 counties (lower cost of living): Alpine, Amador, Butte, Calaveras, Colusa, Del Norte, El Dorado, Fresno, Glenn, Humboldt, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Lake, Lassen, Madera, Mariposa, Mendocino, Merced, Modoc, Mono, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Riverside, Sacramento, San Benito, San Bernardino, San Joaquin, Shasta, Sierra, Siskiyou, Stanislaus, Sutter, Tehama, Trinity, Tulare, Tuolumne, Yolo, and Yuba. Safety Net Safety-net cases are those in which only the children in an AU are aided due to the parent(s) being discontinued for cash aid because they reached the 48-month lifetime assistance limit. Sanction Sanctioning is the process by which parent(s) are removed from CalWORKs support because at least one failed to comply with Welfare-to-Work program requirements without good cause, and county staff compliance efforts failed (Eligible children continue to receive funding). California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 March 2019 California Families Working Together 21 Tables and Figures in This Chapter Table 2A. CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment (MAP) Levels ………………………………………..22 Table 2B. CalWORKs Caseload and Grants with CalFresh Benefits Recent History and Projections: FY 2008-09 through FY 2018-19 ………………………………………………………………24 Table 2C. CalWORKs Recipient Earned Income Limits: FY 2018-19 ……………………………..25 Table 2D. Earnings Distribution for Work-Eligible Adult Cases with Earnings for FY 2017-18 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….26 Figure 2A. Quarterly Earnings for CalWORKs Adult Recipients: 2003-2018 …………………….27 Figure 2B. Proportion of Adult Recipients with Earnings: 2003-2018 ………………………………28 Figure 2C. CalWORKs Welfare-to-Work Participants in Employment Activities: FFYs 2014-2018 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..29 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 March 2019 California Families Working Together 22 MAP Levels The Maximum Aid Payment (MAP) is the maximum grant level provided for CalWORKs families. MAP levels are established by law and are based on family size, whether the adults in the household are able to work (exempt or non-exempt), and the geographical location of the family residence (Region 1 or Region 2). Table 2A. CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment (MAP) Levels Current Effective April 1, 2019 Assistance Unit Size Region 1(1) Maximum Aid Payment Exempt Region 1 Maximum Aid Payment Non- Exempt Region 2(1) Maximum Aid Payment Exempt Region 2 Maximum Aid Payment Non- Exempt 1 $392 $355 $374 $336 2 $645 $577 $616 $549 3 $799 $714 $762 $680 4 $949 $852 $904 $810 5 $1,080 $968 $1,031 $922 6 $1,214 $1,087 $1,157 $1,035 7 $1,334 $1,195 $1,272 $1,136 8 $1,454 $1,301 $1,385 $1,239 9 $1,571 $1,407 $1,498 $1,340 10 or more $1,689 $1,511 $1,610 $1,438 Assistance Unit Size Region 1 Maximum Aid Payment Exempt Region 1 Maximum Aid Payment Non- Exempt Region 2 Maximum Aid Payment Exempt Region 2 Maximum Aid Payment Non- Exempt 1 $431 $391 $411 $370 2 $710 $635 $678 $604 3 $879 $785 $838 $748 4 $1,044 $937 $994 $891 5 $1,188 $1,065 $1,134 $1,014 6 $1,335 $1,196 $1,273 $1,139 7 $1,467 $1,315 $1,399 $1,250 8 $1,599 $1,431 $1,524 $1,363 9 $1,728 $1,548 $1,648 $1,474 10 or more $1,858 $1,662 $1,771 $1,582 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 March 2019 California Families Working Together 23 Data Source: CDSS’ Local Assistance Estimates Notes: For more information on CalWORKs MAP levels, please refer to the CDSS website at: ACL 16-64 (August 16, 2016) 1 California is divided into two regions based roughly on cost of living, Region 1 (higher cost of living) and Region 2 (lower cost of living). Region 1 Counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, Los Angeles, Marin, Monterey, Napa, Orange, San Diego, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, Sonoma, and Ventura. Region 2 Counties: Alpine, Amador, Butte, Calaveras, Colusa, Del Norte, El Dorado, Fresno, Glenn, Humboldt, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Lake, Lassen, Madera, Mariposa, Mendocino, Merced, Modoc, Mono, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Riverside, Sacramento, San Benito, San Bernardino, San Joaquin, Shasta, Sierra, Siskiyou, Stanislaus, Sutter, Tehama, Trinity, Tulare, Tuolumne, Yolo, and Yuba. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Fiscal-Financial\/Local-Assistance-Estimates) http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/lettersnotices\/EntRes\/getinfo\/acl\/2016\/16-64.pdf California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 March 2019 California Families Working Together 24 CalWORKs Caseload and Grants with CalFresh Benefits Table 2B displays the average monthly CalWORKs caseload and grant, as well as the MAP and maximum CalFresh allotment for Fiscal Years 2008-09 through 2018-19. Table 2B. CalWORKs Caseload and Grants with CalFresh Benefits Recent History and Projections: FY 2008-09 through FY 2018-19 Fiscal Year Average Monthly CalWORKs Cases Average CalWORKs Grants MAP for AU of 3 Region 1(1) CalFresh MCA for HH of 3(2) 2008-09 504,994 $540 $723 $463 2009-10 553,347 $514 $694 $526 2010-11 586,655 $517 $694 $526 2011-12 575,910 $466 $638 $526 2012-13 559,871 $465 $638 $526 2013-14 550,859 $474 $670 $526 2014-15 535,027 $492 $670 $704 $497 2015-16 496,799 $505 $704 $511 2016-17 454,217 $533 $704 $714 $511 2017-18 423,097 $553 $714 $504 2018-19(3),(4) 406,175 $572 $714 $785 $505 Data Source: CDSS’ Local Assistance Estimates Notes: Acronyms used in this table: MAP = Maximum Aid Payment; AU = Assistance Unit; MCA = Maximum CalFresh Allotment; HH = household 1 California’s grant levels are divided into two regions based roughly on cost of living. This chart reflects CalWORKs MAP for an AU of three in Region 1 Counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, Los Angeles, Marin, Monterey, Napa, Orange, San Diego, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, Sonoma and Ventura. 2 CalFresh benefit amounts are based on a Federal Fiscal Year (October-September) versus the State Fiscal Year (July-June). The FY 2018-19 CalFresh benefit amount is based on the FFY 2019 household (HH) MCA. 3 The CalWORKs MAP for an AU of three will increase from $714 to $785 on April 1, 2019. 4 Represents projections from the 2018-19 Appropriation. Prior years reflect actual data based on the CA 800 Expenditure Report. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Fiscal-Financial\/Local-Assistance-Estimates) California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 March 2019 California Families Working Together 25 CalWORKs Recipient Earned Income Limits This table provides the maximum earned income thresholds for a non-exempt recipient family receiving CalWORKs. If the family’s earnings are above the Maximum Earned Income limit, then the family would become ineligible for CalWORKs. These limits apply only to earned income. The limits for unearned income would vary based on the types of unearned income received by the family. The table also provides the Minimum Basic Standards for Adequate Care (MBSAC) which is used in determining applicant financial eligibility for those families that apply for CalWORKs. Applicant family’s income after applying the value of in-kind income for housing, utilities, food and clothing and less $90 for earned income must be below the MBSAC levels in order to qualify for CalWORKs. Table 2C. CalWORKs Recipient Earned Income Limits: FY 2018-19 Assistance Unit Size Region 1(1) Applicant Family FY 2018-19 MBSAC(2) Region 1 Recipient Family Maximum Earned Income Limit Non-Exempt Effective Through March 31, 2019 Region 1 Recipient Family Maximum Earned Income Limit Non-Exempt Effective April 1, 2019(3) Region 2(1) Applicant Family FY 2017-18 MBSAC(2) Region 2 Recipient Family Maximum Earned Income Limit Non-Exempt Effective Through March 31, 2019 Region 2 Recipient Family Maximum Earned Income Limit Non-Exempt Effective April 1, 2019(3) 1 $686 $935 $1,007 $651 $897 $965 2 $1,125 $1,379 $1,495 $1,070 $1,323 $1,433 3 $1,395 $1,653 $1,795 $1,324 $1,585 $1,721 4 $1,655 $1,929 $2,099 $1,574 $1,845 $2,007 5 $1,889 $2,161 $2,355 $1,799 $2,069 $2,253 6 $2,125 $2,399 $2,617 $2,021 $2,295 $2,503 7 $2,335 $2,615 $2,855 $2,215 $2,497 $2,725 8 $2,541 $2,827 $3,087 $2,419 $2,703 $2,953 9 $2,757 $3,039 $3,321 $2,614 $2,905 $3,173 10 $2,992 $3,247 $3,549 $2,846 $3,101 $3,389 Data Source: CDSS’ Local Assistance Estimates Notes: 1 California is divided into two regions based roughly on cost of living, Region 1 (higher cost of living) and Region 2 (lower cost of living). 2 For applicant families, add $27 for each additional person for assistance units greater than 10. 3 Reflects the updated Maximum Earned Income Limit, due to the ten percent MAP increase. Region 1 counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, Los Angeles, Marin, Monterey, Napa, Orange, San Diego, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, Sonoma and Ventura. Region 2 counties: Alpine, Amador, Butte, Calaveras, Colusa, Del Norte, El Dorado, Fresno, Glenn, Humboldt, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Lake, Lassen, Madera, Mariposa, Mendocino, Merced, Modoc, Mono, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Riverside, Sacramento, San Benito, San Bernardino, San Joaquin, Shasta, Sierra, Siskiyou, Stanislaus, Sutter, Tehama, Trinity, Tulare, Tuolumne, Yolo and Yuba. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Fiscal-Financial\/Local-Assistance-Estimates) California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 March 2019 California Families Working Together 26 Earnings Distribution for Work-Eligible Adult Cases with Earnings This table shows the percentage of children and adults in cases with earnings grouped in $200 increments, and the proportion of these increments in relation to all aided adult cases with earnings. This data represents work-eligible aided adult cases during the period of July 1, 2017 through June 30, 2018 and excludes Child-Only and Safety Net Cases, adults who have received a WTW Sanction or Exemption, adults who have left aid and adults with zero reported income during this period. (Note that, as displayed in Figure 2B, about 32 percent of cases with adults have reported earnings.) Table 2D. Earnings Distribution for Work-Eligible Adult Cases with Earnings for FY 2017-18 Average Monthly Income Households With Earnings % of Total Cases $1 to $200 19.5% $201 to $400 12.3% $401 to $600 10.0% $601 to $800 9.0% $801 to $1,000 8.3% $1,001 to $1,200 7.2% $1,201 to $1,400 6.2% $1,401 to $1,600 5.5% $1,601 to $1,800 4.5% $1,801 to $2,000 3.7% $2,001 to $2,200 2.9% $2,201 to $2,400 2.2% $2,401 to $2,600 1.7% More than $2,600 7.0% TOTAL 100% Data Source: MEDS and EDD Base Wage Data, 2018 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 March 2019 California Families Working Together 27 Figure 2A. Quarterly Earnings for CalWORKs Adult Recipients: 2003-2018 The following charts display the latest data available for CalWORKs recipients with earnings and provide a historical look at the quarterly earnings of CalWORKs adult recipients as reported by the Employment Development Department (EDD). The chart on this page shows the trend in the median and mean value of earnings of CalWORKs adults from 2003 through June 2018. The median and mean earnings of CalWORKs adults have generally increased since 2013 despite slight seasonal quarterly downturns each winter. Data Source: EDD Quarterly Wage Earnings for CalWORKs Adult Recipients http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/CalWORKs-Reports\/Adult-Recipients-Quarterly-Wage-Earning-Reports California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 March 2019 California Families Working Together 28 Figure 2B. Proportion of Adult Recipients with Earnings: 2003-2018 This page illustrates changes in the percentage of CalWORKs adults with earnings between July 2003 and June 2018. The percentage of CalWORKs adult recipients with earnings has risen from 24 percent in the first quarter of 2013 to approximately 32 percent in the second quarter of 2018. California’s minimum wage is represented in the in-figure boxes. Data Source: EDD Quarterly Wage Earnings for CalWORKs Adult Recipients (from MEDS) http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/CalWORKs-Reports\/Adult-Recipients-Quarterly-Wage-Earning-Reports California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 March 2019 California Families Working Together 29 Figure 2C. CalWORKs Welfare-to-Work Participants in Employment Activities: FFYs 2014-2018 Work is the most common activity for participating CalWORKs Welfare to Work clients. Figure 2C provides the number of CalWORKS Welfare to Work clients in employment activities in the last five years (from FFY 2014 to FFY 2018) and displays the recent trends in each of the main employment categories (Subsidized, Unsubsidized, and Self-Employment). The decrease in absolute numbers of participating clients mirrors the recent overall decline in the CalWORKs caseload. Approximately 60 percent of participating CalWORKs Welfare to Work clients (Unduplicated Adults on the WTW 25’s) are engaged in some form of employment activity, a level that has remained stable for over a decade. Data Source: CalWORKs Welfare-To-Work Monthly Activity Report (WTW 25) and CalWORKs Welfare-to-Work Monthly Activity Report-Two Parent Families (WTW 25A) 62,783 63,774 55,728 46,442 40,222 4,871 4,979 4,406 4,123 4,562 2,650 3,857 3,376 2,940 2,329 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 CalWORKS Welfare to Work Participants in Employment Activities FFY 2014 – 2018 Unsubsidized Employment Self-employment Subsidized Employment http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25a http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25a http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25a California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 March 2019 California Families Working Together 30 THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY BLANK California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 3 March 2019 California Families Working Together 31 Chapter 3 Fiscal Overview This chapter provides a brief financial overview of the CalWORKs program, including funding sources and the distribution of funds across various program components. Funding Sources CalWORKs is collaboratively funded by the federal government, the state General Fund (GF), and California counties. California receives federal funding for CalWORKs through an annual TANF block grant of $3.7 billion. As a requirement to receive the federal funds, California contributes $2.9 billion annually in Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) funding. State MOE funds come from the GF, as well as contributions from California’s 58 counties. Other key sources of CalWORKs funding include the Social Services Block Grant (SSBG), also called Title XX, and non-MOE GF. Expenditures The preponderance of CalWORKs funds are provided as grants and services to California families in need. Approximately 90 percent of CalWORKs expenditures are allocated to grants, services, child care, and mental health and substance abuse assistance programs. CalWORKs administrative and services funding is provided in an annual Single Allocation to California counties, which administer the program at the local level. TANF\/MOE funds not allocated to CalWORKs are used to fund programs such as Tribal TANF, an assistance program for Native Americans residing on tribal lands; Cal Grants, a program that provides assistance to California undergraduates, students in vocational training and teacher certification programs; KinGAP, a program that assists non-parental relatives in caring for children; child care programs administered by the California Department of Education (CDE); and others. Key Terms in This Chapter General Fund (GF) The GF is California’s main governmental operating account. GF revenues come primarily from the state income tax, but state sales and corporate taxes also contribute to the GF. Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) The MOE is a requirement that states expend a specified minimum amount of matching funds on benefits for lower-income families in order to participate in the federal TANF program. California allocates $2.9 billion annually in MOE. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 3 March 2019 California Families Working Together 32 Non-MOE General Fund CalWORKs cases that receive assistance from federal TANF, state MOE funds, or some combination, are subject to work participation requirements. Non-MOE General Funds originate in the state GF but are allocated for assistance that is not subject to the federal TANF work participation requirements. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Funding The federal government allocates $16.6 billion annually nationally for TANF. States receive a portion of this total in an annual block grant. To participate in TANF, states must expend a specified amount of dollars in MOE funds that match the TANF funds. Title XX Title XX of the Social Security Act, also referred to as the Social Services Block Grant (SSBG), is a funding program provided to states, without a state matching requirement, to assist in supporting a wide range of services, including preventing child abuse, increasing the availability of child care, and providing community-based care for the elderly and disabled. Funds are allocated to the states based on population. California receives approximately $180 million annually. Tables and Figures in This Chapter Figure 3A. CalWORKs Funds for FY 2018-19 …………………………………………………………….33 Table 3A. CalWORKs Funding by Program Area & Fund Sources: FY 2018-19 ……………….34 Table 3B. Funding Reconciliation for CalWORKs: FY 2018-19 ………………………………………35 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 3 March 2019 California Families Working Together 33 Fiscal Overview of the CalWORKs Program CalWORKs Funds by Program Area and Funding Source The chart and tables below, and on the following pages, display the distribution of funds within each of the CalWORKs program components (grants, administration, services, child care, and mental health and substance abuse treatment). The funding source for each of these components is also provided (TANF, GF, county funds, and Title XX funds). Figure 3A. CalWORKs Funds for FY 2018-19 Data Source: CDSS’ Local Assistance Estimates Note: *Stage One only. Stable clients may receive child care in Stage Two, funded by the California Department of Education. Grants – 56% Administration – 12% Services – 22% Child Care* – 7% Mental Health & Sub. Abuse – 2% http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Fiscal-Financial\/Local-Assistance-Estimates) California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 3 March 2019 California Families Working Together 34 Table 3A. CalWORKs Funding by Program Area & Fund Sources: FY 2018-19 Funding by Program Area for FY 2018-19 Appropriation (in millions) % Grants $2,810 56% Administration $608 12% Services $1,111 22% Child Care $331 7% Mental Health & Sub. Abuse $127 2% Total Funds $4,987 100% Fund Sources for FY 2018-19 Appropriation (in millions) TANF in CalWORKs (1) $1,943 Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) $2,202 Other Funds (Non-MOE GF, Title XX) $842 Total Funds $4,987 Data Source: CDSS’ Local Assistance Estimates Notes: Acronyms used on this page: MOE (Maintenance-of-Effort), TANF (federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families), GF (state General Fund) 1Approximately $1.5 billion of the TANF Block Grant is spent in other related programs outside of CalWORKs that serve TANF goals. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Fiscal-Financial\/Local-Assistance-Estimates) http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Fiscal-Financial\/Local-Assistance-Estimates) California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 3 March 2019 California Families Working Together 35 Table 3B. Funding Reconciliation for CalWORKs: FY 2018-19 FY 2018-19 Appropriation (in Millions) TANF GF MOE County MOE GF\/County Non-MOE Title-XX Total CalWORKs(1) $1,943 $360 $1,842 $750\u202f $92 $4,987 Cash Assistance Grants $2,810 Administration $608 Services $1,111 Child Care $331 Mental Health & Substance Abuse $127 CDSS Programs (Not CalWORKs) $446 $225 $19 $690 Tribal TANF $87 $81 $168 WINS $20 $20 Other CDSS Programs(2) $359 $124 $19 $502 Other State Agencies (Not CDSS) $1,084 $552 $81 $1,717 Community College $45 $45 CDE Child Care Programs $495 $81 $576 Child Support Pass-Through Payment $12 $12 Student Aid Commission $1,066 $1,066 TANF Pass-Through for State Agencies $18 $18 Total Spent in All Programs $3,473 $1,137 $1,861 $750 $173 $7,394 COUNTY FUND SOURCES FY 2018-19 (in Millions) Total Percentage 2.5 Percent of CalWORKs Grants $60 2% CalWORKs MOE Subaccount $1,121 44% Realignment Family Support Subaccount $773 30% Child Poverty & Family Suppl. Subaccount $392 15% AB 85 FY 2014-15 County Repayment $231 9% Total $2,577 100% Subaccounts: A portion of funding for CalWORKs grants is shifted from GF to revenues deposited into the CalWORKs MOE Subaccount, Realignment Family Support Subaccount, and Child Poverty and Family Supplemental Support Subaccount. These funds will be redistributed to counties in lieu of GF for CalWORKs expenditures. The CalWORKs MOE Subaccount funds were implemented on September 1, 2011. The Realignment Family Support Subaccount and the Child Poverty and Family Supplemental Support Subaccount were implemented on July 1, 2013. GF EXPENDITURES(3) FY 2018-19 (In Millions) Total GF in CalWORKs $375 Total GF in All Programs $1,152 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 3 March 2019 California Families Working Together 36 Data Source: CDSS’ Local Assistance Estimates Notes: Acronyms used on this page: MOE (Maintenance of Effort), TANF (federal Temporary Assistance to Needy Families), GF (state General Fund) 1Funding for CalWORKs components cannot be broken out by funding type due to overall shifts from TANF to MOE\/Non-MOE. 2Includes KinGAP, other MOE-Eligible Programs in CDSS, and state support costs for CalWORKs. 3For purposes of this chart, GF in CalWORKs reflects MOE and Non-MOE GF expenditures on CalWORKs families for grants, administration, services, mental health, substance abuse, and child care. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Fiscal-Financial\/Local-Assistance-Estimates) California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 March 2019 California Families Working Together 37 Chapter 4 Program Chronology This chapter provides a brief history of CalWORKs and its predecessors, beginning with the 1935 federal Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program and the programs that led up to the creation of CalWORKs in 1998. Since then, CalWORKs itself has undergone numerous changes as a result of new federal and state laws. Key Terms in This Chapter American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) Part of the federal stimulus package in response to the Great Recession, ARRA was a supplemental appropriation for job preservation and creation, energy efficiency, and science, assistance to the unemployed, and state and local fiscal stabilization. ARRA provided a work participation rate requirement, relief provisions, and funding for subsidized employment for state TANF programs. Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) AFDC was established by the Social Security Act of 1935 as a grant program to enable states to provide cash welfare payments for needy children who had been deprived of parental support or care because their father or mother was absent from the home, incapacitated, deceased, or unemployed. Earned Income Disregard (EID) The EID is the amount of earnings subtracted from income for determining a CalWORKs cash grant. The EID has varied with changes in the law. As of October of 2013, the first $225 in earned income and 50 percent of remaining earned income for all CalWORKs cases is disregarded for cash grant determinations. Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) The EITC is a refundable tax credit for people who work full- or part-time. The EITC refund is not counted as income when computing a person or family’s CalWORKs cash grant, CalFresh allocation, or Medi-Cal benefits. Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool (OCAT) The OCAT is a web-based statewide standardized appraisal tool. The OCAT provides an in-depth, holistic appraisal of recipient strengths, barriers to employment and overall work readiness of CalWORKs participants, leading to more effective placement in work activities and referrals to supportive services. OCAT is based on the federal Online WORK Readiness Assessment Tool (OWRA). Quarterly Reporting \/Prospective Budgeting (QR\/PB) QR\/PB is a budgeting system put in place in 2003 for the CalWORKs and CalFresh programs. Recipients’ eligibility and benefits are determined for a 3-month period using prospective budgeting and income averaging rules based on information reported by recipients once in the quarter; recipients have the option to report changes that would result in increased grant\/benefits when they occur. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 March 2019 California Families Working Together 38 Semi-Annual Reporting (SAR) SAR requires households receiving assistance to report income on a semi-annual basis. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF) TANF is a federal program that replaced AFDC and now funds CalWORKs in California. TANF is designed to help needy families achieve self-sufficiency. States receive block grants to design and operate programs that accomplish one of the four purposes of the TANF program: o Provide assistance to needy families so that children can be cared for in their own homes; o Reduce the dependency of needy parents by promoting job preparation, work, and marriage; o Prevent and reduce the incidence of out-of-wedlock pregnancies; and o Encourage the formation and maintenance of two-parent families. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 March 2019 California Families Working Together 39 A Brief History of What Led to the Present Version of CalWORKs The program known as CalWORKs began with the 1935 federal Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, jointly funded and administered by the federal government and the 50 states. The AFDC provided cash aid to single mothers with children who had no support from a husband as a result of his death, disability, or absence. By the 1960s, the number of AFDC cases had grown considerably, and the caseload had shifted toward female-headed households that resulted from out-of-wedlock births or divorce. Some social scientists and policymakers became concerned about a possible creation of a culture of long-term dependency and a transmission of dependency from one generation to the next. In response, a series of reforms in 1967 and 1988 offered AFDC participants financial incentives to work and imposed penalties for not working. By the 1990s, experimentation with various AFDC reforms resulted in the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA). In this act, Congress sought to reduce dependence on aid, limit out-of-wedlock childbirth, encourage the formation of stable two-parent families, and ensure that children could be cared for in their own homes or the homes of relatives. To this end, PRWORA replaced AFDC with Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), changed the funding structure of the program, limited to 60 months the amount of time that families could receive federal aid, and provided incentives for states to encourage support recipients to work. As a response to PRWORA, in 1997, California enacted the Welfare-to-Work Act, which replaced AFDC (and related state programs) with CalWORKs. As required by PRWORA, CalWORKs included a 60-month time limit and an adult-only sanction for noncompliance with the Welfare-to-Work (WTW) requirements. CalWORKs provided a state-funded Safety Net program that continued the child portion of a grant even after the adult in question reached the lifetime limit. It also simplified the monthly earned income disregard to $225 and 50 percent (i.e., for every dollar of earnings beyond the disregard, the grant declines by 50 cents). These adjustments were an effort to encourage aided recipients to work. Between 1998 and the present, CalWORKs has undergone a number of changes as a result of shifting state priorities, federal policy changes, and the Great Recession of the late 2000s. The following chronology explains briefly, year by year, how CalWORKs has changed in response to changes mandated by the U.S. Congress and California law. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 March 2019 California Families Working Together 40 1998 CalWORKs Implementation W&IC Sections 11200-11526.5 The CalWORKs program, California’s version of the TANF program, was implemented. CalWORKs 60-Month Time Limit W&IC Sections 11266.5, 11454, 11454.5, and 11495.1 Adults in the CalWORKs program were allowed to receive assistance for a lifetime maximum of 60 months, unless the individual was exempt or their cash aid grant was fully reimbursed by child support collection. 2002 County Performance Incentives End W&IC Section 10544.1 Legislation provided that counties could earn fiscal incentive payments for case exits due to employment, grant reductions due to earnings, and the diversion of applicants from enrolling in CalWORKs. Counties earned approximately $1.092 billion between January 1, 1998, and June 30, 2002. These incentives were discontinued due to budgetary constraints; approximately $400 million of unspent incentives were allocated to counties to spend after June 30, 2002. Base Budget for CalWORKs Single Allocation The CalWORKs Single Allocation base funding for FY 2001-02 and all subsequent years was established at the FY 2000-01 funding level, which was formulated through the Proposed County Administrative Budget (PCAB) process and increased\/decreased by caseload growth\/decline. 2003 Quarterly Reporting \/Prospective Budgeting (QR\/PB) W&IC Sections 11265.1 and 11265.2 The monthly reporting\/retrospective budgeting system was replaced with a QR\/PB system for the CalWORKs and CalFresh programs. Under QR\/PB, recipients’ eligibility and benefits are determined for a three month period using prospective budgeting and income averaging rules based on information reported by recipients once in the quarter; recipients have the option to report changes that would result in increased grant\/benefits when they occur. 2004 Work Participation W&IC Section 11325.21 The 18\/24-month time limit was eliminated and counties were required to universally engage all non-exempt adults in work activities (WTW program) within 90 days of applying for CalWORKs. Unless exempt from work requirements, adults were required to participate in at least 20 hours per week of core activities (employment, work experience, on-the-job training, work-study, self-employment, community service, up to twelve months of vocational training, job search and California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 March 2019 California Families Working Together 41 job readiness assistance) and 12 hours per week of core or non-core activities (predominantly educational activities). Employment Services Augmentation W&IC Section 11325.22 An additional $50 million in TANF funds was provided for Employment Services. 2006 Administration Restoration Budget Act of 2006 Section 28.00 Funding was reestablished at the FY 2005-06 spending level with $140 million restored for county CalWORKs administration. 2007 Employment Services Augmentation W&IC Section 10535 An additional $90 million in TANF funds was provided for Employment Services to help improve client participation levels. COLA Elimination to the CalWORKs MAP Levels W&IC Section 11453 The annual COLA to the CalWORKs MAP levels was eliminated effective FY 2007-08 and thereafter. Durational Sanctions W&IC Section 11327.5 Legislation removed the statutory requirement that noncompliant individuals in the CalWORKs WTW program be subject to financial sanctions of a minimum duration of three or six months for individuals in their second, third or subsequent instance of non-compliance, respectively. Instead, any sanction may end at the point the noncompliant individual performs the activity he or she previously failed or refused to perform. CalWORKs Homeless Assistance Program W&IC Section11450 (f) (2) (A) (B) Legislation increased the daily rate for temporary homeless assistance, redefined homelessness criteria to include families who receive a notice to pay rent or vacate, allowed up to two months of rent in arrears to prevent homelessness and allowed a higher rent threshold to secure permanent housing. 2008 Subsidized Employment W&IC Section 11322.63 Counties were provided funding outside of the CalWORKs Single Allocation to pay 50 percent of a CalWORKs WTW participant’s wage subsidy while participating in public or private sector Subsidized Employment. Participation is limited to a maximum of six months for each WTW participant, up to 50 percent of the Maximum Aid Payment for the family. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 March 2019 California Families Working Together 42 2009 Four Percent Maximum Aid Payment Reduction W&IC Sections 11450, 11452, and 11453 All CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment levels (including exempt, non-exempt, Region 1 and Region 2) were reduced by four percent. ARRA of 2009 W&IC Sections 11320.3 and 11454.5 CDSS was authorized to apply to the Emergency Contingency Fund under ARRA, a multi-year, federal economic stimulus program. Emergency Contingency Fund programs included Basic Assistance, Subsidized Employment, and Non-Recurrent Short-Term Benefits. Temporary Suspension of Subsidized Employment W&IC Section 11322.64 Subsidized Employment was suspended while funds were available through the ARRA Emergency Contingency Fund. WTW Temporary Exemptions for Parents of Young Children W&IC Section 11320.3 (b) (7) Parents with a child between one and two years of age or parents with two children under age six were exempted from WTW requirements to provide counties with a way to absorb a $376 million reduction in Employment Services and Child Care in the CalWORKs Single Allocation. Mental Health and Substance Abuse Funding Flexibility W&IC Sections 11325.71 and 11329.5(e) Counties were allowed the flexibility to redirect funding both from and to the CalWORKs Mental Health and Substance Abuse allocations, and both from and to other CalWORKs Employment Services, for FY 2009-10 and FY 2010-11. 2011 Eight Percent Maximum Aid Payment Reduction W&IC Sections 11450, 11452, and 11453 All CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment levels (including exempt, non-exempt, and Region One and Region Two) were reduced by eight percent. CalWORKs 48-Month Time Limit W&IC Section 11454, 11454.2, and 11454.5 The CalWORKs time limit for adults was reduced from 60 months to 48 months, counting all months on aid received in California since January 1, 1998, unless the adult has\/had a time limit exemption. Earned Income Disregard (EID) Reduction W&IC Section 11451.5 The initial amount of non-exempt earned income disregarded when determining grant amounts decreased from $225 to $112. The disregard of 50 percent of any additional non-exempt earned income was maintained. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 March 2019 California Families Working Together 43 Changes to the Cal-Learn Program W&IC Section 11334.8 Cal-Learn intensive case management services were suspended for one year. Pregnant and parenting teens continued to receive CalWORKs assistance and services in the WTW program. Extend Mental Health and Substance Abuse Funding Flexibility W&IC Sections 11325.71 and 11329.5(f) Legislation extended the flexibility to redirect funding both from and to the CalWORKs Mental Health and Substance Abuse allocations, and both from and to other CalWORKs Employment Services for FY 2011-12. Changes to Subsidized Employment W&IC Section 11322.63 The state’s maximum contribution (outside of the Single Allocation) toward wage subsidies under the Subsidized Employment program was increased to 100 percent of the computed grant for the participant’s AU in the month prior to participation in Subsidized Employment. The eligible population was expanded to include individuals in the CalWORKs Safety Net program and individuals in WTW sanction status. Counties were allowed to continue AB 98 Subsidized Employment for the duration of the placement to participants who become ineligible for CalWORKs due to their Subsidized Employment income. Extend WTW Exemptions for Young Children W&IC Sections 11320.3(b) (7), 11320.3(f) (1), and 11320.3(g) The $376 million reduction in the CalWORKs Single Allocation was extended. The young children and good cause for lack of supportive service exemptions were extended through June 1, 2012. 2012 SB 1041 Overview Chapter 47, Statutes of 2012 SB 1041 lowered the minimum hourly participation requirement for single parents (from 32 hours to either 20 hours or 30 hours depending on the age of the youngest child) and provided flexibility in requirements, allowing recipients to pursue schooling and job skills training as they move toward self-sufficiency. The earned income disregard rose from $112 to $225 (i.e., back to the level in effect prior to 2011), allowing qualifying individuals to keep more of their earnings before their cash grant gets reduced or they no longer qualify for aid. Several reporting requirements were modified to reduce burdens on recipients and county welfare offices; for example, the prior quarterly income verification system was replaced by a semi- annual reporting system. For child-only cases (exclusive of those in sanction status), income verification is now required annually rather than quarterly. The effects of the changes introduced by SB 1041 are currently being evaluated by researchers at the RAND Corporation. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 March 2019 California Families Working Together 44 End of WTW Temporary Exemptions for Young Children W&IC Sections 11320.3(g), 11320.3(h), and 11320.3(b)(6)(A)(iv) Legislation extended the temporary exemptions for parents of young children through the end of calendar year 2012; adults remained exempt past January 2013 until they had been re-engaged in a WTW plan. Counties were required to re-engage these previously exempted cases over a period of two years, with all cases being re-engaged by January 2015. Additionally, a new once-per-lifetime exemption was created for parents of children under two years of age. WTW 24-Month Time Clock W&IC Sections 11320.8, 11322.85, and 11322.86 The eligibility requirements for work-eligible adults in the CalWORKs program was changed by providing 24 months of aid under which WTW participants must meet state defined work requirements and an additional 24 months of aid only if WTW participants meet federally defined work requirements. Counties have the option of extending the 24 months of eligibility based on state requirements for 20 percent of its post 24 month caseload if the adult meets specific criteria that suggest additional months of assistance will provide significant progress toward self-sufficiency, or if the adult is facing uniquely adverse labor market conditions. WTW Hourly Participation Requirements W&IC Section 11322.8 The hourly work requirements for work-eligible adults in the CalWORKs program were aligned with federal hourly work requirements, and no WTW core hours are required during the WTW 24-Month Time Clock. Single parents with no child under six have to participate in a weekly minimum of 30 hours each week; 20 hours for single parents with a child under six, and 35 hours for two-parent families. After exhausting the WTW 24-Month Time Clock, unless otherwise exempt, or having received an extension, work-eligible adults must meet federal work requirements in order to continue receiving cash aid. Annual Reporting\/Child-Only (AR\/CO) W&IC Section 11265.45 The number of reporting periods for child-only cases was reduced from four (under QR\/PB) to one. Child-only cases are ones in which no adult is aided (safety net cases, undocumented citizens, non-needy caretaker relatives, recipients of SSI, etc., excluding WTW sanctioned cases). Restoration of the Cal-Learn Program W&IC Sections 11334.6, 11334.8, and 11454.5 Intensive case management services for pregnant and parenting teens were restored, assuming that counties would begin to phase their programs in throughout FY 2012-13. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 March 2019 California Families Working Together 45 2013 Work Incentive Nutritional Supplement (WINS) W&IC Section 15525 A monthly additional food assistance benefit of $10 was provided to CalFresh households working sufficient hours to meet TANF WPR, effective January 1, 2014. Semi-Annual Reporting (SAR) W&IC Sections 11265.1, 11265.2, 11265.3, and 11265.4 The QR\/PB was replaced with a SAR system, which reduces the number of required income reports made by CalWORKs recipients to twice per year for an aided adult and WTW sanctioned cases. The SAR system imposes two additional income reporting thresholds: 55 percent of the monthly income of a family of three at the federal poverty level plus the amount of earned and unearned income last used to calculate the CalWORKs grant or the level likely to render an AU ineligible for CalWORKs benefits. Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool W&IC Section 11325.2(b) Funding was provided for the development and implementation of a statewide standardized appraisal tool, known as the Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool (OCAT), which will lead to more effective placement in work activities and referral to supportive services. Expanded Subsidized Employment W&IC Section 11322.63 Counties were allocated funds, in addition and independent of, the CalWORKs Single Allocation, in order to expand Subsidized Employment program opportunities in California. Family Stabilization W&IC Section 11325.24 Family Stabilization provides intensive case management and services to ensure a basic level of stability within a family prior to, or concurrently with, participation in WTW activities. 2014 Vehicle Asset Limit Increase W&IC Section 11155 Increases the equity value limit of a vehicle to $9,500 and adds a new exemption for a vehicle given as a gift, family transfer or donation to a client by a family member effective January 1, 2014. Exemption of Child-Only Safety Net and Drug\/Fleeing Felon Cases from Child Support Requirements W&IC Sections 11251.3 and 11486.5 The safety net and felon adult CalWORKs cases are funded with non-MOE GF and are no longer required to assign their child support rights to the State as condition of eligibility. Any receipt of child support that is reasonably anticipated is considered unearned income and counted against the assistance payment. Counties must remove all child support related sanctions and penalties for these cases retroactively, effective back to June 1, 2014. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 March 2019 California Families Working Together 46 Changes in WTW Hourly Work Participation Determination W&IC Section 11322.8 The determination of hours per week a work-eligible adult must participate in work activities changed from a weekly minimum requirement, to an average per week during the month. Changes to Family Stabilization Compliance W&IC Section 11325.24 Family Stabilization was amended to allow housing assistance to the families. Recipients who refuse or are unable to follow their family stabilization plans without good cause are returned to the WTW program. CalWORKs Housing Support W&IC Section 11325.24 Housing support, including rental costs, is provided to eligible CalWORKs recipients who are experiencing homelessness or housing instability that would be a barrier to self-sufficiency or child well-being. This is an optional county program. Five Percent Maximum Aid Payment Increase W&IC Section 11450.025 All CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment levels (including exempt, non-exempt, Region One and Region Two) were increased by five percent effective March 1, 2014. Approved Relative Caregiver Funding Option W&IC Section 11461.3 At county discretion, the amount paid to approved relative caregivers for the in-home care of foster children placed with them will be equal to the basic rate paid to foster care providers. 2015 Pregnant Women W&IC Section 11450 Expands eligibility for CalWORKs and Pregnancy Special Needs Payment to all pregnant women who have no other eligible children beginning in the second trimester. Previously, this population was not eligible until the beginning of the third trimester. Truancy W&IC Section 11253 Eliminates the school attendance requirement and penalty to caretaker relatives when a child under the age of 16 is not regularly attending school. Counties will inform the family of how to enroll the child, age 16 or older, in a continuation school within the county and the family may be screened to determine eligibility for family stabilization services. OCAT Statewide Training and Implementation W&IC Section 11325.2(b) Funding was provided for the development and implementation of a statewide standardized appraisal tool, known as the Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool (OCAT), to identify more effective placement in work activities and referral to supportive services. Statewide training and implementation for OCAT was completed in 2015 and OCAT went live in all counties by October 2015. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 March 2019 California Families Working Together 47 Five Percent Maximum Aid Payment Increase W&IC Section 11450.025 All CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment levels (including exempt, non-exempt, Region One and Region Two) were increased by five percent effective April 1, 2015. CalWORKs Eligibility to Include Drug Felons W&IC Section 11251.3 and11486.5 CalWORKs eligibility extended to drug felons, contingent upon compliance with all terms of probation or parole, including participation in drug treatment programs, effective April 1, 2015. 2016 1.43 Percent MAP Increase W&IC Section 11450.025 All CalWORKs MAP levels (including exempt, non-exempt, Region One and Region Two) were increased by 1.43 percent effective October 1, 2016. CalWORKs Homeless Assistance Program W&IC Section 11450 Effective January 1, 2017, both temporary and permanent Homeless Assistance (HA) are available to an eligible CalWORKs assistance unit (AU) once every 12 months, with exceptions. Previously, HA was available once-in-a-lifetime, with exceptions. Maximum Family Grant (MFG) Repeal W&IC Section 11450.04 In accordance with the Budget Act of 2016, cash grants were increased to include children who were not receiving cash assistance because they were born to families who received aid for the ten months prior to the child’s birth. No child is denied aid because he or she was born into a family during a period in which the family was receiving aid. This applies to children currently designated as MFG, as well as future children born to the AU. Changes to Subsidized Employment W&IC Section 11320.15 and 11322.64 The AB 98 Subsidized Employment Program was eliminated and the eligible population for Expanded Subsidized Employment was expanded to include individuals in the CalWORKs Safety Net program. Participation in Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act of 2014 Activities W&IC Section 11322.63 A CalWORKs recipient in a Workforce Innovation Opportunity Act career pathway program is deemed to meet the CalWORKs hourly participation requirements under specified conditions. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 March 2019 California Families Working Together 48 Simplified CalWORKs Application Process and Form for Non-Needy Caretaker Relative with Relative Foster Child Placed in The Home W&IC Section 11253.2 The CalWORKs program developed a simplified process to apply for CalWORKs benefits for a foster child when the foster child has been placed with a relative who is not requesting public assistance cash aid for themselves. The caretaker relative now uses a simplified form that asks for information regarding income and resources only about the child. Some of the CalWORKs program rules also have been waived to simplify the process, since these foster parents must already undergo background screening and are not subject to the Welfare-to-Work rules when not requesting aid for themselves. CalWORKs Grieving Parent\/Caretaker Provisions W&IC Sections 11321 and 11450.05 When a child in the AU becomes deceased, the AU’s grant amount will not decrease in that month or the following month, and the parent(s)\/caretaker(s) are excused from required Welfare-to-Work activities. They also are not subject to sanctions for failure to participate. Counties are required to assist the family in identifying services the family may be eligible for, such as nutrition assistance, housing support and locating mental health services, if needed, or requested. 2017 Welfare-to-Work Diaper Benefit for Families W&IC Section 11323.2 In accordance with Chapter 690, Statutes of 2017 (AB 480, Gonzales Fletcher) beginning April 1, 2018, diaper benefits are included as a WTW supportive service. Any WTW participant who is participating in an approved WTW plan is eligible for $30 monthly to assist with diaper costs, for each child who is under 36 months of age. Homeless Assistance Benefits for Victims of Domestic Abuse W&IC sections 11450, 11253.5, 11265.8, 11495.16 and 11495.17 In accordance with Chapter 691, Statutes of 2017 (AB 557, Rubio) eligibility for CalWORKs Homeless Assistance (HA) benefits for victims of domestic abuse is extended to provide the assistance needed to escape the abuser and allow their eligibility to be determined without their abuser being considered as part of the household. It also requires CDSS to report to the Legislature in hearings as a part of the annual budget process regarding the number CalWORKs Welfare-to-Work (WTW) recipients who have been identified as a potential victim of domestic abuse; and to implement and administer the bill through all-county letters and emergency regulations by no later than July 1, 2020. tel:11450.04 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 March 2019 California Families Working Together 49 CalWORKs High School Equivalency Option W&IC sections 11320.1 and 11325.3 In accordance with Chapter 303, Statutes of 2017 (AB 1604, Nazarian) CalWORKs recipients who have not received a high school diploma or its equivalent can participate in a high school equivalency program to complete a high school equivalency test recognized by the California Department of Education prior to an assessment. This bill would allow these recipients to participate in other activities, such as mental health or substance abuse treatment services, if he or she elects not to participate in the specified activities and requires a written decision on the Welfare-to-Work (WTW) plan. CalWORKs Required Participation Clarification – W&IC section 11322.8 Chapter 318, Statutes of 2017 (AB 910, Ridley-Thomas) clarified that an adult in an assistance unit that includes 2 adults, one of whom is disabled, is required to participate in Welfare-to-Work activities for the same number of hours per week as an adult in an assistance unit that includes only one adult. The bill also provided that the hour requirement is an average of at least 20 hours per week during the month for a pregnant woman receiving CalWORKs benefits during the above-described 24 months, and an average of at least 30 hours per week during the month after the 24 months, if the assistance unit consists only of that pregnant woman. CalWORKs Outcomes and Accountability Review W&IC Section 11523 In accordance with Chapter 24 Statutes of 2017 (SB 89, Committee on Budget and Fiscal Review) the CalWORKs Outcomes and Accountability Review was established to facilitate local accountability and continuous improvement in the CalWORKs program. The CDSS convened a workgroup comprised of county staff, legislative staff, welfare advocates, researchers, tribal organizations, workforce development boards, and CalWORKs clients tasked with developing the work plan to implement Cal-OAR by July 1, 2019. Repeal of Statewide Fingerprint Imaging System (SFIS) W&IC sections 10830 and 10831 Chapter 24, Statutes of 2017 (SB 89, Committee on Budget and Fiscal Review) repealed the SFIS as of July 1, 2018. 2018 Community Resiliency and Disaster Preparedness Act of 2017 W&IC sections 11100 and 11105 AB 607 (Chapter 501, Statutes of 017), the Community Resiliency and Disaster Preparedness Act of 2017, authorized a person who shows that he or she has not established residence elsewhere and has been prevented from returning to the state due to a disaster declared by the Governor or the President of the United States, to continue his or her CalWORKs eligibility. In the event of a state or federally declared disaster in a county, the county human services agency is required to coordinate with public and private disaster response organizations and agencies to identify and inform recipients of their eligibility for the temporary and permanent homeless assistance. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 March 2019 California Families Working Together 50 CalWORKs Child Support W&IC sections 11008.14 and 11450.17 SB 380 (Chapter 729, Statutes of 2017), effective November 1, 2018, allows caretaker relatives to exclude a child from the AU if the child receives child support payments from the noncustodial parent(s) in an amount higher than the grant they would receive if included in the CalWORKs assistance payment and the child support would not count against the remaining AU members’ grant amount. The caretaker relative can only make this choice during the SAR and annual redetermination time or if the child support payments stop or decrease significantly. CalWORKs Overpayments\/CalFresh Overissuances W&IC section 10980 SB 360 (Chapter 390, Statutes of 2017), effective January 1, 2018, prohibits a person from being subject to criminal prosecution for an overpayment or overissuance of benefits, obtained under the CalWORKs program or the CalFresh program, for any month in which the county was in receipt of any Income Evaluation Verification System data match information indicating any potential for an overpayment or an overissuance and the county did not provide a timely and adequate notice to the client for the collection of the overpayment or the overissuance. CalWORKs Educational Opportunity & Attainment Program W&IC sections 11340 through 11346 Effective January 1, 2018, CalWORKs recipients may apply to receive a one-time education incentive award in the amount of five hundred dollars for completion of a high school diploma or its equivalent, or a one-time education stipend of one thousand dollars for enrollment in an education or training program leading to a certificate, associates or bachelor’s degree. One-time funding of $4 million was appropriated in FY 2017-18 for this program; once this funding was expended, CWDs were not required to expend additional funds for this program. 2019 Ten Percent MAP Increase W&IC section 11450.025 To reduce deep poverty among California’s most vulnerable children and families, all CalWORKs MAP levels will increase by 10 percent effective April 1, 2019. CalWORKs Overpayment W&IC section 11004 SB 726 (Chapter 930, Statutes of 2018) increases the CalWORKs overpayment establishment and collection threshold from $35 to $250, effective July 1, 2019. This bill requires a county to expunge an overpayment if the county determines that the overpayment has been caused by a major systemic error or negligence. Additionally, except in cases involving an investigation into suspected fraud, if the individual responsible for the overpayment has not received aid for 36 consecutive months or longer, the county shall deem an overpayment uncollectible and expunge the overpayment. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 March 2019 California Families Working Together 51 CalWORKs Home Visiting Initiative W&IC sections 11330.6, 11330.7, 11330.8, and 11330.9 The CalWORKs Home Visiting Initiative was established by AB 1811 (Chapter 35, Statutes of 2018) as an annual ongoing voluntary program for the purpose of supporting positive health, development, and well-being outcomes for eligible pregnant and parenting women, families, and infants born into poverty, expanding their future educational, economic, and financial capability opportunities, and improving the likelihood that they will exit poverty. The program provides high-quality, evidence-based, culturally competent services to pregnant women, parents or caretaker relatives, and children for 24 months or until the child’s second birthday, whichever is later. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 March 2019 California Families Working Together 52 THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY BLANK California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 53 Chapter 5 Welfare-to-Work (WTW) Participation This chapter describes CalWORKs Welfare-to-Work participation. As a condition of receiving CalWORKs assistance, adults must participate in Welfare-to-Work activities for a specified number of hours, unless they qualify for an exemption from Welfare to Work participation. This chapter begins with a table detailing the differences between the CalWORKs participation requirements and the federal TANF participation requirements. The chapter then chronicles California’s work participation rate (WPR) trends over various time periods. CalWORKs performance presently is measured by the federal WPR, the single measure used by the ACF to quantify the performance of state TANF programs. States that receive TANF funding are required to have 50 percent of all families and 90 percent of two-parent families comply with work requirements in each federal fiscal year. The WPR is calculated by dividing the number of TANF cases with Work Eligible Individuals (WEIs) meeting federal participation requirements by the total number of TANF cases with WEIs subject to those requirements. Failure to meet federal WPR requirements may result in a federal fiscal penalty for each year of failure. Chapter Five details California’s WPR history and the recent WPR improvements, which have eliminated or reduced several years of penalties through the federal corrective compliance process and decreased originally assessed penalties of $1.8 billion, to a current $780 million, and ultimately projected to fall even further, to a final penalty for all years through FFY 2017 of approximately $53.3 million. Federal regulations allow for several penalty mitigation options, and California is exercising those options for all remaining noncompliance penalties. Two of the options afforded to states to mitigate a federal fiscal penalty for WPR noncompliance are a dispute of the penalty calculation, and the submittal of a Corrective Compliance Plan (CCP). California has submitted seven CCPs for the penalties assessed for WPR noncompliance from 2008 through 2014, and penalty calculation disputes for the 2015, 2016, and 2017 penalties. Chapter Five provides the status of these penalties and California’s WPR compliance efforts. This chapter concludes with details concerning California’s TANF work participation rates over selected time periods. CalWORKs hourly Welfare-to-Work participation requirements are aligned with, but not identical to, the federal work participation requirements for TANF cases. Required work participation hours and allowable activities for each adult are based on the number of adults in an Assistance Unit (AU), the age of the children in the AU, and if the Welfare-to-Work 24-Month Time Clock has been exhausted. A table is provided in this chapter that details differences between the three different time clocks. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 54 CalWORKs adults are subject to two main categories of Welfare-to-Work requirements: CalWORKs Minimum Standards These requirements allow for a cumulative 24 months of increased flexibility out of the total lifetime limit of 48 months of aid, and aid can be extended under certain conditions. Individuals participating in accordance with these requirements are using the Welfare-to-Work 24-Month Time Clock; and CalWORKs Federal Standards These standards are closely aligned, but not identical to, federal TANF participation requirements. CalWORKs recipients are required to meet these standards after they have exhausted their 24-month time clock but may meet these more demanding standards at any time during their time on aid. Key Terms in This Chapter 24-Month Time Clock (24MTC) Adult CalWORKs participants are required to engage in Welfare-to-Work activities during their potentially lifetime maximum grant period of 48 months. For 24 cumulative, but not necessarily consecutive, months of aid receipt while using the 24MTC there are more activity options. The 24MTC activities include work, education, training, mental health, substance abuse, and\/or domestic abuse services. o The 24MTC stops when a participant is in appraisal, job search, assessment, or development of a new WTW plan; is meeting the required federal participation hours; is participating in Cal-Learn; is exempt; or is sanctioned. Corrective Compliance Plan (CCP) A CCP is one of the approaches provided for states to reduce or eliminate a federal fiscal penalty for WPR noncompliance. As stipulated in 45 CFR 262.6, a CCP must include: o A complete analysis of why the State did not meet requirements; o A detailed description of how the State will correct or discontinue the violation; o The time period in which the violation will be corrected or discontinued; o The milestones, including interim processes and outcome goals, the State will achieve to assure compliance; and o A certification by the Governor that the State is committed to correcting or discontinuing the violation in accordance with the plan. Enrollee This refers to an individual who has, after becoming eligible for CalWORKs, received a notice that he or she is required to participate in Welfare-to-Work. Exempt Case This refers to cases with an individual who is exempt from participation in Welfare-to-Work, due to meeting a qualifying criterion. Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) The period, starting on October 1 of one year and ending on September 30 of the next year, on which the federal government bases fiscal and data reporting requirements. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, FFY 2013 began on October 1, 2012, and ended on September 30, 2013. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 55 Good Cause An individual in good cause status is excused from Welfare-to-Work participation when it has been determined that there is a condition or circumstance that temporarily prevents, or significantly impairs, the individual’s ability to be regularly employed, or to participate in Welfare-to-Work activities. Good Cause status is defined in the Manual of Policies and Procedures (MPP) 42-713. Non-Compliant This refers to an individual who has been sent a notice of non-compliance with Welfare-to-Work participation requirements but has not yet returned to participation or been sanctioned. Penalty Calculation Dispute Federal regulations allow states assessed with penalties for WPR noncompliance to submit a dispute of the initial penalty calculation. Safety Net Cases in which only the children in an AU are aided because the parent(s) are discontinued for cash aid due to their reaching the 48-month lifetime assistance limit. Sanctioned Cases This refers to cases with an individual who has been removed from aid due to non-compliance with Welfare-to-Work participation requirements. Unduplicated Cases This is data included in the Welfare-to-Work 25 and 25A (WTW 25 and 25A) data report. It accounts for individuals participating in WTW activities and does not duplicate counts for individuals participating in more than one reported activity. Work-Eligible Individual (WEI) an adult (or minor child head-of-household) receiving assistance under TANF or a separate state program or a non-recipient parent living with a child receiving such assistance unless the parent is: o A minor parent and not the head-of-household; o A non-citizen who is ineligible to receive assistance due to his or her immigration status; or o At state option on a case-by-case basis, a recipient of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits. The term also excludes: o A parent providing care for a disabled family member living in the home, provided that there is medical documentation to support the need for the parent to remain in the home to care for the disabled family member; o At state option on a case-by-case basis, a parent who is a recipient of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) benefits; and o An individual in a family receiving MOE-funded assistance under an approved Tribal TANF program, unless the State includes the tribal family in calculating work participation rates, as permitted under CFR 45 261.25. https:\/\/www.law.cornell.edu\/cfr\/text\/45\/261.25 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 56 Tables and Figures in This Chapter Table 5A. CalWORKs WTW Activities and Hourly Requirements …………………………………..58 Figure 5A. Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population: FY 2009-10 through FY 2017-18 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………60 Table 5B. Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population: FY 2009-10 through FY 2017-18 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………61 Table 5C. CalWORKs Welfare-to-Work Education Activities …………………………………………63 Table 5D. Number of Community College Degrees, Certificates, and Awards CalWORKs Recipients Received: 2011-2018 ……………………………………………………………………………….64 Table 5E. Average Monthly Percent of Exemptions Granted to WTW Adults: FFYs 2010-2018 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..65 Table 5F. Welfare-to-Work (WTW) Time Clock Exemptions\/Good Cause ……………………….66 Table 5G. Participation in Work or Work-Related Activities (TANF cases only): FFYs 2009-2017 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..69 Table 5H. Summary of WPR Assessed Penalties and Compliance Status ($ in millions)……71 Table 5I. California’s TANF Work Participation Rate (WPR) History: FFYs 2008-2018 ………73 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 57 CalWORKs WTW Activities and Hourly Requirements CalWORKs adults are required to participate in WTW activities as a condition of aid, unless exempt, until the lifetime maximum 48 months for CalWORKs assistance is reached. Once the 48-month time limit is reached for the adult, aid can continue for an eligible child or children until they reach age 18. CalWORKs participation requirements effective January 1, 2013: During Adults’ 48 Months on Aid While Subject to the 24MTC – CalWORKs recipients can participate in any of the full array of CalWORKs WTW activities they need, consistent with an assessment, to become self-sufficient with no core hourly requirement. The 24 months are cumulative, not necessarily consecutive, and may be used at any time during adults’ maximum 48 months of CalWORKs assistance. During the 24 months, clients must meet CalWORKs minimum standards weekly hourly participation requirements. SB 1041 (2012) reduced the hourly requirement from 32 to 30 hours per week for single parents and to 20 hours per week for single parents with a child under six. After Exhausting the 24MTC – Unless otherwise exempt or having received an extension, CalWORKs recipients must meet CalWORKs federal standards, based on federal work requirements, to continue receiving aid. CalWORKs recipients only can participate in federally countable activities and must meet a weekly core and overall hourly requirement consistent with federal requirements. CalWORKs federal standards allow for an additional 12 months of vocational education to be countable as a core activity. This provides up to three years of predominantly education focused activities during the 48 months of aid. Participation requirements remain at 30 or 20 hours per week for single parents. However, 20 hours must be in core activities. The core hourly requirement for two-parent families is 30 hours, with an overall 35-hour requirement maintained for the household. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 58 Table 5A. CalWORKs WTW Activities and Hourly Requirements Activities Adults’ 48 Months on Aid For 24 Months (while using the 24MTC) Adults’ 48 Months on Aid After 24 Months Hourly Participation Requirements (monthly average hours per week\/core hours required) Single parent with child under 6 20\/0 core 20\/20 core Single-parent families with children ages 6 and over 30\/0 core 30\/20 core Two-parent families 35\/0 core 35\/30 core WTW Activities Core Activities Employment Activities (1) Vocational education (12 month lifetime limit) Job search Job readiness activities Work experience Community service Job skills training Adult basic education Secondary school Barrier removal activities Employment activities (1) Work experience Community service OJT Non-Core Activities Employment Activities Vocational education (12 month lifetime limit) Job search Job readiness activities Work experience Community service Job skills training Adult basic education Secondary school Barrier removal activities (2) Job skills training Adult basic education Satisfactory attendance in a secondary school Time-Limited Core Activities(3) NA Barrier removal activities (2) Job search Job readiness assistance Vocational education (12 month lifetime limit) Employment Services Child care Supportive services \u2713 \u2713 \u2713 \u2713 Data Source: Welfare-to-Work 25 and 25A Notes: 1 Employment activities include unsubsidized and subsidized employment, work study, supported work and transitional employment, and grant-based on-the-job training. 2 Barrier removal activities include mental health, substance abuse, and domestic violence services intended to remove barriers to Welfare-to-Work participation. 3 Job search, job readiness, and barrier removal activities are limited to four consecutive weeks, not to exceed six weeks in a 12-month period. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 59 Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-To-Work Population The Welfare-to-Work 25 and 25A (WTW 25 & 25A) primarily provide data about the activity participation of the Welfare-to-Work population from each of the 58 counties. The categorical delineations that comprise the WTW 25 & 25A reflect both the welfare-to-work status and the activity participation of individuals. The categories in Figure 5A and Table 5B are defined as: Total (Employment Services) The Employment Services Total is the sum of the Sanction, Non-Compliance, Good Cause, and Unduplicated populations. These populations are combined in the Employment Services Total category because these individuals are either participating, or required to participate, in WTW. Participating individuals in the Exempt or Post 48-Month population are also represented in the Unduplicated Count and therefore will also be reflected in the Employment Services Total. Unduplicated Individual The Unduplicated Individual count in the WTW 25 & 25A represents individuals participating in WTW activities and does not duplicate counts for individuals participating in more than one reported activity. Exempt This is the number of individuals reported as being exempt from participation in Welfare-to-Work, due to meeting a qualifying criterion; Sanctioned This is the number of individuals who have been removed from aid due to non-compliance with Welfare-to-Work participation requirements; Non-Compliant This is the number of individuals who have been sent a notice of non- compliance with Welfare-to-Work participation requirements, but have not yet returned to participation or been sanctioned; Good Cause This is the number of individuals in good cause status who are excused from Welfare-to-Work participation because it has been determined that there is a condition or circumstance that temporarily prevents, or significantly impairs, the individual’s ability to be regularly employed or to participate in Welfare-to-Work activities; and Post 48-Month Time Limit This is the number of individuals receiving services post 48-month time limit at county’s discretion. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 60 Figure 5A. Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population: FY 2009-10 through FY 2017-18 Data Source: CalWORKs Welfare-To-Work Monthly Activity Report All (Other) Families (WTW 25) and CalWORKs Welfare-to-Work Monthly Activity Report- Two Parent Families (WTW 25A) 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 Q u ar te r 1 Q u ar te r 2 Q u ar te r 3 Q u ar te r 4 Q u ar te r 1 Q u ar te r 2 Q u ar te r 3 Q u ar te r 4 Q u ar te r 1 Q u ar te r 2 Q u ar te r 3 Q u ar te r 4 Q u ar te r 1 Q u ar te r 2 Q u ar te r 3 Q u ar te r 4 Q u ar te r 1 Q u ar te r 2 Q u ar te r 3 Q u ar te r 4 Q u ar te r 1 Q u ar te r 2 Q u ar te r 3 Q u ar te r 4 Q u ar te r 1 Q u ar te r 2 Q u ar te r 3 Q u ar te r 4 Q u ar te r 1 Q u ar te r 2 Q u ar te r 3 Q u ar te r 4 Q u ar te r 1 Q u ar te r 2 Q u ar te r 3 Q u ar te r 4 FY 09-10 FY 10-11 FY 11-12 FY 12-13 FY 13-14 FY 14-15 FY 15-16 FY 16-17 FY 17-18 N u m b e r o f C as e s Total Unduplicated Exempt Sanctions Non-Compliance Good Cause Post 48 Month Time Limit http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25 http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25 http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25a http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25a http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25a http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25a http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25a California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 61 Table 5B. Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population: FY 2009-10 through FY 2017-18 Fiscal Year and Quarter Exempt Post-48M Time Limit Sanctions Non- Compliance Good Cause Unduplicated Total(1) FY 09-10 Quarter 1 62,891 5,320 47,813 30,718 3,570 147,584 229,685 FY 09-10 Quarter 2 81,812 5,218 47,454 27,149 3,452 146,078 224,134 FY 09-10 Quarter 3 106,013 5,196 45,258 24,949 3,307 142,265 215,779 FY 09-10 Quarter 4 114,125 5,133 45,205 23,822 3,316 137,678 210,021 FY 09-10 FY Average 91,210 5,217 46,432 26,660 3,411 143,402 219,905 FY 10-11 Quarter 1 120,765 5,297 46,584 23,600 3,295 136,183 209,662 FY 10-11 Quarter 2 125,364 5,287 46,669 24,910 3,392 138,633 213,604 FY 10-11 Quarter 3 132,187 5,273 47,839 26,113 3,361 141,305 218,617 FY 10-11 Quarter 4 137,645 5,453 50,154 27,334 3,464 144,187 225,139 FY 10-11 FY Average 128,990 5,328 47,812 25,489 3,378 140,077 216,756 FY 11-12 Quarter 1 132,952 7,608 45,972 25,439 3,353 125,735 200,499 FY 11-12 Quarter 2 133,614 7,517 45,861 25,055 3,346 122,435 196,697 FY 11-12 Quarter 3 132,701 7,372 47,294 25,209 3,254 120,183 195,941 FY 11-12 Quarter 4 132,363 7,471 48,523 25,037 3,383 119,222 196,166 FY 11-12 FY Average 132,907 7,492 46,913 25,185 3,334 121,894 197,326 FY 12-13 Quarter 1 132,551 8,850 49,529 25,485 3,351 117,367 195,733 FY 12-13 Quarter 2 132,463 8,968 50,192 24,973 3,219 117,047 195,431 FY 12-13 Quarter 3 120,994 8,913 50,687 25,232 3,208 116,053 195,180 FY 12-13 Quarter 4 115,900 9,232 51,139 26,040 3,264 115,764 196,207 FY 12-13 FY Average 125,477 8,991 50,387 25,433 3,261 116,558 195,638 FY 13-14 Quarter 1 107,973 9,034 51,750 24,866 3,051 113,737 193,404 FY 13-14 Quarter 2 100,680 6,659 52,895 26,741 3,190 116,327 199,153 FY 13-14 Quarter 3 96,460 2,885 57,377 27,590 3,267 119,759 207,993 FY 13-14 Quarter 4 92,166 2,914 61,529 27,768 3,422 123,453 216,172 FY 13-14 FY Average 99,320 5,373 55,888 26,741 3,233 118,319 204,181 FY 14-15 Quarter 1 85,760 3,136 62,042 27,616 3,494 126,213 219,366 FY 14-15 Quarter 2 82,764 3,257 59,077 28,147 3,501 125,505 216,230 FY 14-15 Quarter 3 80,870 2,675 59,174 28,394 3,387 121,391 212,345 FY 14-15 Quarter 4 81,033 2,818 58,446 29,045 3,281 121,943 212,715 FY 14-15 FY Average 82,607 2,972 59,685 28,300 3,416 123,763 215,164 FY 15-16 Quarter 1 79,836 3,004 59,397 28,125 3,263 118,718 209,503 FY 15-16 Quarter 2 76,389 3,085 56,983 27,106 3,165 114,630 201,883 FY 15-16 Quarter 3 73,208 2,900 57,610 26,623 3,067 109,773 197,072 FY 15-16 Quarter 4 66,076 3,053 58,356 25,116 2,916 102,028 188,416 FY 15-16 FY Average 73,877 3,011 58,086 26,742 3,103 111,287 199,218 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 62 Table 5B. Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population: FY 2009-10 through FY 2017-18 (continued) Fiscal Year and Quarter Exempt Post-48M Time Limit Sanctions Non- Compliance Good Cause Unduplicated Total(1) FY 16-17 Quarter 1 66,571 2,999 55,246 25,039 2,618 95,189 178,092 FY 16-17 Quarter 2 64,148 2,984 55,079 25,623 2,678 93,618 176,997 FY 16-17 Quarter 3 65,784 2,711 56,012 24,535 2,598 90,753 173,899 FY 16-17 Quarter 4 65,831 2,492 56,683 24,124 2,790 89,333 172,930 FY 16-17 FY Average 65,584 2,797 55,755 24,830 2,671 92,223 175,480 FY 17-18 Quarter 1 63,505 2,314 57,139 23,006 2,919 86,067 169,130 FY 17-18 Quarter 2 61,655 1,950 56,363 22,872 2,933 84,424 166,591 FY 17-18 Quarter 3 59,819 2,020 56,543 22,473 3,013 80,505 162,534 FY 17-18 Quarter 4 59,575 1,892 56,868 22,229 3,185 77,413 159,696 FY 17-18 FY Average 61,139 2,044 56,728 22,645 3,013 82,102 164,488 Data Sources: CalWORKs Welfare-To-Work Monthly Activity Report All (Other) Families (WTW 25) and CalWORKs Welfare-to- Work Monthly Activity Report-Two-Parent Families (WTW 25A) Note: \u00b9 Total figure does not include Exempt or Post 48 Month Time Limit individuals because individuals in these statuses are not required to participate in WTW activities. The numbers displayed in the table for each quarter are monthly averages. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25 http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25 http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25a http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25a http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25a http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25a California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 63 Table 5C. CalWORKs Welfare-to-Work Education Activities Many types of education are available as Welfare-to-Work activities as an option to WTW program participants. To assist in these activities, participants are provided with reimbursement for required and related expenses, such as books and lab fees. Included below are descriptions of various education activities which are available to program participants. Activity Description Adult Basic Education Instruction in reading, writing, arithmetic, high school proficiency, or general educational development certificate instruction, and English- as-a-second- language. Job Skills Training Directly Related to Employment Training or education for job skills required by an employer to provide an individual with the ability to obtain employment or to advance or adapt to the changing demands of the workplace. Vocational Education and Training College and community college education, adult education, regional occupational centers, and regional occupational programs. Satisfactory Progress in Secondary School\/Certificate Program Achieving satisfactory progress in secondary school or in a course of study leading to a certificate of general educational development. Education Directly Related to Employment Any education or training which is directly related to employment of the participant. Work Experience Training under the close supervision of the activity provider, that helps provide basic job skills, enhance existing job skills, or provide a needed community service that leads to employment. Community Service Training that is temporary and transitional, performed in the public or private nonprofit sector under the close supervision of the activity provider, and provides basic job skills that can lead to employment while meeting a community need. On-The-Job Training Training that is given to a paid participant while the participant is engaged in productive work. The employer is subsidized to offset training costs. This activity may also include paid classroom instruction as required by the participant’s employer. Grant-Based On-The-Job Training This activity includes a funding mechanism in which the recipient’s cash grant, or a portion thereof, or the grant savings resulting from employment, is diverted to the employer as a wage subsidy to offset the wages to the participant, so long as the total amount diverted does not exceed the family’s maximum aid payment. Data Source: CDSS All County Letter No. 12-69 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 64 Education and Training The WTW 24MTC provides expanded opportunities for engagement of CalWORKs recipients in education and training leading to academic degrees and certificates. December 2018 data from the California Community Colleges Chancellor’s Office indicate: A 48 percent increase in the total number of Associates Degrees (both Associates of Arts and Associates of Science) awarded to CalWORKs recipients in the 2017-18 academic year compared with the 2011-12 academic year, the last full academic year prior to SB 1041 implementation. A 40 percent increase in the total of all degrees and certificates earned by CalWORKs recipients in the 2017-18 academic year compared with the 2011-12 academic year, the last full academic year prior to SB 1041 implementation. An 8 percent annual increase in the total number of Associates degrees (both Associates of Arts and Associates of Science) earned by CalWORKs recipients in the 2017-18 academic year compared with the previous (2016-17) academic year. Table 5D. Number of Community College Degrees, Certificates, and Awards CalWORKs Recipients Received: 2011-2018 Type of Degree\/Certificate 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 Associate of Arts Degree 2,041 2,084 2,178 2,232 2,428 2,514 2,809 Associate of Science Degree 980 1,127 1,232 1,355 1,477 1,625 1,659 Certificate 60+ units 52 30 34 46 29 25 22 Certificate 30-59 units 786 1,019 950 1,024 1,195 1,185 1,322 Certificate 18-29 units 646 672 761 732 628 669 723 Certificate 6-17 units 552 515 573 641 547 592 607 Certificate <6 units 58 114 56 56 54 40 23 Non-credit awards 297 293 402 470 654 811 651 Total 5,412 5,854 6,186 6,556 7,012 7,461 7,816 Data Source: California Community Colleges Chancellor's Office (December 2018) Note: One individual may have received more than one degree, certificate or award in a given year. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 65 Table 5E. Average Monthly Percent of Exemptions Granted to WTW Adults: FFYs 2010-2018 Some people are unable to participate in Welfare-to-Work (WTW) activities. They may receive an exemption from required participation in WTW and remain on cash aid. This table displays the average monthly percent of exemptions, by type, granted to WTW adults from Federal Fiscal Year FFY 2010 to FFY 2018. Reason for Exemption(1) FFY 2010 FFY 2011 FFY 2012 FFY 2013 FFY 2014 FFY 2015 FFY 2016 FFY 2017 FFY 2018 Percent of WTW Adults with one of the following Exemptions 30.7% 38.0% 42.3% 38.9% 34.1% 31.9% 32.6% 34.1% 33.7% Provide Care for Young Children(2) 39.6% 39.9% 39.5% 32.3% 8.2% 0.1% -- Child 0-23 Months of Age(3) -- -- -- 5.0% 25.7% 33.3% 35.5% 38.1% 39.1% 1st and 2nd Exemption for Child(4) 13.0% 12.9% 13.5% 14.7% 17.5% 19.0% 16.1% 11.8% 10.1% Disabled 16.6% 15.7% 15.6% 17.4% 21.5% 25.2% 27.4% 28.7% 29.8% Caring for Ill or Incapacitated(5) 20.0% 21.3% 20.7% 19.5% 17.5% 13.6% 12.8% 13.0% 13.5% Cal-Learn, Under 16 Years Old, or Child Attending School 5.3% 5.1% 5.2% 4.6% 4.3% 3.9% 3.1% 2.6% 2.0% Pregnant and Cannot Work 1.6% 1.6% 1.6% 1.9% 2.4% 2.5% 2.8% 3.5% 3.1% 60 Years of Age or Older 2.0% 1.2% 0.9% 1.5% 1.3% 1.5% 1.7% 1.9% 1.9% Non-Parent Caretaker Providing Care 1.3% 1.7% 2.5% 2.4% 0.9% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% Indian Country or Full Time VISTA Volunteer 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% Data Sources: CalWORKs Welfare-To-Work Monthly Activity Report Two-Parent Families (WTW25A) and Welfare Data Tracking Implementation Project (WDTIP) November 2018) -- Current and prior years' data for 'Percent of WTW Adults with one of the Following Exemptions' data have been revised to accurately reflect Exemption data from the WTW 25\/25A. Notes: 1 The total includes duplicate adults, as an adult may receive more than one type of exemption. 2 Short-term young child exemption available to a parent or caretaker relative who has primary responsibility for providing care to one child who is 12 months through 23 months of age or at least two children who are under six years of age. This exemption was phased out as cases were re-engaged for WTW or re-evaluated for other qualifying exemptions. 3 New young child exemption created by SB 1041 for a parent or caretaker relative who has primary responsibility for providing care to one child from birth through 23 months of age. 4 These exemptions are available to the parent or other caretaker relative of a child under six months of age and under three months of age, respectively. 5 Due to a delay in automation, CalWIN used the caring for ill or incapacitated exemption code as a proxy for the \"Provide Care to Young Children\" exemption. Therefore, the ill or incapacitated exemption code is overstated in FY 2010. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25a http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25A http:\/\/www.wdtip.ca.gov\/ http:\/\/www.wdtip.ca.gov\/ California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 66 Table 5F. Welfare-to-Work (WTW) Time Clock Exemptions\/Good Cause The table below provides information regarding WTW Time Clock exemptions and good cause for not participating. Exemption Description WTW 24-Month Time Clock Exemption? CalWORKs 48-Month Time Limit Exemption? Under 16 Years of Age Client is under 16 years of age. Yes N\/A(1) Child Attending School Client is 16, 17, or 18 years of age and is attending a school in grade twelve or below, or vocational, or technical school on a full-time basis. Yes N\/A Cal-Learn Non-Head of Household Client is receiving aid in their parent's assistance unit, and is eligible for, participating in, or exempt from the Cal-Learn program. Yes Yes Cal-Learn Head of Household Client is receiving aid in his or her own assistance unit, and is eligible for, participating, or exempt from the Cal-Learn program. Yes Yes 60 Years of Age or Older Client who reaches age 60 or older. Yes Yes Client Disability Client has medical verification of a physical and\/or mental disability expected to last at least 30 days and it significantly impairs the individual's ability to be employed or participate in WTW activities.(2) Yes Yes Needy Non-Parent Caretaker Relative Client is a Non-Parent caretaker relative who has primary responsibility for caring for a child who is either a dependent, ward of the court, receiving Kin-GAP benefits or at risk for placement in foster care. These caretaking responsibilities must impair his\/her ability to be employed or to participate in WTW activities. Yes Yes Caring for Ill or Incapacitated Member of Household Client is caring for an ill or incapacitated person residing in the home, has medical verification that the illness or incapacity is expected to last at least 30 days, and caretaking responsibility impairs the clients' ability to be regularly employed or to participate in WTW activities. Yes Yes Pregnant and Cannot Work or Participate in WTW Activities Client is a woman who is pregnant with medical verification that the pregnancy impairs her ability to be regularly employed or participate in WTW activities, or the county determines that participation will not readily lead to employment or that a training activity is not appropriate. Yes No California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 67 Table 5F. Welfare-to-Work (WTW) Time Clock Exemptions\/Good Cause (continued) Data Source: Manual Policy and Procedures CDSS (MPP) 42-712 Notes: 1 The CalWORKs 48-Month Time Limit does not apply to this population. 2 This may include pregnancy if the Client Disability criteria are found to apply. Exemption Description WTW 24-Month Time Clock Exemption? CalWORKs 48- Month Time Limit Exemption? Child 0-23 Months of Age Client has primary responsibility for personally providing care to a child from birth to 23 months, inclusive. This exemption shall be available in addition to any other child related exemption outlined below. An individual may be exempt only once in a lifetime under this exemption. Yes Yes Exemption for Child Six Months of Age or Younger Client is caring for a child six months of age or younger. County may lower age to 12 weeks, or extend the age to one year depending on availability of child care and\/or job opportunities. An individual may be exempt only once in a lifetime under this exemption. Yes No Subsequent Exemption for Child 12 Weeks of Age or Younger Subsequent Exemption: Client is caring for a child 12 weeks of age or younger. County may extend the age to six months depending on availability of child care and job opportunities. This exemption is available for parents who have previously received the exemption for care of a child six months of age or younger. Yes No VISTA Volunteer Client is a full-time volunteer in the Volunteers in Services to America (VISTA) Program Yes No Domestic Abuse Client is a past or present victim of domestic abuse. Yes Yes Good Cause Client has good cause for not participating in WTW. Yes No California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 68 Work or Work-Related Activities and the TANF Work Participation Rate Policy The following table illustrates the participation level of CalWORKs clients in federally required work or work-like activities. Federal regulations require all work-eligible adults and minor heads of households receiving TANF assistance to participate in federally allowable Welfare-to-Work activities for a specified number of hours per week. Required hours of participation are a minimum average of 20, 30, or 35 hours per week in the month, depending on the number of Work-Eligible Individuals and the age(s) of the aided child or children in the home. Participating cases are meeting the average hourly participation requirements. Cases with some participation, but less than the required average number of hours per week are characterized as Partially Participating. Cases with no participation are the Not participating population, which includes adults with a WTW sanction, exemption from WTW, or good cause for non-participation. For the purposes of calculating the federal work participation rate, only those cases fully meeting participation requirements are counted. Federal law does not give credit for partial participation. The trends in participation of CalWORKs cases with individuals required to participate in federally required Welfare-to-Work activities from FFY 2009 to FFY 2017 are detailed below. The data illustrate a general trend that paralleled the recession, with an increase in total caseload and all participation categories that peaked in FFY 2011 (or in FFY 2012, for the not participating group) and then began a general decline. From FFY 2009 to FFY 2017 the percentage of CalWORKs cases required to participate fully meeting the federally required participation level increased (by 14 percentage points), while the percentage of those CalWORKs cases partially meeting the required participation level declined slightly (a five percentage point decline) and the percentage of those CalWORKs cases with individuals required to participate, but not participating, also declined (by 12 percentage points). In absolute terms, the total number of CalWORKs cases with individuals required to participate in federally required Welfare-to-Work activities decreased from FFY 2009 to FFY 2017 by 131,175 from 325,244 to 194,069. The number of CalWORKs cases with individuals required to participate in work or work related activities fully meeting the required participation level decreased by 7,950, from 86,487 in FFY 2009 to 78,537 in FFY 2017. The number of those cases partially participating declined by 33,215, from 58,944 in FFY 2009 to 25,729 in FFY 2017, and the number of those cases not participating decreased by 90,010 during the period, from 179,813 to 89,803. As noted in Chapter 1, safety net and fleeing felon cases were moved out in 2014 and 2015. This move out accounts for some of the changes shown in Table 5G. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 69 Table 5G. Participation in Work or Work-Related Activities (TANF cases only): FFYs 2009-2017 Participation Level FFY 2009 FFY 2010 FFY 2011 FFY 2012 FFY 2013 FFY 2014 FFY 2015 FFY 2016 FFY 2017 Participating 86,487 89,155 102,514 99,026 89,083 93,877 93,262 81,263 78,537 Partially Participating 58,944 52,675 61,658 53,797 54,018 43,706 36,764 33,027 25,729 Not Participating 179,813 192,345 205,734 205,791 200,132 178,794 133,721 110,723 89,803 Total Required to Participate 325,244 334,175 369,906 358,614 343,233 316,377 263,747 225,012 194,069 Data Source: Administration for Children and Families (ACF) and RADEP Notes: The share of cases participating does not match Table 5I, California's TANF Work Participation Rate, because this table does not include WINS cases, which are displayed in Table 6C. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 70 Work Participation Rate Compliance A state participating in the federal TANF program must meet an overall WPR equal to 50 percent of all families and a separate 90 percent WPR requirement for two-parent families. Families with a federally defined 'work-eligible individual' are included in the overall WPR; families with two or more work-eligible individuals are subject to the two-parent WPR calculation. Failure to achieve the WPR requirements results in a penalty equal to an initial five percent reduction of the federal TANF block grant ($3.7 billion). For each successive year of non-compliance, the penalty increases by up to two percent, up to a maximum of 21 percent. Although California has been assessed total potential penalties of over $1.8 billion for the FFYs through 2017, successful corrective compliance plans (CCPs) have already eliminated nearly $1.1 billion of this exposure, resulting in a current penalty total of about $780 million. Due to additional penalty reductions required but not yet officially calculated, a final penalty exposure of approximately $53 million, primarily related to two-parent rate noncompliance, is projected for all penalties through FFY 2017. A state that fails to meet the required WPR in a given year may reduce or eliminate a federal noncompliance penalty by achieving compliance in a future target year specified in a CCP (see section below). As explained above, states are required to meet two distinct WPRs, an overall rate (50%), and a separate WPR for two-parent families (90%). Table 5H provides a summary of California's current WPR penalty status, including the penalty year (FFY), the rates failed, original assessed base penalty amount, the target compliance year of the submitted CCP, the estimated revised remaining penalty amount after accounting for actual and likely CCP completion, and both the ripple effect of earlier reductions and the results of reductions for significant progress , as described by ACF, as well as the projection for the earliest possible FFY a fiscal penalty would be assessed resulting in a TANF block grant reduction. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 71 Table 5H Penalty Amounts Table 5H presents two penalty amounts, Original Base Penalty and Revised Estimated Penalty, for each year of WPR noncompliance from 2008 - 2017. The Original Base Penalty Amount is the initial penalty assessed by ACF for WPR noncompliance for the related FFY. Achieving compliance with the overall WPR in FFY 2015 satisfied the CCPs for the FFY 2008 - 2011 penalties. Therefore, those penalties, totaling $587.1 million were eliminated. Since penalties for WPR noncompliance are partially calculated based on previous year penalties, the elimination of the 2008 - 2011 penalties required that all subsequent penalties be reduced. These reductions are reflected the Revised Estimated Penalty column. That column, titled Revised Estimated Penalty, present reduction estimates that occur due to the state meeting the overall WPR in the specified target compliance year named in the CCP, leaving only the lower two-parent percentage of the penalty, as well as relief for significant progress and the penalty ripple effect where each reduction in one penalty requires a complete recalculation and reduction of all subsequent penalties. The ultimate result of these various penalty reductions is projected to expose the State to penalties totaling approximately $53.3 million for all current outstanding penalties. The Estimated Earliest FFY column presents the earliest possible FFY a final penalty could be assessed, reducing and the TANF block grant. Table 5H. Summary of WPR Assessed Penalties and Compliance Status ($ in millions) Penalty Year- FFY Overall WPR Failed Two-Parent WPR Failed Original Base Penalty CCP Target Compliance Year Revised Estimated Penalty Exposure* Estimated Earliest FFY of Penalty Payment 2008-2011 x $587.1 2015\/2016 $0.0 2012 x x $312.0 2016 $11.8 2020 2013 x x $377.9 2016 $5.6 2020 2014 x x $443.8 2017 $4.5 2021 2015 x $92.7 TBD $13.0 Unknown 2016 x $8.8 TBD $5.3 Unknown 2017 x $13.7 TBD $13.1 Unknown Total $1,836.0 $53.3 Data Source: Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Notes: * Reflects most recent correspondence from ACF and estimated penalty relief provided for \"significant progress\" towards WPR target, and the ripple effect impact of a penalty reduction in any given year effecting the penalty calculation\/amount in following years. TBD To be determined, 2015, 2016 and 2017 penalties are currently in calculation dispute phase. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 72 Status of Penalty Disputes and Corrective Compliance Plans Penalties from 2008 through 2011 ($587 million) have been eliminated through successful corrective compliance. Penalties for 2012 and 2013 have been reduced to reflect prior penalty eliminations and will be reduced again due to the state achieving compliance with the overall WPR in FFY 2016, as stipulated in the CCP for those penalties, and ACF calculated significant progress . The approximately $444 million penalty for WPR noncompliance for FFY 2014 has been reduced to reflect prior penalty eliminations and reduced again due to the State achieving compliance with the overall WPR in FFY 2017, as stipulated in the CCP for that year penalty, and ACF calculated significant progress . The State has been assessed a penalty of approximately $93 million for failure to achieve the required two-parent WPR in FFY 2015. The State submitted a dispute of this penalty amount in January 2017. The penalty was preliminarily reduced to $65.8 million in May 2017 and is projected to be reduced to a final amount of about $13 million. The State has been assessed a penalty of approximately $8.8 million for failure to achieve the required two-parent WPR in FFY 2016. The State submitted a dispute of this penalty amount in October 2017. The State has been assessed a penalty of approximately $13.7 million for failure to achieve the required two-parent WPR in FFY 2017. The State submitted a dispute of this penalty amount in September 2018. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 73 Table 5I. California's TANF Work Participation Rate (WPR) History: FFYs 2008-2018 Table 5I provides a historical look at California's WPR from FFY 2008 through FFY 2018 (WPRs for FFY 2017 and 2018 are preliminary). All Families WPR 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015(2) 2016 2017(4) 2018(4) Required Rate 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% Caseload Reduction Credit 21.0% 21.0%(1) 21.0%(1) 21.0%(1) 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% State Adjusted Required WPR 29.0% 29.0% 29.0% 29.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% California's WPR 25.1% 26.8% 26.2% 27.8% 27.2% 25.1% 29.8% 55.5% 60.7% 63.6% 56.4% Data Source: Quality Control Information System 5 (Q5i) (from 1998 through 2006) and RADEP (from 2007 to present) Notes: 1 Due to the American Recovery and Investment Act of 2009 (ARRA), states can receive the Caseload Reduction Credit (CRC) from either 2007 or 2008, whichever is most beneficial to the state, for WPR calculation from 2008 to 2011. For California, the caseload reduction credit for 2008 provided the most benefit to the state's WPR. 2 Elimination of move-out groups from the reportable CalWORKs population and implementation of the WINS program in 2014 explains most of the increase in the WPR from 2014 to 2015. 3 Preliminary WPRs as of December 2018, pending final determination by ACF. 4 WINS two-parent WPR has been removed from CA two-parent WPR for FFY2018. Two-Parent WPR 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015(2) 2016 2017(3) 2018(3) Required Rate 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% Caseload Reduction Credit 90.0% 90.0%(1) 90.0%(1) 90.0%(1) 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% State Adjusted Required WPR 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% California's WPR 26.5% 28.6% 35.6% 33.9% 30.8% 30.9% 25.5% 61.1% 69.9% 67.9% 36.3%(4) California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 March 2019 California Families Working Together 74 THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY BLANK California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 March 2019 California Families Working Together 75 Chapter 6 Recent Program Changes and Outcomes This chapter describes the most significant recent changes in the CalWORKs program. Specifically, it provides updates on many recent program changes, including the repeal of the Maximum Family Grant (MFG), the number of completed Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool (OCAT) interviews and the resulting recommendations for services, an increase in county participation in Expanded Subsidized Employment programs, and a 24-Month Time Clock caseload update, among others. CalWORKs underwent a number of modifications as a result of shifting state priorities and budget reductions during the Great Recession, an economic downturn that resulted in increased unemployment and a higher CalWORKs caseload. Between 2009 and 2012, California, like other states, made difficult choices in its TANF program to cope with economic realities, including reduced funding for supportive services and child care. Beginning in 2012, CalWORKs experienced the creation and implementation of new programs to assist counties with appraisal and assessment of recipient needs, additional services addressing family stabilization and homelessness, and expansion of subsidized employment opportunities. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 March 2019 California Families Working Together 76 Tables and Figures in This Chapter Table 6A. CalWORKs Family Stabilization Status Report: FY 2017-18 .................................79 Figure 6A. Subsidized Employment Caseload: 2014-2018 ...................................................81 Table 6B. WINS Households: July 2017- September 2018 (Includes Both CalFresh and California Food Assistance Program) ....................................................................................83 Table 6C. OCAT Appraisals by Month: FY 2017-18...............................................................84 Table 6D. OCAT Tool Design ...............................................................................................85 Table 6E. Cal-Learn Average Monthly Participation and Outcomes: FY 2014-15 through FY 2017-18 ...........................................................................................................................88 Table 6F. Welfare-To-Work Annual Earnings by County: One Year After Exit: SFY 2016-17 .................................................................................................................................89 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 March 2019 California Families Working Together 77 Welfare-to-Work 24-Month Time Clock and Post 24-Month Time Clock Overview SB 1041 (Chapter 47, Statutes of 2012) established the Welfare-to-Work 24-Month Time Clock (WTW 24MTC), and implementation occurred on January 1, 2013. The WTW 24-Month Time Clock is a prospective 24-month time limit for non-exempt able-bodied adults to receive a wide array of services and supports to enter and remain in the workforce. After the WTW 24MTC is used, clients are required to meet CalWORKs federal standards work participation requirements. Other key elements: More opportunities for education or barrier removal; Several conditions will stop the WTW 24MTC from progressing ( ticking ), for example, when a client has good cause for not participating; Recognizing that some adults will not find employment within 24 months, counties may provide 20 percent of the caseload with additional time to complete educational goals or find a job; Prior to the end of the 24 months, clients receive a series of notices and appointments to develop a new WTW plan designed to meet federal standards; and Clients who do not receive an extension or are unable to meet federal requirements face the possibility of losing the adult portion of the family's grant. Update WDTIP Data from the 12 months ending in July 2018 indicates that approximately 217,000 CalWORKs clients have an active 24MTC in an average month. Approximately 60 percent of current clients with a 24MTC have zero months ticked on their 24MTC. Fewer than 230 clients have been reported as having been Removed from Aid due to failure to meet program requirements after having used their WTW 24MTC. This is inferred to be the result of several conditions, including; o Current average Time on Aid for CalWORKs WTW participants is 24 months, and median Time on Aid is about 18 months. Therefore, many clients may leave aid prior to exhausting the WTW 24MTC. o The CalWORKs program provides several clock-stopping conditions utilized by clients, slowing the progression of their 24MTC, including, \u25aa Meeting the federal work participation standards; \u25aa Having a determination of good cause for more than 50 percent of a client's monthly participation requirement; and \u25aa Being sanctioned stops the 24MTC from ticking. WDTIP data indicate approximately 27,000 CalWORKs clients with time remaining on their 24MTC are currently sanctioned. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 March 2019 California Families Working Together 78 Maximum Family Grant (MFG) Repeal The Budget Act of 2016, (W&IC section 11450.04) effective January 1, 2017, repealed the Maximum Family Grant (MFG). The repeal of MFG ensures that cash grants are increased to include children who were not receiving cash assistance because they were born to families who received aid for the ten months prior to the child's birth. The MFG repeal ensures that no eligible child will be denied aid because he or she was born into a family during a period in which the family was receiving aid. The MFG repeal applies to children currently designated as MFG, as well as future children born to the AU. Repealing the MFG policy provided approximately $136 in monthly benefits to an estimated 130,000 children in 95,000 families across the State. The cost to fund the MFG repeal was approximately $220 million in FY 2017-18. Eligible families can remain on aid until the youngest MFG child reaches age 18. Therefore, the full impact of the policy change will not be realized until FY 2024-25. Family Stabilization (FS) Program Overview The FS program is designed to provide a basic level of stability for families in crisis including but not limited to: o Intensive case management; and o Barrier removal services. Recipients with a Stabilization Plan have no minimum hourly participation requirements, and up to six months of WTW 24MTC stopping is available (if good cause is determined). Budget Information $29.7 million allocated for FY 2014-15; $29.8 million allocated for FY 2015-16; $37.6 million allocated for FY 2016-17; $46.9 million allocated for FY 2017-18; and $46.9 million appropriated for FY 2018-19. Implementation Counties submitted FS plans to the CDSS outlining what their FS program will include. Counties were given flexibility to determine the services that are provided and individual program components in order to best meet the needs of each county and the recipients the county serves; and All county FS plans are posted on the CDSS website at: County Plans (http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs- Data-Tables\/FSP-14). http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/FSP-14 http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/FSP-14 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 March 2019 California Families Working Together 79 Program Data 3,491 FS cases were open in June 2018; 4,239 individuals received domestic abuse services, mental health services, substance abuse services, and\/or other services in June 2018; and 769 cases received homeless support\/services in June 2018. Outcomes Counties statewide report the FS program has been beneficial in assisting CalWORKs client families in crisis. Table 6A. CalWORKs Family Stabilization Status Report: FY 2017-18 July 2017 vs. June 2018 Comparison July 2017 June 2018 Participation 3,675 3,441 Open FS cases. 1,916 2,021 FS cases active in FS only. 274 354 FS cases that transitioned to a WTW plan. 1,485 1,066 FS cases that participated concurrently in WTW activities. 642 745 FS cases that received good cause. July 2017 June 2018 Services 3,630 3,347 Total adults who received services. 1,115 1,173 Total children who received services. 737 749 Domestic Abuse 1,855 1,742 Mental Health 378 372 Substance Abuse 2,444 2,232 Other (1) July 2017 June 2018 Housing Support\/Services 1,168 1,023 Total Homeless services provided per FS case. 6,582 6,118 Total FS services provided2 Data Source: FSP 14 Data Report Notes: Data retrieved from the FSP 14. Cases and individuals captured based on the monthly totals from July 2017 and June 2018. Service totals are not an unduplicated count. 1 Examples of additional types of Other FS services provided by individual counties. 2 Total services provided includes services provided to individuals and FS cases. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 March 2019 California Families Working Together 80 Examples of FS Services Anger Management; Collaboration with child welfare; Disability or skill assessments\/testing; Clothing allowances for children; Family crisis counseling; Financial planning; Financial training classes; Legal services; Life skills workshops; Literacy; Mentoring; Nutrition education; Next skills workshops Parenting classes Expanded supportive services Vocational assistance California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 March 2019 California Families Working Together 81 Expanded Subsidized Employment (ESE) Program Overview The ESE program fully or partially subsidizes the wages of CalWORKs recipients for six months to a year. While in an ESE placement the CalWORKs recipient obtains specific skills and experiences relevant for employment in a particular field, with the goal of obtaining permanent unsubsidized employment with the participating employer. County welfare departments (CWDs) partner with employers, nonprofits, and local public agencies to match recipients with jobs. The CWDs now operate subsidized employment programs through Single Allocation funds or ESE. Effective July 2016, CWDs report all subsidized employment data monthly. Figure 6A. Subsidized Employment Caseload: 2014-2018 Data Source: Participant data is based on monthly county transmissions. *AB 98 program was discontinued and participants were consolidated into ESE reporting effective July 2016. - 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 P a rt ic ip a n ts Statewide Subsidized Employment Monthly Participant Caseload Combined Total AB 98 Subsidized Employment Expanded Subsidized Employment (ESE) California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 March 2019 California Families Working Together 82 ESE Program Highlights As of December 2018, 52 counties are participating. All counties are eligible to receive funding to expand current or develop new subsidized employment programs. The yearly total of CalWORKs recipients that entered subsidized employment is represented by an unduplicated count in the month they were first reported in the ESE program. This number is higher than those in Figure 6B on the previous page since participants enter and exit the program at various times. Fiscal Year 2013-14 ..1,771 new participants Fiscal Year 2014-15 ..7,798 new participants Fiscal Year 2015-16 ..8,265 new participants Fiscal Year 2016-17 ...10,120 new participants Fiscal Year 2017-18 7,582 new participants There is an average total monthly participation count in the ESE Program of 4,267 participants. Participant numbers have dropped due to a strengthened economy (less demand for subsidized employment) and a WTW population with greater barriers to employment. The following are earnings of CalWORKs recipients before, during, and after the subsidy.1 This is based on a cohort of ESE participants who entered and exited the ESE Program in fiscal year 2017-18 and had employer reported income during this time: Before-ESE Median Quarterly Income ........$1,808 During ESE Median Quarterly Income . ............................. . . $3,189 Post-ESE Median Quarterly Income . .......$4,299 Data source: Employment Development Department Notes: 1 Final June 2018 participant data not available as of December 6, 2018: estimate for fiscal year 2017-18. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 March 2019 California Families Working Together 83 Work Incentive Nutritional Supplement (WINS) The WINS program provides a monthly ten dollars ($10) additional food supplement benefit for CalFresh households that are meeting TANF WPR requirements. WINS cases are receiving CalFresh but are not on CalWORKs; and This food benefit is considered a form of TANF assistance, which means these working CalFresh\/WINS cases are included in the state's TANF WPR calculation. However, TANF rules, such as time limits, do not apply to WINS cases. Table 6B. WINS Households: July 2017- September 2018 (Includes Both CalFresh and California Food Assistance Program) Month Total Jul-17 170,691 Aug-17 173,208 Sep-17 176,433 Oct-17 176,307 Nov-17 175,153 Dec-17 173,810 Jan-18 169,364 Feb-18 165,954 Mar-18 164,887 Apr-18 163,059 May-18 163,544 Jun-18 163,030 Jul-18 162,550 Aug-18 163,138 Sep-18 161,729 Data source: Work Incentive Nutritional Supplement Monthly Caseload report (WINS2 report) http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalFresh-Data-Tables\/WINS-2 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 March 2019 California Families Working Together 84 Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool (OCAT) OCAT Overview Standardized statewide welfare-to-work appraisal tool. OCAT is based on the publicly available Online Work Readiness Assessment (OWRA) Tool utilized by the federal Administration for Children and Families. Provides in-depth appraisal of recipient strengths and barriers to employment and self-sufficiency. Online CalWORKs OCAT appraisals are projected to take from forty-five minutes to an hour and a half. This timeframe depends on the number of barriers the recipient discloses during the interview. Use of OCAT identifies strengths and barriers immediately upon CalWORKs recipient entry into the welfare-to-work program. Implementation Between July 1, 2017 and June 30, 2018, 83,846 appraisals have been completed with recommendations for supportive services. Of that total, 62,761 clients appraised were not working at the time of appraisal, while 10,315 were enrolled in an education program. Most recommendations were for mental health services. Mental health service recommendations ...26,322 Substance abuse recommendations 4,751 Domestic abuse services recommendations 17,386 Source: OCAT program data as of December 2017 Table 6C. OCAT Appraisals by Month: FY 2017-18 Month Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun # of OCAT Appraisals 7,251 8,662 7,571 7,582 6,921 5,866 7,318 6,299 6,794 6,480 6,975 6,127 Data source: OCAT Helpdesk Technical Assistance Reports California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 March 2019 California Families Working Together 85 Table 6D. OCAT Tool Design Tool Structure and Recommendations OCAT begins with the recipient's demographic information and proceeds through a questionnaire that generates a set of recommendations based on the recipient's answers to questions (Table 6D). OCAT Section Information Collected & Recommendations Produced Demographics Collects basic information on the recipient. This section's recommendations include: \u27a2 Financial assistance\/education Employment Collects information on the recipient's job history, skills, and work readiness. This section's recommendations include: \u27a2 Assessment for education and\/or job search\/readiness activities depending on recipient's employment history or family stability \u27a2 Legal services for recipients who have legal barriers to employment Education Collects information on the recipient's schooling, and additional training he or she may have received. Also contains California's learning needs screening. This section's recommendations include: \u27a2 High school or General Education (GED) programs \u27a2 Evaluating for a Self-Initiated Program \u27a2 Learning disability evaluation and learning needs health-related concerns Housing Collects information on recipient's current housing situation and examines whether the recipient has housing difficulties. This section's recommendations include: \u27a2 Homelessness, housing stability, and Housing Support Program assistance if applicable to the county. Transportation Collects information about the recipient's current transportation methods, and whether they present a barrier to participation. This section's recommendations include: \u27a2 Providing transportation services General Health Examines whether a recipient has concerns about his or her own health or health of a family member that are a barrier to participation. This section's recommendations include: \u27a2 Evaluation for potential exemptions (disability, caring for an ill or incapacitated household member, etc.) California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 March 2019 California Families Working Together 86 Table 6D. OCAT Tool Design (Continued) OCAT Section Information Collected & Recommendations Produced Emotional and Mental Health Collects information about a recipient's emotional and mental wellbeing. This section's recommendations include: \u27a2 Evaluation for mental health services \u27a2 Related job readiness activities Substance Use Collects information about a recipient's substance use. This section's recommendations include: \u27a2 Evaluation for substance abuse services \u27a2 Related job readiness activities Domestic Abuse & Safety Collects information about whether a recipient is a past or present victim of domestic abuse, human trafficking, and other related safety concerns. This section's recommendations include: \u27a2 Evaluation for domestic abuse services and program waivers \u27a2 Referrals to family counseling, appropriate mental health services \u27a2 Evaluation for trafficking\/crime victims' assistance Pregnancy Collects information on whether the recipient or a household member is pregnant. This section's recommendations include: \u27a2 Evaluation for pregnancy related exemption Childcare and Parenting Collects information on whether additional child care support and\/or services are needed by the recipient in order to participate. This section's recommendations include: \u27a2 Child care supportive services \u27a2 Child support order modification services \u27a2 Evaluation for exemption based on providing care for an ill or incapacitated household member (child) Relationships Collects information on whether the recipient's current or past relationships may pose a barrier to participation. This section's recommendations include: \u27a2 Relationship counseling Data Source: ICF\/CDSS OCAT Tool design documentation California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 March 2019 California Families Working Together 87 The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) Background WIOA replaced the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 effective July 1, 2016; TANF programs are mandatory partners with America's Job Centers of California (AJCCs; (formerly One-Stops); Prioritizes service to populations with barriers to employment, including public assistance recipients; and Emphasizes career pathways with no sequence of services, primarily utilizing: o education, o credentials, o work-based training, o barrier removal, and o supportive services. WIOA State Plan Describes core WIOA programs and partnerships with CalWORKs and Community Colleges; and Discusses co-location of CalWORKs services in AJCCs. State plan updated June 2018. Approved Career Pathways Deemed to meet the hourly requirements for CalWORKs minimum WTW standards; and Approved by CWDs in partnership with local workforce development boards. https:\/\/cwdb.ca.gov\/plans_policies\/wioa_unified_strategic_workforce_development_plan\/ California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 March 2019 California Families Working Together 88 Cal-Learn Program Cal-Learn was established in 1993 as a mandatory statewide program for pregnant and parenting teens in families participating in CalWORKs. The Cal-Learn program provides the resources to help teens graduate from high school or its equivalent, become independent, and form healthy families. Cal-Learn uses a combination of intensive case management, financial incentives, and supportive services \u2014 including child care, transportation and ancillary expenses, such as books, school supplies \u2014 to address the unique educational, health and other social service needs of CalWORKs pregnant and parenting teens. Table 6F covers four years, from fiscal year (FY) 2014-15 to FY 2017-18, and displays a decline in the Cal-Learn caseload during that timeframe. This decline corresponds with the decline in both teen pregnancy and teen child-bearing. Table 6E. Cal-Learn Average Monthly Participation and Outcomes: FY 2014-15 through FY 2017-18 Participations 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 Total Monthly Participants 5,767 4,649 3,664 3,076 Satisfactory Progress Bonuses 329 243 180 164 Graduation Bonuses 88 78 61 49 Sanctions 190 172 145 143 Exemptions, Deferrals, and Good Cause 37 25 23 12 Subsequent Births 28 16 13 10 Data Source: Cal-Learn Program Teen Parent Monthly Status Report (STAT 45) monthly reports Key Cal-Learn Outcomes: The percentage of the Cal-Learn caseload awarded graduation bonuses has remained consistent over the four-year period; Sanctions have increased from FY 2014-15 (3.3 percent), to almost 5 percent in FY 2017-18; Subsequent Births have declined 64 percent from FY 2014-15 to FY 2017-18, and are at the lowest point in several years, both in absolute number and as a percent of the caseload. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/STAT45 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 March 2019 California Families Working Together 89 Post-Aid Earnings This table shows the adult median earnings by county one year after their exit from CalWORKs, including the total number of adults who exited the program in SFY 2016-17. Table 6F. Welfare-To-Work Annual Earnings by County: One Year After Exit: SFY 2016-17 County(1) Median Earnings Exits from WTW(2) Statewide $16,962 67,158 Alameda $20,339 1,801 Amador $18,799 49 Butte $14,480 535 Calaveras $14,884 99 Colusa $13,103 36 Contra Costa $18,456 1,221 Del Norte $18,794 105 El Dorado $14,318 218 Fresno $15,451 3,178 Glenn $13,743 64 Humboldt $14,071 226 Imperial $12,712 714 Inyo $14,419 16 Kern $13,909 2,701 Kings $15,718 456 Lake $15,382 205 Lassen $19,058 71 Los Angeles $18,059 17,843 Madera $14,607 384 Marin $23,455 106 Mariposa $18,203 37 Mendocino $13,824 226 Merced $15,170 995 Modoc $14,937 27 Monterey $17,746 588 Napa $18,827 121 Nevada $14,772 102 County(1) Median Earnings Exits from WTW(2) Orange $17,749 2,567 Placer $15,925 283 Plumas $12,223 27 Riverside $16,652 4,531 Sacramento $18,784 4,638 San Benito $19,098 87 San Bernardino $15,884 6,534 San Diego $17,258 3,989 San Francisco $20,934 605 San Joaquin $16,056 1,984 San Luis Obispo $15,335 278 San Mateo $19,906 195 Santa Barbara $16,973 531 Santa Clara $20,544 1,209 Santa Cruz $20,737 216 Shasta $14,085 469 Siskiyou $12,451 118 Solano $18,829 858 Sonoma $17,312 309 Stanislaus $15,163 1,596 Sutter $13,621 229 Tehama $16,555 226 Trinity $14,072 28 Tulare $15,814 1,923 Tuolumne $13,895 121 Ventura $17,004 863 Yolo $14,956 367 Yuba $14,367 240 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 March 2019 California Families Working Together 90 Includes All Exits With Earnings (67,158: 66% of All Exits Statewide). Data Sources: MEDS 2016-17, EDD Base Wage Database 2017-18, WDTIP 2016-17 Welfare-To-Work (WTW) Exit Population: Aided adults leaving CalWORKs during SFY 2016-17, having at least three months of prior WTW participation. Leavers exited for at least one year without returning to CalWORKs. Notes: \u00b9 Exits Counted: Adults with at least $50 in reported EDD earnings after exit. Adults missing EDD wages, Safety Net, and Sanctioned adults excluded. There were 34,849 adults missing EDD wages, and 16,969 Safety Net adults excluded from the WTW exit population. \u00b2 Counties with fewer than 10 exits during the SFY not shown (Alpine, Mono, and Sierra). California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 March 2019 California Families Working Together 91 Chapter 7 Supportive Services This chapter displays the spectrum of supportive services CalWORKs families receive in addition to their cash aid, including food benefits via the CalFresh program and Medi-Cal coverage, and how these benefits are altered as families' earnings increase. Additionally, this chapter presents information about the number and type of supportive services provided to participants in the welfare-to-work program. Key Terms in This Chapter Ancillary Expenses Participants may be eligible to receive ancillary expenses. This can include the cost of books, tools, clothing, fees, or other necessary costs specifically required for the job or training as assigned in the Welfare-to-Work plan. Behavioral Health Services Services provided to CalWORKs clients in need include treatment for mental health, substance abuse, and domestic violence. Child Care Access to quality child care is essential to the success of CalWORKs. Individuals enrolled in the Welfare-to-Work program are eligible to receive child care services. The CalWORKs Child Care Program is administered in three stages: Stage One is administered by the county welfare departments; Stages Two and Three are administered by Alternative Payment Program agencies under contract with the California Department of Education (CDE). Transportation Services Transportation services for Welfare-to-Work participants are often provided through payment by the county for public transportation or mileage reimbursement. Some counties provide alternative transportation services such as transportation vouchers, vehicle repair programs, commuter programs, and the purchase of motor vehicles or bicycles. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 March 2019 California Families Working Together 92 Tables and Figures in This Chapter Table 7A. Monthly Average Number of Individuals Receiving Supportive Services: FY 2017-18 ...........................................................................................................................93 Table 7B. Age, Provider Setting, and Time in Care for Stage One Children: FY 2017-18 ....96 Table 7C: CalWORKs Stage One Child Care: Monthly Average Trends and Participation from FY 2013-14 to FY 2017-18 ....................................................................................................97 Figure 7A. Children in CalWORKs Stages One, Two, and Three Child Care Programs: 2008-2018 .............................................................................................................................98 Table 7D. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation: FY 2017-18 All (Other) Families ............................................................................................................................... 100 Table 7E. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation: FY 2017-18 Two-Parent Families ............................................................................................................ 102 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 March 2019 California Families Working Together 93 Table 7A. Monthly Average Number of Individuals Receiving Supportive Services: FY 2017-18 The following table shows the monthly average number of individuals receiving CalWORKs supportive services in each county for FY 2017-18. The All Families columns do not include two-parent families. County Child Care All Families Child Care Two-Parent Families Transportation All Families Transportation Two-Parent Families Ancillary Services All Families Ancillary Services Two-Parent Families Statewide 20,310 1,748 39,965 13,396 9,950 3,595 Alameda 883 42 1,065 257 187 45 Alpine 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amador 17 1 13 3 4 1 Butte 134 17 87 29 29 15 Calaveras 15 2 39 13 6 5 Colusa 4 0 2 0 2 0 Contra Costa 357 0 508 112 152 32 Del Norte 31 7 7 7 10 10 El Dorado 38 3 40 11 17 4 Fresno 1,203 87 1,253 630 607 347 Glenn 10 1 7 3 8 5 Humboldt 67 6 125 46 55 26 Imperial 271 18 365 112 123 32 Inyo 7 2 3 2 2 1 Kern 691 33 861 263 490 183 Kings 147 18 260 104 96 38 Lake 22 3 13 4 29 14 Lassen 15 1 1 0 1 1 Los Angeles 5,142 327 15,992 3,588 2,675 692 Madera 70 6 62 16 49 19 Marin 60 2 86 9 19 4 Mariposa 8 0 16 9 3 2 Mendocino 40 7 35 10 56 24 Merced 169 23 245 79 73 22 Modoc 4 0 3 1 1 0 Mono 0 0 0 0 0 1 Monterey 198 12 379 81 116 34 Napa 17 0 26 1 9 1 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 March 2019 California Families Working Together 94 Table 7A. Monthly Average Number of Individuals Receiving Supportive Services: FY 2017-18 (continued) County Child Care All Families Child Care Two-Parent Families Transportation All Families Transportation Two-Parent Families Ancillary Services All Families Ancillary Services Two-Parent Families Nevada 32 4 49 10 28 6 Orange 806 51 799 231 346 93 Placer 111 5 106 26 40 12 Plumas 3 0 3 1 0 0 Riverside 1,633 89 2,962 1,033 854 262 Sacramento 448 134 2,113 1,744 200 211 San Benito 37 1 29 3 18 2 San Bernardino 2,234 115 5,512 1,926 1,187 458 San Diego 896 259 2,236 1,751 664 423 San Francisco 490 42 346 67 151 41 San Joaquin 353 19 365 107 177 47 San Luis Obispo 94 5 63 9 44 6 San Mateo 61 4 65 9 12 2 Santa Barbara 123 6 65 10 82 25 Santa Clara 370 22 984 157 137 23 Santa Cruz 209 18 274 61 117 30 Shasta 101 10 90 28 56 18 Sierra 2 1 2 2 0 1 Siskiyou 15 0 22 8 21 10 Solano 134 8 237 33 104 21 Sonoma 64 2 253 28 117 13 Stanislaus 126 10 399 202 177 79 Sutter 47 3 82 62 26 17 Tehama 27 3 34 17 28 21 Trinity 1 0 8 4 13 7 Tulare 1,705 259 795 247 330 137 Tuolumne 11 0 22 4 33 10 Ventura 386 32 193 28 69 13 Yolo 103 22 94 58 29 14 Yuba 71 5 272 139 71 42 Data sources: Welfare to Work Monthly Activity Report & Welfare-To-Work Monthly Activity Report- Two Parent Families (WTW 25 & WTW 25A) and Child Care Monthly Report (CW 115 and CW115A) http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25 http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25A http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/CW-115 http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/CW-115 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 March 2019 California Families Working Together 95 Child Care Resources for CalWORKs Participants The purpose of the CalWORKs child care program is to help a family transition smoothly from the immediate, short-term child care needed as a parent starts work or work activities, to the stable long-term child care necessary for the family to leave and remain off aid. The CalWORKs Child Care Program is administered in three stages. Stage One is administered by the California Department of Social Services through the county welfare departments (CWDs), and it provides child care subsidies until the CWD determines the family is stable. Stages Two and Three are administered by the California Department of Education (CDE) through contracts with Alternative Payment Program (APP) agencies. Stage One begins with a family's entry into the CalWORKs program. Clients leave Stage One after six months or when their situation is stable, and when there is a slot available in Stage Two or Three; Stage Two begins after six months or after a recipient's work or work activity has stabilized, or when the family is transitioning off of aid. Clients may continue to receive child care in Stage Two up to two years after they are no longer eligible for cash aid; and Stage Three begins when a funded space is available and when the client has used his or her Stage Two services after transitioning off of aid. (Stage Three is for former CalWORKs recipients.) If a recipient of CalWORKs cash aid is in one of the following situations, they could be eligible for child care benefits: They are working; They are attending a county welfare department-approved education or training program; They are teens participating in Cal-Learn; They choose to refuse a cash aid payment and accept diversion services; or They have transitioned off cash assistance but need child care to retain employment. Participants are required to verify employment, child care costs, and hours and dates of employment or educational\/training activities. Eligibility is provided for children from birth through age 12, children with exceptional needs, and severely disabled children up to age 21. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 March 2019 California Families Working Together 96 Characteristics of Stage One Child Care Cases The following table shows the ages of children, child care settings, and time spent in care (full or part time) for children in Stage One Child Care. Table 7B. Age, Provider Setting, and Time in Care for Stage One Children: FY 2017-18 Age of Child % of Children in Stage One 0-24 Months 18% 2-5 Years 49% 6 Years and Older 33% Child Care Setting % of Children in Stage One License-Exempt 45% Child Care Centers 24% Family Child Care Homes 31% Time in Care During Calendar 2016(1) % of Children in Stage One Full Time 54% Part Time 46% Data Source: Age of Child and Child Care Setting characteristics based on FY 2017-18 CW 115\/115A reports. Note: 1 Time in Care characteristics reflect the Calendar Year January 2016 through December 2016 Statewide Automated Welfare System (SAWS) Consortia data, as this is the most recent data available. Of the SAWS Consortia data, the CalWORKs Information Network (CalWIN) data includes only seven of its eighteen counties. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 March 2019 California Families Working Together 97 Table 7C: CalWORKs Stage One Child Care: Monthly Average Trends and Participation from FY 2013-14 to FY 2017-18 Fiscal Year Children in Licensed Care(1) Children in License- Exempt Care Children in Aided Families Children in Safety Net Families Children in No Longer Aided Families Total Children Total Families Stage One Budgeting Take-Up Rate(2) Stage One Participation Rate(3) Overall Child Care Participation Rate(3) 2013-14 17,760 18,505 30,882 229 4,715 35,826 21,726 16% 22% 45% 2014-15 19,213 18,627 31,958 245 5,240 37,442 22,242 15% 22% 46% 2015-16 24,365 20,172 37,870 396 6,284 44,550 26,079 20% 27% 52% 2016-17 22,420 18,112 33,649 620 6,704 40,973 23,733 21% 29% 57% 2017-18 20,537 17,040 31,354 736 6,235 38,324 22,045 22% 30% 59% Data Sources: CDSS CW 115 and CW 115A Monthly Reports, CDSS WTW 25 and WTW 25A Monthly Reports, and California Department of Education 801A Archived Data. Notes: 1 The sum of \"Children in Licensed Care\" and \"Children in Licensed-Exempt Care\" will not equal \"Total Children\" because children can be served by more than one provider. 2 The \"Budgeting Take-Up Rate\" compares the number of CalWORKs-aided families receiving Stage One or Stage Two subsidized care to the number of Unduplicated Adults on the WTW 25\/25A report to provide a rough estimate of how many WTW families are using Stage One or Stage Two care. For budgeting purposes, take-up rates are a representation of the CalWORKs caseload and do not represent the specific portion of the population with age-eligible children. 3 The \"Stage One Participation Rate\" compares the number of CalWORKs-aided families receiving Stage One care to the number of Unduplicated Adults on the WTW 25\/25A report with an age-eligible child (under 13 years of age). The \"Overall Child Care Participation Rate\" compares the number of CalWORKs-aided families receiving Stage One or CDE subsidized care to the number of Unduplicated Adults on the WTW 25\/25A report with an age-eligible child. CDE child care programs include CalWORKs Stage 2, CalWORKs Stage 3, Alternative Payment Program, General Child Care and Development, Family Child Care Home Education Networks, Severely Handicapped Program, Migrant Alternative Payment Program, Migrant Child Care and Development Program, and California State Preschool Program. These rates are not adjusted for cases who do not need care, for example, school-aged children who do not need care due to school schedule. These rates also do not include cases of two-parent families in which one parent is participating while the second parent is expected to provide care. This methodology does not account for families participating across multiple child care programs. For historical data back to FY 2008-09, please see the CalWORKs 2018 Annual Summary. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/CW-115A http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/CW-115A http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25a http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25A California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 March 2019 California Families Working Together 98 Figure 7A. Children in CalWORKs Stages One, Two, and Three Child Care Programs: 2008-2018 Data Sources: Stage 1 - CDSS CW 115\/115A Monthly Reports (actual data revised to produce missing variables). Stage 2 & 3 - California Department of Education Quarterly Reports, Department of Social Services Research and Data Reports. 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 160,000 180,000 200,000 JUL08 JUL09 JUL10 JUL11 JUL12 JUL13 JUL14 JUL15 JUL16 JUL17 Children in CalWORKs Stages 1, 2, and 3 Child Care Programs STAGE 1 STAGE 2 STAGE 3 TOTAL http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/ California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 March 2019 California Families Working Together 99 Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation: Behavioral Health Services - Address situations or conditions that impose barriers to an individual's ability to participate in WTW activities and ultimately obtain and retain employment. Barriers may include but are not limited to: conditions or situations which qualify an individual for a WTW exemption, mental health or substance abuse issues, or domestic abuse situations. Whether a barrier qualifies an individual for a WTW exemption or can be addressed through WTW activities or supportive services, is determined by the County Welfare Department. Mental Health Services If a concern arises, either during OCAT or at any other time, that an individual may be facing a mental health barrier that could impair the ability of the individual to participate in WTW activities and ultimately obtain and retain employment, the individual will be referred to the county mental health department for an evaluation. If the evaluation finds that the individual would benefit from receipt of mental health services, those services are made available. Each CWD develops individual welfare-to-work plans for individuals with mental or emotional disorders based on the evaluation conducted by the county mental health department. Substance Abuse Services - If there is a concern that a substance abuse problem exists that will impair the ability of an individual to participate in WTW or to obtain or retain employment, the individual will be referred to the county alcohol and drug program for an evaluation and determination of any treatment necessary for the participant's transition from welfare-to-work. If the CWD determines that the county alcohol and drug program is unable to provide the needed services, the county may contract directly with a nonprofit state-licensed narcotic treatment program, residential facility, or certified nonresidential substance abuse program to obtain substance abuse services for an individual. Domestic Abuse Services & Waivers - CalWORKs individuals unable to fulfill program requirements due to domestic abuse barriers may be eligible for a waiver from program requirements. If good cause is granted, both program and participation requirements may be waived. o Domestic Abuse services are available to past or present victims of domestic abuse. Services may be accessed through the CWD. o CWDs are required to inform CalWORKs individuals of domestic abuse services. This is required to be done verbally, in writing, and in the language understood by individuals. o Waivers are offered to assist individuals who are unable to fulfill program requirements due to domestic abuse. o Good cause must be granted in order for participation and program requirements to be waived. o Good cause must be reviewed every 90 days. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 March 2019 California Families Working Together 100 Table 7D. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation: FY 2017-18 All (Other) Families The following table shows the average number of individuals referred to and receiving CalWORKs services in each of the following categories(1). The All Families columns do not include two-parent families. WTW 25 Mental Health Treatment Annual Total of Referrals for MH Evaluation Mental Health Treatment Annual Total MH Services Provided Substance Abuse Treatment Annual Total of Referrals for SA Evaluation Substance Abuse Treatment Annual Total SA Services Provided Domestic Abuse Treatment Annual Total of Referrals for DA Evaluation Domestic Abuse Treatment Annual Total DA Services Provided Statewide 16,711 57,349 2,737 15,062 10,123 34,745 Alameda 187 1,049 3 718 347 1,108 Alpine 1 0 0 0 0 0 Amador 1 2 3 3 1 0 Butte 169 717 12 65 31 64 Calaveras 19 107 11 60 7 30 Colusa 5 10 8 14 2 7 Contra Costa 721 362 128 41 2,976 166 Del Norte 7 106 1 22 1 48 El Dorado 18 71 18 73 0 0 Fresno 193 1,275 89 622 105 579 Glenn 34 268 6 28 0 42 Humboldt 212 539 48 181 29 94 Imperial 210 852 27 298 22 183 Inyo 1 0 0 0 1 0 Kern 799 1,633 109 283 148 192 Kings 300 823 38 124 29 61 Lake 43 228 17 41 28 115 Lassen 1 0 0 0 0 0 Los Angeles 7,785 28,195 801 1,940 5,570 27,445 Madera 94 113 7 5 14 21 Marin 41 234 9 62 17 87 Mariposa 7 14 1 3 1 3 Mendocino 49 92 25 64 39 73 Merced 292 1,008 42 147 6 10 Modoc 1 2 4 6 0 0 Mono 0 0 0 0 0 0 Monterey 422 962 78 278 49 86 Napa 17 17 8 25 4 2 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 March 2019 California Families Working Together 101 Table 7D. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation: FY 2017-18 All (Other) Families (continued) WTW 25 Mental Health Treatment Annual Total of Referrals for MH Evaluation Mental Health Treatment Annual Total MH Services Provided Substance Abuse Treatment Annual Total of Referrals for SA Evaluation Substance Abuse Treatment Annual Total SA Services Provided Domestic Abuse Treatment Annual Total of Referrals for DA Evaluation Domestic Abuse Treatment Annual Total DA Services Provided Nevada 2 6 1 0 6 9 Orange 906 3,050 0 59 46 1,320 Placer 85 398 18 129 16 51 Plumas 13 5 3 0 0 0 Riverside 568 1,683 82 107 26 37 Sacramento 116 443 48 332 21 64 San Benito 15 35 0 0 0 0 San Bernardino 351 701 110 312 111 291 San Diego 355 895 285 675 13 38 San Francisco 41 233 0 0 55 704 San Joaquin 43 123 3 16 4 4 San Luis Obispo 36 86 17 91 20 34 San Mateo 12 39 3 12 0 1 Santa Barbara 25 77 3 6 1 4 Santa Clara 366 2,735 166 5,351 0 463 Santa Cruz 52 421 26 184 15 84 Shasta 135 466 44 143 5 9 Sierra 1 3 0 0 1 0 Siskiyou 23 71 7 17 1 3 Solano 8 72 0 10 11 110 Sonoma 101 432 41 267 6 30 Stanislaus 303 455 98 520 129 177 Sutter 44 319 30 189 2 22 Tehama 106 263 35 106 66 122 Trinity 24 56 7 19 11 31 Tulare 647 3,672 77 844 99 622 Tuolumne 6 22 6 45 10 10 Ventura 425 1,154 79 361 10 47 Yolo 73 313 15 84 1 5 Yuba 200 442 40 80 10 37 Data Source: Welfare-To-Work Monthly Activity Report All (Other) Families (WTW 25) Note: 1 An individual will only be reported once for an evaluation referral but can participate over several months. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 March 2019 California Families Working Together 102 Table 7E. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation: FY 2017-18 Two-Parent Families The following table shows the average number of individuals referred to and receiving CalWORKs services in each of the following categories(1). All other families do not include two parent families. WTW 25A Mental Health Treatment Annual Total of Referrals for MH Evaluation Mental Health Treatment Annual Total MH Services Provided Substance Abuse Treatment Annual Total of Referrals for SA Evaluation Substance Abuse Treatment Annual Total SA Services Provided Domestic Abuse Treatment Annual Total of Referrals for DA Evaluation Domestic Abuse Treatment Annual Total DA Services Provided Statewide 3,067 8,517 630 3,678 1,083 1,398 Alameda 26 142 0 99 47 152 Alpine 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amador 0 0 0 0 0 0 Butte 36 117 5 22 1 2 Calaveras 11 63 9 23 2 7 Colusa 2 0 0 0 0 0 Contra Costa 180 20 40 4 745 2 Del Norte 2 23 0 11 0 5 El Dorado 6 13 5 17 0 0 Fresno 32 236 25 185 6 38 Glenn 2 24 0 3 0 0 Humboldt 49 101 14 64 2 6 Imperial 79 228 13 127 6 58 Inyo 1 0 0 0 0 0 Kern 165 371 28 44 15 16 Kings 68 253 13 40 3 5 Lake 13 66 10 29 2 9 Lassen 1 0 0 0 0 0 Los Angeles 871 2,397 100 125 162 421 Madera 31 36 5 16 6 2 Marin 2 17 3 13 1 8 Mariposa 1 3 0 0 0 0 Mendocino 23 28 6 7 2 2 Merced 89 251 7 17 0 0 Modoc 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mono 0 0 0 0 0 0 Monterey 61 101 16 31 5 10 Napa 0 2 0 0 0 0 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 March 2019 California Families Working Together 103 Table 7F. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation: FY 2017-18 Two-Parent Families (continued) WTW 25A Mental Health Treatment Annual Total of Referrals for MH Evaluation Mental Health Treatment Annual Total MH Services Provided Substance Abuse Treatment Annual Total of Referrals for SA Evaluation Substance Abuse Treatment Annual Total SA Services Provided Domestic Abuse Treatment Annual Total of Referrals for DA Evaluation Domestic Abuse Treatment Annual Total DA Services Provided Nevada 0 0 2 4 0 0 Orange 274 927 0 17 0 399 Placer 16 40 1 7 0 0 Plumas 2 1 0 0 0 0 Riverside 100 276 18 24 4 9 Sacramento 52 127 21 154 20 47 San Benito 0 1 0 0 0 0 San Bernardino 126 215 31 83 16 16 San Diego 64 142 32 43 1 0 San Francisco 5 19 0 0 1 4 San Joaquin 13 31 1 1 0 0 San Luis Obispo 0 9 0 1 0 1 San Mateo 0 2 0 0 0 0 Santa Barbara 4 9 2 8 0 0 Santa Clara 121 913 52 1,787 0 12 Santa Cruz 10 60 10 44 1 1 Shasta 34 109 2 23 0 2 Sierra 0 0 5 4 0 0 Siskiyou 4 4 0 0 1 7 Solano 0 0 1 1 0 17 Sonoma 5 19 3 16 0 0 Stanislaus 90 103 54 254 13 29 Sutter 13 86 11 69 0 2 Tehama 47 84 7 25 10 16 Trinity 10 32 1 4 3 9 Tulare 154 427 28 98 5 75 Tuolumne 2 7 3 7 2 2 Ventura 67 159 29 88 1 7 Yolo 17 50 3 14 0 0 Yuba 86 173 14 25 0 0 Data source: Welfare-To-Work Monthly Activity Report Two-Parent Families (WTW 25A) Note: 1 An individual will only be reported once for an evaluation referral, but can participate over several months http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25A California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 March 2019 California Families Working Together 104 THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY BLANK California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 March 2019 California Families Working Together 105 Chapter 8 Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates One of the main goals of CalWORKs is to reduce child poverty. Knowing how poverty is defined and measured is essential to understanding the program's design and impact. This chapter surveys the context for the CalWORKs program from a poverty perspective, including the following topics: The level of poverty in California and the U.S.; How the official poverty measure (OPM) and supplemental poverty measure (SPM) are calculated; Why the SPM finds a higher poverty level in California than the OPM; A comparison of the share of poor children that is served by the TANF program in California and in the United States as a whole; and How the total value of benefits from safety net programs compares to the poverty level for CalWORKs families with different levels of earnings. Data about CalWORKs and poverty show that California provides assistance to many more of its poor children than does the nation as a whole: 55.8 percent, compared to just 20.8 percent for the entire nation in 2017.1 Key Terms in This Chapter Official Poverty Measure (OPM) The most commonly used poverty measure, the OPM, was developed by the Social Security Administration in the 1960s.2 A simple tool based on a family's food budget relative to income, the OPM helps policymakers and the public understand the economic status of various segments of the population and study changes in economic well-being over time. It is widely used as a benchmark to determine eligibility for various government welfare programs. If a family's total income falls below the relevant poverty threshold (which varies by family size and composition but not by geographic region), all family members are considered to be in poverty. The income in OPM includes cash income (before tax), and excludes noncash in-kind transfers such as food stamps and housing subsidies. 1 U.S. Census Bureau, Administration for Children and Families (ACF), and CalWORKs Cash Grant Caseload Movement Report (237 CW). 2 Gordon M. Fisher, The Development and History of the Poverty Thresholds (Social Security Administration, 1992). Retrieved from Social Security History Bulletin. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/CA-237-CW http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/CA-237-CW https:\/\/www.ssa.gov\/history\/fisheronpoverty.html California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 March 2019 California Families Working Together 106 Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) More recently, the SPM has been proposed as a better way to define who is poor. The SPM accounts for income from certain government benefits (such as food stamps), tax credits, and for necessary expenses such as taxes, medical out-of-pocket costs, child care, and shelter expenses that are not in the official poverty measure. The threshold is adjusted by family size, composition, geographic region, and housing status (whether a family is renting, owns with a mortgage, or owns without a mortgage). Tables and Figures in This Chapter Table 8A. Official Poverty Measure and California's Ranking: 2013-2017 .......................... 107 Table 8B. Comparison of the Official and Supplemental Poverty Measures ....................... 108 Table 8C. Comparison of the OPM and SPM in California and the U.S.: 2013-2015 to 2015-2017 ........................................................................................................................... 109 Figure 8A. Children in TANF as a Percentage of Children in Poverty: California and the U.S., 2004-2017 ........................................................................................................................... 110 Table 8D. Child Poverty Rates and Share of Poor Children in TANF: California and the U.S. 2004 2017 .......................................................................................................................... 111 Table 8E. Monthly Benefit Values for a CalWORKs Family of Three in Region One: One Aided Adult and Two Aided Children ................................................................................... 114 Figure 8B. Monthly Resources Available to a Family of Three (One Adult and Two Children) ............................................................................................................................................ 115 Figure 8C. CalWORKs Benefit and Resource Model 2017: Cases with No Earnings and with Median Earnings ................................................................................................................. 116 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 March 2019 California Families Working Together 107 California's Poverty Rate and National Ranking According to the Official Poverty Measure (OPM), 12.4 percent of all Californians and 17.3 percent of California's children lived in poverty in 2017 (Table 8A). The corresponding figures for the U.S. as a whole were 12.3 percent and 17.1 percent, respectively. California's poverty rates have dropped by more than two percentage points since 2013, partly as a result of an improving economy. The State ranks 22nd in the nation for overall poverty rate and 24th for child poverty. Table 8A. Official Poverty Measure and California's Ranking: 2013-2017 Year 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Overall Poverty Rate 14.9% (18th highest) 15.8% (17th highest) 13.9% (18th highest) 13.9% (14th highest) 12.4% (22nd highest) Child Poverty Rate 20.3% (18th highest) 22.9% (17th highest) 19.5% (20th highest) 18.6% (20th highest) 17.3% (24th highest) Data Source: Kayla R. Fontenot, Jessica L. Semega, and Melissa A. Kollar, Income and Poverty in the United States: 2017 (Report Number P60- 263 (U.S. Census Bureau, September 2018). Data are from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Detailed data can be retrieved from United States Census Bureau POV-46 Poverty Status by State Measuring Poverty with the OPM and SPM The OPM and SPM are fundamentally different ways of measuring poverty (Table 8B). The OPM assumes that food costs consume one-third of a family's budget and defines poverty levels in relation to food prices, adjusted annually for inflation. The SPM considers the cost of basic needs for families (food, clothing, shelter, and utilities) and uses the value between the bottom and middle thirds of all families as its threshold. Major Differences between the OPM and SPM Who is counted? The OPM defines a family as individuals related by birth, marriage, or adoption. In contrast, the broader definition of the SPM resource unit includes individuals related by birth, marriage or adoption, as well as cohabitating partners and foster children. As a result, the number of people whose poverty status is measured is larger for the SPM than for the OPM. What is income ? The OPM counts pre-tax cash income. The SPM considers post-tax cash income (including tax credits) plus any in-kind benefits such as nutritional assistance and then subtracts several categories of expenses from income. https:\/\/www.census.gov\/data\/tables\/time-series\/demo\/income-poverty\/cps-pov\/pov-46.html California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 March 2019 California Families Working Together 108 How are poverty thresholds adjusted over time and between groups? The OPM adjusts for inflation using the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for All Goods and calculates poverty thresholds by family size and age of family members. The SPM is revised to reflect varying standards of living (for example, for variation in family\/individual expenses\/costs, with adjustment for geographic differences in prices across the states\/geographic areas). Do housing costs matter? Housing costs are not considered in calculating the OPM but are in the SPM. In addition, several common household expense items, such as out-of-pocket medical costs, child care expenses, and work-related expenses (including transportation), are subtracted when calculating total family resources in the SPM. Table 8B. Comparison of the Official and Supplemental Poverty Measures Component OPM SPM Units of Analysis (1) Families and (2) unrelated individuals (1) Families\/cohabiting partners\/foster children and (2) unrelated individuals Income Pre-tax cash income and cash transfers (e.g., unemployment compensation, child support) After-tax cash income plus certain in-kind transfers, less certain expenses Expenses N\/A Subtracts medical, child care and work-related expenses (including transportation) from income Calculating the Poverty Line Three times the economy food plan of the 1960s, updated annually for inflation The mean of the 30th to 36th percentile of expenditures on food, clothing, shelter and utilities (FCSU) of consumer units with two children, multiplied by 1.2 to account for other \"key\" spending Adjustments for Family Size and Composition Family size, composition and age of household member Broader definition of family that includes unmarried partners, foster children, and unrelated children under 15; family size and composition Adjustments for Housing Costs N\/A Geographic adjustment for housing costs Updating Poverty Thresholds CPI Five-year moving average of expenditures for FCSU Data Source: Based on Liana Fox, The Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2017, Current Population Reports P60-265 (U.S. Census Bureau, September 2018). United States Census Bureau: The Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2017 https:\/\/www.census.gov\/library\/publications\/2018\/demo\/p60-265.html California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 March 2019 California Families Working Together 109 California Poverty Rates Based on the OPM and the SPM In September 2018, the U.S. Census Bureau released two sets of poverty data: rates using the OPM and rates using the SPM. Poverty in California was much higher as measured by the SPM than by the OPM: In 2015-17, for example, California's poverty rate was 19.0 percent according to the SPM and 13.4 percent using the OPM (Table 8C). For the U.S. as a whole, poverty rates were 1.2 percentage points higher using the SPM (OPM: 12.9%, SPM: 14.1%). Table 8C. Comparison of the OPM and SPM in California and the U.S.: 2013-2015 to 2015-2017 Location OPM 2013-2015 OPM 2014-2016 OPM 2015-2017 SPM 2013-2015 SPM 2014-2016 SPM 2015-2017 California 15.0% 14.5% 13.4% 20.6% 20.4% 19.0% United States 14.5% 13.7% 12.9% 15.1% 14.7% 14.1% Data Source: Based on Liana Fox, The Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2017, Current Population Reports P60-265 (U.S. Census Bureau, September 2018). United States Census Bureau: The Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2016 Why is the SPM Higher than the OPM in California? Local Housing Costs: Unlike the OPM, the SPM accounts for regional variation in the cost of living. For 2017, California was one of the ten states with the highest housing costs in the U.S. The SPM was higher than the OPM in nine out of those states (except for Washington).3 Given the relationship between housing costs and the SPM-OPM differential, it may not be surprising that the SPM is higher than the OPM in California. 3 District of Columbia, Hawaii, California, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Maryland, Connecticut, Washington, Colorado, and New York (U.S. Census Bureau, The Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2017; 2017 American Community Survey 1-year Estimates of Median Monthly Housing Costs, Table B25105). http:\/\/www.census.gov\/content\/census\/en\/library\/publications\/2017\/demo\/p60-261.html https:\/\/www.census.gov\/library\/publications\/2018\/demo\/p60-265.html California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 March 2019 California Families Working Together 110 Figure 8A. Children in TANF as a Percentage of Children in Poverty: California and the U.S., 2004-2017 The share of California's children in poverty who receive TANF benefits has historically been much higher than the share in other states and the nation. In 2017, while the national percent of poor children receiving TANF was only 20.8 percent, California served 55.8 percent of its poor children more than two and a half times the national share. CalWORKs policies that strengthen support for children include providing aid to age 18 and continuing to provide aid when a parent's portion of aid is ended. Data Sources: CalWORKs Cash Grant Caseload Movement Report (237 CW), U.S. Census Bureau and Administration for Children and Families (ACF) http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/CA-237-CW California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 March 2019 California Families Working Together 111 Table 8D. Child Poverty Rates and Share of Poor Children in TANF: California and the U.S. 2004 2017 Data Sources: CalWORKs Cash Grant Caseload Movement Report (237 CW), U.S. Census Bureau, and Administration for Children and Families. Years CA Children on CalWORKs CA Children in Poverty CA Percent Children in Poverty CA Percent Poor Children in CalWORKs U.S. Children in TANF and SSP MOE U.S. Children in Poverty (1,000s) U.S. Percent Children in Poverty U.S. Percent Poor Children in TANF 2004 414,833 1,804,000 19.0% 54.6% 3,969,376 13,041 17.8% 30.4% 2005 410,596 1,781,000 18.6% 54.2% 3,758,077 12,896 17.6% 29.1% 2006 392,154 1,724,000 18.1% 53.7% 3,455,961 12,827 17.4% 26.9% 2007 384,414 1,677,000 17.9% 54.0% 3,119,519 13,324 18.0% 23.4% 2008 405,105 1,898,000 20.2% 49.6% 3,056,690 14,068 19.0% 21.7% 2009 454,736 1,981,000 21.0% 52.0% 3,294,392 15,451 20.7% 21.3% 2010 570,414 2,225,000 23.4% 49.1% 3,432,780 16,401 22.0% 20.9% 2011 588,010 2,260,000 24.3% 49.4% 3,409,383 16,134 21.9% 21.1% 2012 566,277 2,065,000 22.5% 52.1% 3,298,369 16,073 21.8% 20.5% 2013 552,829 1,843,000 20.3% 57.1% 3,049,590 14,659 21.8% 20.8% 2014 550,229 2,093,000 22.9% 50.1% 2,949,590 15,540 21.1% 19.0% 2015 515,449 1,780,000 19.5% 55.5% 2,971,226 14,509 19.7% 20.5% 2016 471,666 1,685,000 18.6% 53.7% 2,741,109 13,253 18.0% 20.7% 2017 439,932 1,544,000 17.3% 55.8% 2,590,016 12,439 17.1% 20.8% http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/CA-237-CW California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 March 2019 California Families Working Together 112 CalWORKs Benefit and Resource Model 2017 Background CalWORKs cash assistance is one of many program benefits that provide comprehensive support to families in need. When looking at the resources available to cash assistance families, it is important to recognize that many CalWORKs families also receive benefits from the following programs: CalFresh; Medi-Cal; CalWORKs Child Care; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); and Child Tax Credit. The CalWORKs Benefit and Resource Model provides a snapshot of several of these benefits as a family's earnings gradually increase. CalWORKs grants vary by household size. The benefit model displays the interaction between monthly benefits and resources available to CalWORKs families with their earning levels for a family of three with one aided adult and two aided children.4 Earned income changes the benefit amounts of these programs and the total resources available for the family. The updated 2017 model has no change on program components compared to last year's version. The model displays the poverty threshold under both the OPM and the SPM. Medi-Cal benefits and child care are not included as resources, as those two components are reflected as expenses instead of income in the SPM framework.5 The Figure 8C displays information regarding the share of CalWORKs recipients who have no earnings and the share with earnings for at least one month in 2017, along with total monthly resources for those groups (using the median monthly earnings to represent the group with any earnings in 2017). The Women, Infants and Children (WIC) health and nutrition program subsidy is not included because only approximately one-third of CalWORKs recipients receive this benefit.6 Housing subsidies are excluded because few CalWORKs families receive them (approximately 5.3 percent for FFY 2017 based on RADEP). As noted above, the model reflects benefits and resources available to aided adults and children. Cases that include ineligible adults or children receive less. 4 In September 2017, there were a total of 155,037 CalWORKs cases with one aided adult; 39,475, or 25.5 percent, had one aided adult and two aided children. (Data source: MEDS 2018 July.) 5 Based on the latest report by California Department of Health Care Services (May 2018), the average monthly cost of Medi-Cal for CalWORKs recipients is $239\/person for FY 2017-18. The average Stage One child care cost is $750.30\/month per child for FY 2017 -18, based on CDSS May Revision of the 2017-18 Governor's Budget. 6 California Department of Public Health; Women, Infants & Children Program; Data Analysis, Research & Evaluation Section; accessed September 10, 2015. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 March 2019 California Families Working Together 113 Data Sources This model was developed using the following data: The CalWORKs grant is based on the non-exempt maximum aid payment for a family of three in high-cost counties (Region 1) as of October 1, 2017. The CalWORKs Earned Income Disregard (EID) policy allows families to exclude the first $225 of their income from the cash grant calculation, as well as 50 percent of all income above $225. The CalFresh benefit is based on the maximum monthly allotments for Federal Fiscal Year 2018 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service. The EITC and Child Tax Credits are displayed as monthly amounts, based on 2017 tax year information. However, most families that are eligible for the EITC and Child Tax Credits receive them as a lump-sum tax refund. For a family with two children, the state EITC is 85 percent of the federal EITC up to earnings of $7,256 per year (approximately $605 per month). The state EITC begins to phase out at that point, while the federal EITC continues to phase in to earnings of $14,040 per year (approximately $1,170 per month). Starting in 2017, the state EITC will have a much longer phase out period when the state EITC benefit drop below $250 (for a family with two children), and the maximum annual income that will receive the state EITC is $22,309. The monthly National School Lunch Program benefit for one child is derived by dividing total price paid for the 2015-16 school-year by 12, based on data from the California Department of Education and the Public Policy Institute of California.7 That number is multiplied by two (the number of children in the model's family type) and then by 71 percent, the estimated share of children in CalWORKs families who are school-age (MEDS July 2017). The utility subsidy includes three programs: LIHEAP, CARE, and LifeLine. LIHEAP subsidy is calculated based on Program Year 2014 fact sheet; CARE subsidy is calculated by applying discount rates to median electricity and gas expense, based on the American Community Survey 2017 1-year estimate; LifeLine subsidy is based on the sum of state discount and federal discount. Net earnings are after deductions for Social Security, Medicare and federal and state income tax. The OPM threshold is from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines for 2017. The SPM threshold is CDSS' calculation of the average threshold for California families of three with two children, using 2017 SPM research files from the U.S. Census Bureau. 7 Sarah Bohn, et al., The California Poverty Measure: A New Look at the Social Safety Net (Public Policy Institute of California, October 2013); Public Policy Institute of California: The California Poverty Measure: A New Look at the Social Safety Net. http:\/\/www.ppic.org\/content\/pubs\/other\/1013SBR_appendix.pdf California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 March 2019 California Families Working Together 114 Table 8E. Monthly Benefit Values for a CalWORKs Family of Three in Region One: One Aided Adult and Two Aided Children Earned Income: $0 $200 $400 $600 $800 $1,000 $1,200 $1,400 $1,600 $1,800 Net Earnings After Taxes $0 $185 $369 $554 $739 $924 $1,108 $1,293 $1,478 $1,662 CalWORKs Grant $714 $714 $627 $527 $427 $327 $227 $127 $27 $0 CalFresh Benefit $503 $443 $410 $383 $356 $329 $302 $275 $248 $188 School Lunch $39 $39 $39 $39 $39 $39 $39 $39 $39 $39 Utility Subsidy $79 $79 $79 $79 $79 $79 $79 $79 $79 $79 Child Tax Credit $0 $0 $23 $53 $83 $113 $143 $167 $167 $166 Federal Earned Income Tax Credit $0 $81 $161 $241 $321 $401 $468 $468 $453 $411 State Earned Income Tax Credit $0 $69 $137 $205 $139 $71 $20 $18 $16 $14 Total Resources to the Family (8) $1,335 $1,609 $1,844 $2,080 $2,182 $2,282 $2,386 $2,466 $2,506 $2,559 Official poverty measure (OPM) $1,702 $1,702 $1,702 $1,702 $1,702 $1,702 $1,702 $1,702 $1,702 $1,702 % OPM Threshold 78% 95% 108% 122% 128% 134% 140% 145% 147% 150% Supplemental poverty measure (SPM) $2,194 $2,194 $2,194 $2,194 $2,194 $2,194 $2,194 $2,194 $2,194 $2,194 % SPM Threshold 61% 73% 84% 95% 99% 104% 109% 112% 114% 117% Data Source: CDSS Research Services Branch Note: 8Due to rounding, the Total Resources to Family are slightly off from the sum of all components in some instances. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 March 2019 California Families Working Together 115 Figure 8B. Monthly Resources Available to a Family of Three (One Adult and Two Children) Data Source: CDSS Research Services Branch Supplemental poverty measure (SPM), $2,194 Official poverty measure (OPM), $1,702 $1,335 $1,609 $1,844 $2,080 $2,182 $2,282 $2,386 $2,466 $2,506 $2,559 $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 $3,000 $0 $200 $400 $600 $800 $1,000 $1,200 $1,400 $1,600 $1,800 Earnings Before Tax Monthly Resources Available to a Family of Three (One Adult and Two Children) State Earned Income Tax Credit Federal Earned Income Tax Credit Child Tax Credit Utility Subsidy School Lunch CalFresh Benefit CalWORKs Grant Net Earings After Taxes California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 March 2019 California Families Working Together 116 Figure 8C. CalWORKs Benefit and Resource Model 2017: Cases with No Earnings and with Median Earnings Data Source: CDSS Research Services Branch $714 $503 $79 $1,335 OPM, $1,702 SPM, $2,194 $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 $0 Monthly Resources Available to Families with No Earnings No Earnings 40.2% With Earnings (Med. monthly earnings $774) 59.8% Share of Cases with and with No Earnings in 2017 - One Adult and Two Children Source: MEDS and EDD base wage data of the second quarter of 2018. Of cases with one aided adult, 25.5% have two children as of Sept. 2017. $715 $440 $359 $79 $79 $309 $148 OPM, $1,702 SPM, $2,194 $2,168 0 0.5 1 $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 $774 Monthly Resources Available to Families with Median Earnings $148$309$79$39$359$440$715 State Earned Income Tax Credit Federal Earned Income Tax Credit Child Tax Credit Utility Subsidy School Lunch CalFresh Benefit CalWORKs Grant Net Earnings After Taxes California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9 March 2019 California Families Working Together 117 Chapter 9 Research Funds and Program Oversight The general purpose of CalWORKs program oversight is to review, monitor, and supervise the implementation of public policy. The CDSS prioritizes efficient and effective program oversight to strengthen the CalWORKs program through better county operations and service delivery, with the ultimate goal of increasing successful outcomes for CalWORKs families. The most significant new effort to achieve program oversight and engender collaborative continuous quality improvement in the CalWORKs program is the CalWORKs Outcomes and Accountability Review (Cal-OAR), described in detail in this chapter. Chapter Nine also explains how the CDSS uses Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) funds to assess the effectiveness of the CalWORKs program. Also described in this chapter are steps taken by CDSS to oversee and supervise counties in their implementation of recent changes to the CalWORKs program. Tables and Figures in This Chapter Table 9A. Allocation of TANF Research Funds Research Project Names and Budgets by Year, FY 2015-16 through FY 2019-20 ................................................................................ 118 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9 March 2019 California Families Working Together 118 TANF Research Funds This section provides information about the use of federal TANF research funds. Table 9A displays ten years of actual and estimated expenditures by project. Projects are described in more detail on the following pages. Table 9A. Allocation of TANF Research Funds Research Project Names and Budgets by Year, FY 2015-16 through FY 2019-20 Research Project FY 2015-16 FY 2016-17 FY 2017-18 FY 2018-19 FY 2019-2020 Total UCB Performance Indicators $48,314 $48,314 $48,314 $48,314 $48,314 $241, 570 EDD Data Contract $29,539 $29, 539 $39,837 $39,837 $39,837 $149,050 SB 1041 Statewide Evaluation $2,496,416 $2,087,835 $1,554,543 $514,647 $135,353 $6,788,794 DHCS Data Contract $5,160 $5,160 $5,160 $5,160 $5,160 $25,800 Child Care Characteristics (2) $0 $352,338 $1,314,328 $333,334 $2,000,000 CalOAR Project (1) $67,739 $1,150,000 $1,217,739 Home Visiting Project (1) $100,000 $1,000,000 $1,100,000 Total $2,579,429 $2,493,647 $2,962,182 $1,109,031 $2,378,664 $11,522,953 Data Source: CDSS TANF Research Budget Notes: 1 Estimated budgets are subject to change. 2 The Child Care Characteristics annual budget figures are those of the original contract executed on November 1, 2016 and do not reflect reallocation of funding among years or project expansions that may occur. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9 March 2019 California Families Working Together 119 UC Berkeley: California Child Welfare Indicators Project (CCWIP) Time Period: FY 2009-10 through FY 2017-18 Total Allocation: $429,863 The Center for Social Services Research (CSSR) at UC Berkeley receives and processes quarterly Child Welfare Services\/Case Management System data on California youth in foster care and produces statewide and county-specific tables and reports regarding maltreatment allegations, caseload, and performance outcomes. These reports are used by CalWORKs staff to formulate future welfare caseload projections. The project is housed in the School of Social Welfare and provides policymakers, child welfare workers, researchers, and the public with direct access to customizable information on California's entire child welfare system. Additional funding for this project is provided by the Stuart Foundation. CCWIP website: UC Berkeley California Child Welfare Indicators Project. Current Status: The CDSS will continue to provide data to CSSR for the foreseeable future. Employment Development Department (EDD) Time Period: FY 2009-10 through FY 2019-20 Total Allocation: $269,612 The EDD provides base wage employment data to CDSS under this contract and data for reports and analysis of the effect of programs and pilots. Current Status: The EDD will continue to provide data to CDSS for the foreseeable future. http:\/\/cssr.berkeley.edu\/ucb_childwelfare\/ California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9 March 2019 California Families Working Together 120 SB 1041 Statewide Evaluation Time Period: FY 2014-15 through FY 2019-20 Total Original Allocation: $8,988,368 SB 1041 requires CDSS to contract with an independent, research-based institution for an evaluation of changes to the Welfare-to-Work requirements and produce a written report to be provided to the Legislature. The Research and Development (RAND) Corporation was selected through a competitive bidding process to conduct the evaluation. Six counties are participating as focal counties : Sacramento, Fresno, Riverside, Los Angeles, Alameda, and Stanislaus. Study Design and Progress The evaluation attempts to isolate the effects of SB 1041 on county welfare staff, operations, and CalWORKs recipients by collecting and examining data on five important components. Due to the complexity for surveying each California county, some portions of the study will concentrate on the six focal counties that are representative of the state as a whole in terms of demographic and socio-graphic makeup, CalWORKs caseload, urban\/rural mix, and other important factors. A Process Study \/ County Welfare Operations Impact Study: how the SB 1041 changes were implemented; county staff levels and distribution, resources, supportive services payments, and provision and timing of WTW activities to clients. o State-Level Interviews Second round completed o All-County Welfare Directors Survey completed o Focal County Key Staff Interviews Second wave complete o Focal County CalWORKs recipient focus groups Second wave completed Recipient Status Study \/Recipient Tracking Study: a point-in-time snapshot of the activities and services clients receive and an analysis of clients over time, while on and after leaving aid. o Underway Data collection and analysis from the CDSS, Employment Development Department and other internal administrative sources is ongoing. Recipient Impact Study: the number of families participating, completion of WTW activities, treatment of barriers, employment status and earnings, and child well-being. o Underway The California Socioeconomic Survey, a three-year longitudinal survey of a multi-cohort sample of CalWORKs recipients (N=1,500) with an embedded in-home child supplement sample of 1,000 of the sample families. o Underway Longitudinal analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) data will be incorporated to make comparisons between CalWORKs families and similar families in the rest of the country. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9 March 2019 California Families Working Together 121 Current Report Status: Three reports detailing the SB 1041 Program Evaluation have been authored by the RAND Corporation thus far. The Year One report, describes the study design and methodology, the Year Two report, providing initial findings from the All-County Survey, and a baseline for other study components, and the Wave 1 Descriptive Profile of the California Socio-Economic Survey are available at the RAND Corporation website at: Rand Corporation Evaluation of the SB 1041 Reforms to California's CalWORKs Welfare-to- Work Program. A pre-publication version of the Year Three report, which provides study component updates, can be found on the CDSS website at: http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/CalWORKs\/Reports Department of Health Care Services (DHCS) Time Period: FY 2014-15 through FY 2019-20 Total Allocation: $32,400 The DHCS provides CDSS with monthly Medi-Cal Eligibility Data System (MEDS) extract files. These files are used by CDSS to generate federal reports, analyze program issues, and track participation by recipients in the CalWORKs and CalFresh programs. Current Status: The DHCS will continue to provide data to CDSS for the foreseeable future. Child Care Characteristics Survey Research Project Time Period: FYs 2016-17 through 2018-19 Total Allocation: $2,000,000 The CDSS awarded to Child Trends, Inc. a contract on a competitive basis to study the characteristics of families, children, and providers of subsidized child care in California. The study is a fact-finding data collection effort. The data will inform decision makers on child care and development programs to identify service gaps for program development, make strategic funding decisions, and improve program effectiveness for needy families. Current status: A contract with CDSS and Child Trends was executed on November 1, 2016. Fieldwork is ongoing to collect data. http:\/\/www.rand.org\/pubs\/research_reports\/RR1348.html http:\/\/www.rand.org\/pubs\/research_reports\/RR1348.html http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/CalWORKs\/Reports California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9 March 2019 California Families Working Together 122 Home Visiting Initiative Program Evaluation Time Period: FYs 2018-19 through 2021-22 Total Allocation: $2,750,000 AB 1811 requires CDSS to work with at least one independent, research-based institution to identify existing, and establish additional, outcome measurements for the CalWORKs home visiting program. These measurements shall inform an evaluation report that shall be provided to the Legislature no later than January 10, 2022. The evaluation shall include program outcomes for the parents and children served in the program, models utilized, and measures specific to CalWORKs objectives CalWORKs Outcomes and Accountability Review (Cal-OAR) Time Period: Begins July 2019, continuing indefinitely on a three-year cycle Total Allocation: $1,400,000 (initial allocation) SB 89 (Chapter 24, Statutes of 2017) established the CalWORKs Outcomes and Accountability Review to facilitate local accountability and continuous improvement in the CalWORKs program. CalOAR contract provides funding for the initial stages of CalOAR, including client stakeholder participant reimbursement, travel for multiple stakeholder meetings, assistance from independent research organizations and advocate groups in developing performance measures, training, and facilitation of CalOAR stakeholder meetings, and automation changes required to implement the first stage of CalOAR measure performance calculation. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 10 March 2019 California Families Working Together 123 Chapter 10 Homeless Assistance and Housing Support Homelessness is a pervasive, multifaceted problem that can be a barrier to self-sufficiency. It affects the health and economic opportunities of families throughout the nation. Research shows housing instability and homelessness contribute to children experiencing higher rates of mental, emotional and behavioral impairments and interferes with learning and the ability to develop social relationships. Recognizing that housing is a critical component of self-sufficiency, in 2014 the California Legislature created a new rapid rehousing program, the CalWORKs Housing Support Program (HSP), to address homelessness and housing instability for CalWORKs recipients. HSP is designed to assist and stabilize families as they move into permanent housing and work toward self-sufficiency while also improving overall child well-being. CalWORKs also offers the Homeless Assistance (HA) Program, which provides limited temporary and permanent housing assistance to CalWORKs families. Chapter Ten describes these programs in brief. Note: The CDSS also operates several other programs related to homeless assistance and housing that are outside of the CalWORKs program, and thus not included in this report. Those additional programs are the Housing and Disability Advocacy Program (HDAP), Home Safe, and Bringing Families Home (BFH). Key Terms in This Chapter Permanent Homeless Assistance This provides payments to secure or maintain housing, including a security deposit and last month's rent, or up to two months of rent arrearages. Temporary Homeless Assistance This provides payments for temporary shelter for up to 16 consecutive calendar days. Tables and Figures in This Chapter Table 10A. Application Approvals and Shelter Expenditures: FY 2017-18 .......................... 124 Table 10B. Application Approvals and Families Housed ..................................................... 126 Table 10C. HSP Allocation and Caseload FY 2017-18 ....................................................... 126 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 10 March 2019 California Families Working Together 124 CalWORKs Homeless Assistance Program The CalWORKs Homeless Assistance (HA) Program was established to help CalWORKs families meet the reasonable costs of securing housing. HA includes temporary HA, which helps families pay the costs of temporary shelter, and permanent HA, which helps families secure housing or prevent eviction. Homeless CalWORKs families may receive either temporary or permanent HA, or both. As of January 1, 2017, HA is available once every 12 months, with exceptions; previously, HA was a once-in-a-lifetime benefit. Temporary Homeless Assistance As of January 1, 2019, Temporary HA provides a payment of $85 per day for a family of four or fewer, and an additional $15 for each additional family member, not to exceed $145 per day. Temporary HA is provided for up to 16 consecutive calendar days. While receiving temporary HA, the family must provide proof that they are actively searching for permanent housing. Following the 16-day period, even if the AU did not receive all 16 days, the temporary shelter benefit is considered exhausted. Permanent Homeless Assistance Permanent HA helps families secure housing by providing security deposit costs, including last month's rent, or helps families maintain housing by providing up to two months of rent arrearages. A permanent HA payment may not exceed two times the total rent amount and the monthly rent cannot exceed 80 percent of the total monthly household income. Exceptions If the family meets the criteria for an exception, a family may receive a second HA payment within a 12-month period. Exceptions to HA include cases of domestic violence, medically verified physical or mental illness (excluding substance abuse), or a fire or other natural catastrophe beyond the family's control making the former residence uninhabitable. Cases based on an exception are limited to one payment of temporary, permanent, or both in a 12-month period. Table 10A. Application Approvals and Shelter Expenditures: FY 2017-18 Type of Homeless Assistance Requests Received Number of Families Approved FY 16-17 Net Expenditures Temporary 61,187 57,614 $45,047,537 Permanent 7,987 6,276 $9,049,130 TOTAL 69,174 63,890 $54,096,667 Data Source: Department of Social Services CA 237 HA - CalWORKs Homeless Assistance Program Monthly Statistical Report Note: Net shelter expenditures reflect direct financial assistance and do not include case management or administrative costs. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/CA-237-HA California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 10 March 2019 California Families Working Together 125 CalWORKs Housing Support Program (HSP) Program Overview In 2014, SB 855 created the CalWORKs HSP to assist homeless CalWORKs recipients secure permanent housing and reach self-sufficiency. In FY 2014-15, $20 million was allocated for the program; funding has gradually increased since program inception and in FY 18-19 was $70.8 million. HSP assists homeless CalWORKs families in quickly obtaining permanent housing and provides wrap-around supports to families to foster housing retention. Implementation In FY 14-15, twenty counties participated in HSP. The number of participating counties has gradually increased since program inception, with 49 counties participating in FY 17-18. Counties are required to use evidence-based models, such as rapid rehousing, to assist families in quickly obtaining permanent housing by offering financial assistance and wrap-around services to foster housing retention. The CDSS requires programs to collaborate with local homelessness Continuums of Care to meet the needs of the local community. As of July 2019, counties will be required to follow a Housing First model, in which people experiencing homelessness are connected to permanent housing swiftly and with few to no preconditions, behavioral contingencies, or other barriers. Assistance and Services Provided to Clients Counties were given the flexibility to design their own program, based on the needs of the community. County HSP plans differ in eligibility requirements, services offered, and the duration of a family's eligibility. Housing subsidies may range from a month to several months, depending on the individual needs of the family. In following core components of a Rapid Re-Housing program, HSP offers financial assistance and several wrap-around supportive services, including: Financial Assistance Rental assistance Security deposits Utility Payments Moving Costs Motel and hotel vouchers Housing Stabilization & Relocation Landlord recruitment Case management Housing outreach and placement Legal services Credit Repair California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 10 March 2019 California Families Working Together 126 Table 10B shows the numbers of requests\/referrals received, families approved for HSP, and the number of families that obtained permanent housing for fiscal years 2014-15, 2015-16, 2016-17, and 2017-18. In total, over 47,000 families have requested HSP; however, not all requests are eligible for HSP. Some of these families self-resolve, find assistance via other programs, do not meet prioritization criteria, or the county lacks capacity to approve all the referrals they receive. Additionally, there are several reasons why more families are approved than housed in any given year, including insufficient housing stock, the family finds housing through another program, or the family cannot be located. Table 10B. Application Approvals and Families Housed FY 2014-15 through FY 2017-18 Year Requests\/Referrals Received Families Approved Families Housed FY 2014-15 9,386 5,545 2,031 FY 2015-16 10,490 6,543 2,649 FY 2016-17 14,229 8,630 3,752 FY 2017-18 13,439 8,635 3,790 Total 47,544 29,353 12,222 Data Source: HSP 14 Table 10C shows the HSP allocation and number of families that obtained permanent housing in all HSP counties in fiscal year 2017-18. Colusa and Imperial were new to HSP in fiscal year 2017-18, and therefore started later than the other counties. It should be noted that Glenn and Trinity Counties have partnered together to provide HSP to their respective communities. Table 10C. HSP Allocation and Caseload FY 2017-18 County HSP Allocation Families Housed* Statewide $46,674,990 3,790 Alameda $1,706,429 45 Amador $143,642 10 Butte $1,328,000 191 Calaveras $143,642 21 Colusa $75,000 6 Contra Costa $1,380,411 163 Del Norte $158,015 32 El Dorado $602,499 43 Fresno $957,615 52 Glenn & Trinity $422,787 28 Humboldt $739,844 31 Imperial $500,000 31 Kern $606,144 152 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 10 March 2019 California Families Working Together 127 Table 10C. HSP Allocation and Caseload FY 2017-18 (Continued) County HSP Allocation Families Housed* Kings $551,281 127 Los Angeles $3,830,454 135 Marin $693,364 36 Mariposa $118,657 13 Mendocino $328,462 10 Merced $1,240,244 190 Monterey $850,362 65 Nevada $217,768 22 Nevada $258,518 20 Orange $612,000 49 Placer $367,000 36 Riverside $1,619,000 262 Sacramento $1,803,054 181 San Benito $159,065 8 San Bernardino $2,300,000 362 San Diego $2,500,000 319 San Francisco $3,910,984 55 San Luis Obispo $2,120,431 61 San Mateo $1,099,916 49 Santa Barbara $421,875 58 Santa Clara $2,145,000 107 Santa Cruz $1,128,852 38 Shasta $929,840 57 Siskiyou $172,739 11 Solano $1,403,887 64 Sonoma $969,471 40 Stanislaus $877,036 73 Sutter $500,000 89 Tehama $100,728 11 Tulare $382,088 50 Tuolumne $199,637 20 Ventura $1,080,000 73 Yolo $1,800,000 78 Yuba $806,230 92 Data Source: HSP 14 Note: *Does not include families that are continuing to receive housing supports from previous fiscal year California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 10 March 2019 California Families Working Together 128 . THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY BLANK California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A March 2019 California Families Working Together 129 Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and Acronyms 24MTC (24-Month Time Clock, CalWORKs): Adult CalWORKs participants are required to engage in welfare to work activities during their potentially maximum grant period of 48 months. During the first 24 months of aid receipt there are more activity options. These activities include work, education, training, and mental health, substance abuse, and\/or domestic abuse services. The WTW 24-Month Time Clock stops when a participant is in appraisal, job search, assessment, or development of a new WTW plan; is meeting the required number of participation hours in certain activities; is participating in Cal- Learn; is exempt; or is being sanctioned. 48MTC (48-Month Time Clock, CalWORKs): CalWORKs adults are eligible to receive cash aid for a lifetime maximum of 48 countable months. This 48-month time limit applies to aid received under CalWORKs and other state programs funded by the federal TANF Program since January 1, 1998. The time limit may be extended beyond 48 months if the adult fails to find employment or qualifies for a clock-stopping exemption while on aid. The 48-month time limit does not apply to children or non-minor dependents. 60MTC (60-Month Time Clock, TANF): Families with an adult who has received federally funded assistance for a total of 60 months are not eligible for additional cash assistance under the federal TANF program. However, a state can make an exception to the time limit for up to 20 percent of its caseload. States may also extend assistance beyond the 60-month time limit using other specified funds, such as state TANF MOE funds. ACF (the Administration for Children & Families): The ACF is the federal organization that oversees TANF programs. The ACF is a division of the Department of Health & Human Services. The ACF promotes the economic and social well-being of families, children, individuals and communities with partnerships, funding, guidance, training and technical assistance. AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children): Established by the Social Security Act of 1935 as a grant program to enable states to provide cash welfare payments for needy children who had been deprived of parental support or care because their father or mother was absent from the home, incapacitated, deceased, or unemployed. It was replaced by PRWORA in 1996. Ancillary Expenses: CalWORKs participants may be eligible to receive ancillary expenses, which can include the cost of books, tools, clothing, fees, or other necessary costs specifically required for the job or training as assigned in the welfare to work plan. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A March 2019 California Families Working Together 130 ARRA (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009): Part of the federal stimulus package in response to the Great Recession, ARRA was a supplemental appropriation for job preservation and creation, energy efficiency and science, assistance to the unemployed, and state and local fiscal stabilization. ARRA provided a work participation rate requirement, relief provisions, and funding for subsidized employment for state TANF programs. AU (Assistance Unit): An AU is a group of persons living in the same home who have been determined eligible for CalWORKs and for whom cash aid has been authorized. An AU is sometimes referred to as a CalWORKs case. An AU or case differs from a household in that a household includes all persons in the same dwelling regardless of their relationship to members of the AU, or their eligibility for CalWORKs aid. Behavioral Health Services: Services provided to CalWORKs clients in need that include treatment for mental health, substance abuse, and domestic violence. CalFresh: CalFresh is California's version of the federal Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP). The CalFresh program helps to improve the health and well-being of qualified California households and individuals by providing monthly electronic benefits (similar to a bank debit card) that can be used to buy most foods at markets and grocery stores to supplement their nutritional needs. Cal-Learn: Part of the CalWORKs program that requires CalWORKs custodial teen parents (up to the age of 19) to attend an educational program that will lead to a high school diploma or its equivalent. CalWORKs: California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids, the state welfare-to-work program that provides income support and access to health coverage on a temporary basis. CalWORKs was formerly Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). CCP (Corrective Compliance Plan): A CCP is one of the approaches provided to states to reduce or eliminate a federal fiscal penalty for WPR noncompliance. CDSS: California Department of Social Services, which is responsible for the CalWORKs program. Child Care: Access to quality child care is essential to the success of CalWORKs. Individuals enrolled in the welfare-to-work program are eligible to receive child care services. The CalWORKs Child Care Program is administered in three stages: Stage One is administered by the county welfare departments; Stages Two and Three are administered by Alternative Payment Program agencies under contract with the California Department of Education (CDE). Child-Only: Cases in which only the children in an AU are aided due to the exclusion or ineligibility for cash aid of the AU parent(s). Earnings: Earnings include wages, salary, commissions, and self-employment earnings. It is earned income whether the payment is cash, paycheck, personal check, or \"in-kind\" (such as housing that is included with employment). California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A March 2019 California Families Working Together 131 EITC (Earned Income Tax Credit): A tax break (in the form of a refund) for people who work full-time or part-time. The EITC refund is not counted as income when computing a person's or family's CalWORKs cash grant, CalFresh allocation, or Medi-Cal benefits. Enrollee: Enrollee refers to an individual who has, after becoming eligible for CalWORKs, received a notice that he or she is required to participate in welfare to work. ES (Employment Services): Assistance with obtaining employment. ESE (Expanded Subsidized Employment): A program that creates job opportunities for CalWORKs participants; provides connections to the labor force; builds and improves skills; and involves counties forming partnerships with private employers and non-profits\/public agencies and either partially or fully funding wages. (ESE plans are explained on the CDSS website at: Department of Social Services County Expanded Subsidized Employment Plans) Exemption: An exemption excuses a CalWORKs participant from welfare to work requirements. Many exemptions do not use up the 48-month allowable period on aid. A participant may be exempt because of a disability that will last 30 days or more and significantly impairs welfare to work performance; pregnancy; care of an infant or young child; lack of CalWORKs funds for support services needed to allow work participation; serving as a full-time Volunteer In Service To America (VISTA) volunteer; domestic violence; providing foster care; being under 16 or over 60 years old, or 18 or under and attending school; living on tribal land; and having poor access to services and training opportunities. Family Engagement and Empowerment Division (FEED): A July 2017 reorganization renamed the Welfare-to-Work Division to the Family Engagement and Empowerment Division. FS (Family Stabilization): The FS program provides intensive case management and services that may be in addition to those provided by the county's welfare to work program to clients who are experiencing an identified situation or crisis. The program assists clients transition to Welfare to Work 24 Month Time Clock activities that are best aligned with their continued success in the CalWORKs program, including education\/training, work study, subsidized employment, or less intensive barrier removal activities. FY (Fiscal Year): In California, July 1 through the following June 30. FFY (Federal Fiscal Year): The period, starting on October 1 of one year and ending on September 30 of the next year, on which the federal government bases fiscal and data reporting requirements. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, FFY 2013 begins on October 1, 2012, and ends on September 30, 2013. GF (General Fund): The GF is California's main governmental operating account. The GF revenues come primarily from the state income tax, but state sales and corporate taxes also contribute to the GF. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/CalWORKs\/County-Plans\/County-Expanded-Subsidized-Plans California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A March 2019 California Families Working Together 132 Good Cause: An individual in good cause status is excused from welfare to work participation when it has been determined that there is a condition or circumstance that temporarily prevents, or significantly impairs, the individual's ability to be regularly employed or to participate in Welfare to Work activities. Great Recession: Common name for the economic downturn beginning in 2007-08 and continuing into 2009-10; referred to by the International Monetary Fund as the worst recession since World War II. California's unemployment rate reached 12.4 percent in 2010 (22.1 percent counting people who were working part-time and wished to be more fully employed). Household: A household includes all persons in the same dwelling regardless of their relationship to members of the AU or their eligibility for CalWORKs aid. HSP (Housing Support Program): Assists homeless CalWORKs families or those threatened with eviction to obtain and retain housing. Kin-GAP (Kinship Guardianship Assistance Payment Program): Establishes financial assistance for relative caregivers of a child under age 19 who are granted legal guardianship by the dependency court, allowing termination of dependency court jurisdiction. MAP (Maximum Aid Payment): The MAP is the maximum grant level provided for CalWORKs families. MAP levels are established by the California State Legislature and are based on family size, the status of the family (exempt or non-exempt), and the geographical location of the family residence (Region 1 or Region 2). MCA (Maximum Cal-Fresh Allotment): The MCA is the maximum benefit level of food aid a family may receive from CalFresh. MCA varies according to family size and income. Maximum Earned Income Limit: If a family's earnings are above the Maximum Earned Income limit, the family will not receive any CalWORKs grant. The limit is based on Region (1 or 2) and AU size. Medi-Cal: A free or low-cost form of health coverage for children and adults with limited income and resources. (This is California's version of the federal Medicaid program.) MEDS (Medi-Cal Eligibility Data System): The MEDS is a statewide database containing client eligibility information for processing Medi-Cal, CalFresh, and CalWORKs administrative records. MBSAC (Minimum Basic Standards of Adequate Care): The MBSAC is the income threshold to determine applicant family's eligibility for CalWORKs. If a family's income falls below the MBSAC (after an initial $90 earned income disregard) for the region in which they reside, they may be eligible for CalWORKs assistance. MOE (Maintenance-of-Effort): The MOE is a requirement that states expend a specified minimum amount of matching funds on benefits for lower income families in order to participate in the federal TANF program. California allocates $2.9 billion annually in MOE. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A March 2019 California Families Working Together 133 Non-Compliant (Individuals): This refers to an individual who has been sent a notice of non-compliance with welfare to work participation requirements but has not yet returned to participation, or been sanctioned. Non-Compliant (States): States that fail to meet the federal work participation rates are subject to a penalty of up to 5 percent of the state's block grant. The penalty increases by 2 percentage points each consecutive year of noncompliance, up to a maximum of 21 percent of the block grant. Depending on the degree of noncompliance\u2014for example, how close the state came to meeting the participation requirement\u2014the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services may reduce or waive the penalty. As an additional incentive to meet the federal requirements, states that are in compliance are subject to a lower Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) spending requirement (75 percent instead of 80 percent of their FFY 1994 welfare-related spending). In California, this means that if the state meets the participation rates, it has the option of reducing spending by $182 million each year. Non-MOE General Fund: CalWORKs cases that receive assistance from federal TANF, state MOE funds, or some combination, are subject to work participation requirements. Non-MOE General Funds originate in the state GF but are allocated for assistance that is not subject to the federal TANF work participation requirements. OCAT (Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool): The Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool is a statewide standardized appraisal tool which provides in-depth appraisal of recipient strengths and barriers to employment and self-sufficiency, leading to more effective placement in work activities and referrals to supportive services. OCAT is based on the federal Online WORK Readiness Assessment Tool (OWRA). OPM (Official Poverty Measure): The OPM was developed in the 1960s based on a family's food budget and currently is widely used as a benchmark to determine eligibility for various government welfare programs. If the total income for a family falls below the relevant poverty threshold (which varies by family size and composition but not by geographic region), then the family as well as all family members are considered in poverty. The income in OPM includes cash income (before tax) and excludes noncash in-kind transfers such as food stamps and housing subsidies. Permanent Homeless Assistance: This provides payments to secure or maintain housing, including a security deposit and last month's rent, or up to two months of rent arrearages. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A March 2019 California Families Working Together 134 PRWORA (federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996): In this act, Congress sought to reduce dependence on aid, limit out-of-wedlock childbirth, encourage the formation of stable two-parent families, and ensure that children could be cared for in their own homes or the homes of relatives. PRWORA replaced AFDC with Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF), changed the funding structure of the program, limited to 60 months the amount of time that families could receive federal aid, and provided incentives for states to encourage support recipients to work. QR\/PB (Quarterly Reporting\/Prospective Budgeting): A budgeting system put in place in 2003 for the CalWORKs and CalFresh programs. Recipients' eligibility and benefits are determined for a 3-month period using prospective budgeting and income averaging rules based on information reported by recipients once in the quarter; recipients have the option to report changes that would result in increased grant\/benefits when they occur. RADEP (Research and Development Enterprise Project): RADEP is a web-based data collection tool used by county and state staff to collect federal TANF disaggregated data. The data is used by the federal Department of Health and Human Services to calculate the State's federal work participation rates. Region 1 and Region 2: The state of California is divided into two sets of counties, with Region 1 containing counties that generally have a higher cost of living than the counties in Region 2. Safety Net: Cases in which only the children in an AU are aided due to the parent(s) being discontinued for cash aid because they reached their 48-month lifetime assistance limit. Sanction: The process by which adult(s) are removed from CalWORKs support because at least one failed to comply with WTW program requirements without good cause, and county staff compliance efforts failed. Eligible children in an AU continue to receive funding. SAR (Semi-Annual Reporting): SAR requires households receiving CalWORKs assistance to report income on a semi-annual basis. SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program): A federal program that is referred to as CalFresh in California. SPM (Supplemental Poverty Measure): The SPM extends the official poverty measure by taking account of some government benefits (such as food stamps) and necessary expenses such as taxes, medical out-of-pocket, child care, and shelter expenses that are not in the official poverty measure. The threshold is adjusted by family size, composition, geographic region, and housing status (renting, owner with mortgage, and owner without mortgage). SSDI (Social Security Disability Insurance): Tied to the Social Security retirement program, SSDI is for workers who become disabled before retirement age and who have worked and paid Social Security taxes for many years. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A March 2019 California Families Working Together 135 SSI (Supplemental Security Income): A U.S. government program that provides stipends to low-income people who are either aged (65 or older), blind, or disabled. TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families): This is a federal program that replaced AFDC and now funds CalWORKs. TANF is designed to help needy families achieve self-sufficiency. Temporary Homeless Assistance: This provides payments for temporary shelter for up to 16 consecutive calendar days. Time on Aid: The total number of months a case has received assistance during the look-back period, calculated by the person on aid longest in the case since the beginning of the look-back period (e.g., in the last six or eight years). Title XX: Title XX of the Social Security Act, also referred to as the Social Services Block Grant (SSBG), is a funding program provided to states, without a state matching requirement, to assist in supporting a wide range of services, including preventing child abuse, increasing the availability of child care, and providing community-based care for the elderly and disabled. Funds are allocated to the states based on population. Transportation Services: Transportation services for welfare to work participants are often provided through payment by the county for public transportation or mileage reimbursement. Some counties provide alternative transportation services such as transportation vouchers, vehicle repair programs, commuter programs, and the purchase of motor vehicles or bicycles. Tribal TANF: Assists the Indian Tribes of California by providing the funding, tools, and resources necessary for each Tribe or Consortium to administer its own Tribal TANF Program. Unduplicated Count: A count of WTW participants that eliminates duplication in cases in which a person is involved in more than one approved activity. WDTIP (Welfare Data Tracking Implementation Project): A statewide welfare time-on-aid tracking and reporting system that is accessible to county welfare eligibility workers through MEDS. The WDTIP eliminates the need for counties to manually contact other counties outside their respective consortia system and\/or other states to obtain information relative to the TANF 60-month and CalWORKs 48-month time limits for time on-aid by providing eligibility workers an automated tool with which they can obtain up-to-date information for CalWORKs applicants and recipients. WEI (Work-Eligible Individual): The federal designation for individuals required to participate in federal TANF work activities for a specified minimum number of hours. A work-eligible individual is an adult or minor head-of-household receiving TANF assistance, or a non-recipient parent living with a child receiving such assistance. WINS (Work Incentive Nutritional Supplement): A $10 per month supplemental food benefit program for working families who are receiving CalFresh benefits but not receiving CalWORKs or TANF benefits. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A March 2019 California Families Working Together 136 WIOA (STET Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act of 2014): Intended to help job seekers access employment, education, training, and support services to succeed in the labor market and to match employers with the skilled workers they need to compete in the global economy. WIOA supersedes the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 and amends the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act, the Wagner-Peyser Act, and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The Act took effect July 1, 2015, the first full program year after enactment. WPR (Work Participation Rate): The rate at which adult CalWORKs recipients are meeting welfare-to-work participation requirements. When this rate is not 50 percent or higher for single-parent families and 90 percent for two-parent families, the State may be penalized by the federal government. WTW (Welfare-to-Work): WTW activities are a condition for adults to receive CalWORKs aid. The activities include unsubsidized and subsidized employment, work experience, on-the-job training, a grant based on-the-job training, work study, self-employment, community service, adult basic education, job skills training, vocational education, job search\/job readiness assistance, mental health counseling, substance abuse treatment, domestic abuse services, and other activities necessary to assist recipients in obtaining employment. WTW Participants: AU type that includes Single-Parent and Two-Parent households with an aided adult who is NOT exempt from work activities and NOT sanctioned. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix B March 2019 California Families Working Together 137 Appendix B: List of Data Sources Used Administration for Children and Families (ACF) - Office of Family Assistance Office of Family Assistance Data & Reports The ACF is a division of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and provides a variety of data reports including TANF caseload data, expenditure data, and work participation rate data. CA 237 CW CalWORKs Cash Grant Caseload Movement Report Department of Social Services 237 CW - CalWORKs Cash Grant Caseload Movement Report The monthly CA 237 CW report contains statistical information on CalWORKs caseload movement for Two-Parent Families, Zero Parent Families, All Other Families, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Timed-Out Cases, and Safety Net\/Drug or Fleeing Felon Cases (SN\/DFF). This report includes data on the number of applications requested or restored, cases added, cases exited, and cases transferred from other counties during the month. California Department of Education 801A Archived Data California Department of Education CDD-801A, Monthly Population Information The CDD-801A report is a list of all families and children that received Early Education and Support Division (EESD) subsidized services for a specified month. It is submitted monthly by every agency that contracts with EESD to provide subsidized child care and development services. The CDD-801A reports are also used to draw a sample of approximately 250 cases per month on which more detailed information is gathered through a separate report, the CDD-801B. CW 115\/115A Child Care Monthly Reports CalWORKs Families CW 115 - Child Care Monthly Report - CalWORKs Families - CW 115 CW 115A - Child Care Monthly Report - Two-Parent Families - CW 115A This report contains the number of CalWORKs families and children approved\/authorized\/ certified to receive Stage One Child Care during the report month. This report also includes data on the number of children transferred to Stage Two as well as children waiting to be transferred. Data for Two-Parent Families is reported on the CW 115A, while data for All Other Families is reported on the CW 115. http:\/\/www.acf.hhs.gov\/programs\/ofa\/programs\/tanf\/data-reports http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/CA-237-CW http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/CA-237-CW http:\/\/www.cde.ca.gov\/sp\/cd\/ci\/cdd801ainfo.asp http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/CW-115 http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/CW-115A California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix B March 2019 California Families Working Together 138 FSP 14 Family Stabilization (FS) Program Quarterly Report FSP 14 - CalWORKs Family Stabilization (FS) Program Quarterly Report These reports contain information about the CalWORKs FS Program during the report quarter. The data includes CalWORKs cases that are receiving FS services, cases denied FS services and cases that are unable to receive FS services. The data also includes the number and type of FS services received at a case and individual level. HSP 14 - CalWORKs Housing Support Program (HSP) Monthly Status Report This report contains monthly information about the CalWORKs Housing Support Program (HSP) and provides information about CalWORKs families that have requested or been referred to HSP services, have been approved, denied or discontinued, the reasons for denials and discontinuances, family residence status entering and exiting the program, and the number and type of HSP services and amount of HSP financial assistance issued to the family. Medi-Cal Eligibility Data System (MEDS) This data system is a statewide database containing client eligibility information for processing Medi-Cal, CalFresh, and CalWORKs administrative records. Research and Development Enterprise Project (RADEP) RADEP is a web-based data collection tool used by county and state staff to report federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) disaggregated data which is used by the federal Department of Health and Human Services to calculate the State's federal work participation rates. The RADEP data is collected as a random stratified sample of approximately 3,000 CalWORKs active cases over each federal fiscal year and provides characteristics data relating to the TANF caseload in that specific year. Statewide Automated Welfare System (SAWS) Consortia The SAWS project is the automation of county welfare business processes for CalWORKs, CalFresh, Medi-Cal, Foster Care, Refugee, and County Medical Services. The Office of Systems Integration is responsible for state-level project management and oversight. Each individual consortium is responsible for its own local project management. The SAWS project is comprised of three consortia: Los Angeles Eligibility, Automated Determination, Evaluation and Reporting (LEADER) Consortium, Welfare Client Data System (WCDS) Consortium (also known as CalWIN), and Consortium IV (C-IV). The CalWIN Consortium includes the following counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, Fresno, Orange, Placer, Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, Sonoma, Tulare, Ventura and Yolo. The C-IV Consortium includes the following counties: Alpine, Colusa, Humboldt, Kings, Merced, Napa, San Benito, Sierra, Amador, Del Norte, Imperial, Lake, Modoc, Nevada, San Bernardino, Siskiyou, Butte, El Dorado, Inyo, Lassen, Mono, Pumas, San Joaquin, http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/FSP-14 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix B March 2019 California Families Working Together 139 Stanislaus, Calaveras, Glenn, Kern, Madera Monterey, Riverside, Shasta, Sutter, Marin, Mariposa, Mendocino, Tehama, Trinity, Tuolumne and Yuba. U.S. Census Bureau U.S. Census Bureau The U.S. Census Bureau provides access to selected statistics collected through the American Community Survey, the Current Population Survey, the Decennial Census, and other data-collection tools. Welfare Data Tracking Implementation Project (WDTIP) Welfare Data Tracking Implementation Project WDTIP is a statewide welfare time-on-aid tracking system that interfaces with existing county consortia State Automated Welfare Systems (SAWS). WDTIP eliminates the need for counties to manually contact other counties outside their respective consortia system and\/or other states to obtain information relative to the TANF 60-month, CalWORKs 48-month, and Welfare-to-Work 24-Month time limitations for time-on-aid by providing eligibility workers an automated tool from which they can obtain up-to-date information for CalWORKs' applicants and recipients. WTW 25\/25A - CalWORKs Welfare To Work Monthly Activity Reports WTW 25 - CalWORKs Welfare-To-Work Monthly Activity Report - All (Other) Families WTW 25A - CalWORKs Welfare-To-Work Monthly Activity Report - Two-Parent Families These reports summarize data on work-eligible adults in the CalWORKs program \u2014 Welfare to Work Enrollees, those exempt from work, and those sanctioned for not participating. This report also counts the number of adults engaged in the various eligible work or education activities that could be included in a welfare-to-work plan, as well as adults who receive post-aid supportive services after they time out or income off cash assistance. Data for Two-Parent Families is reported on the WTW 25A, while data for All Other Families is reported on the WTW 25. http:\/\/www.census.gov\/ http:\/\/www.wdtip.ca.gov\/ file:\/\/\/C:\/Users\/asandova\/AppData\/Local\/Microsoft\/Windows\/INetCache\/Content.Outlook\/L77SPSRA\/WTW%2025%20-%20CalWORKs%20Welfare-To-Work%20Monthly%20Activity%20Report%20-%20All%20(Other)%20Families http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/inforesources\/Research-and-Data\/CalWORKs-Data-Tables\/WTW25A Structure Bookmarks CalWORKs California Families Working Together ANNUAL SUMMARY MARCH 2019 CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SERVICES FAMILY ENGAGEMENT AND EMPOWERMENT DIVISION Preface 2019 CalWORKs Annual Summary - Executive Summary Introduction and Overview Chapter 1 Caseload Dynamics Chapter 2 Benefits, Earning Levels, and Employment Chapter 3 Fiscal Overview Chapter 4 Program Chronology Chapter 5 Welfare-to-Work (WTW) Participation Chapter 6 Recent Program Changes and Outcomes Chapter 7 Supportive Services Chapter 8 Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates Chapter 9 Research Funds and Program Oversight Chapter 10 Homeless Assistance and Housing Support Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and Acronyms Appendix B: List of Data Sources Used "

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” CalWORKs California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SERVICES WELFARE TO WORK DIVISION ANNUAL SUMMARY JANUARY 2016 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency i This page is intentionally blank. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Preface January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency ii Preface This report is being produced pursuant to a Supplemental Report of the 2014-15 Budget Package, which reads: The Department of Social Services shall collaborate with legislative staff, the LAO [Legislative Analyst’s Office], and key stakeholders on the creation of an annual report on CalWORKs [California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids], covering children living in poverty and deep poverty in the program, caseload dynamics, demographics of families, and impacts and implementation of recent policy changes, and other components to be decided in the course of those discussions. The report will also address the use and outcomes of research funds. Progress shall be provided in the form of a verbal update by January 15, 2015, with the first iteration of the report to be presented by April 1, 2015, at which date there shall be consideration regarding the annual date ongoing. The first version of the CalWORKs Annual Summary was published May 2015 and is available at http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/cdssweb\/entres\/pdf\/CalWORKsAnnualSummary2015.pdf. Senate Bill (SB) 1041 (Chapter 47, Statutes of 2012, Section 22), added the following provision into law: Welfare and Institutions Code 11334.6(a) The [California] Department [of Social Services] shall provide to the budget committees of the Legislature, no later than February 1, 2013, and, notwithstanding Section 10231.5 of the Government Code, on February 1 annually thereafter, a report that includes all of the following information: (1) The number of counties implementing a Cal-Learn Program. (2) The number of recipients being served in each county with intensive case management services. (3) Outcomes for recipients, including graduation rates and repeat pregnancies. The CalWORKs Annual Summary fulfills that reporting requirement. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/cdssweb\/entres\/pdf\/CalWORKsAnnualSummary2015.pdf California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Preface January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency iii A Note about Data from the Research and Development Enterprise Project (RADEP) This report contains data from RADEP, a data tool used to report California’s federal work participation rates for the federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. The RADEP data is collected from a random sample of approximately 3,000 active CalWORKs cases over each federal fiscal year. The RADEP sample is composed of cases funded with federal TANF and state Maintenance-of- Effort (MOE) General Fund (GF) funding. Funding for a subset of CalWORKs cases (primarily safety-net cases) was shifted from TANF\/MOE GF to Non-MOE GF over a period of several months in FFY 2014, and these cases were dropped from the FFY 2014 RADEP sample. Due to the timing of this shift, the FFY 2014 RADEP cannot be used to calculate caseload characteristics data. Therefore, this report displays caseload characteristics from the FFY 2013 RADEP. The RADEP data for FFY 2015 and subsequent years will again be appropriate for analysis of caseload characteristics. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Table of Contents January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface ii List of Tables and Figures vii Executive Summary x Introduction and Overview xiii Chapter 1 Caseload Dynamics 1 Characteristics of CalWORKs Cases 4 Time on Aid Characteristics 6 CalWORKs Quarterly Caseload Analysis 7 Application Approvals 10 Application Denials 12 Application Denials by Reasons 14 Chapter 2 Benefits, Earnings Levels, and Employment 16 CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment (MAP) Levels 19 Benefit Level Comparison 20 CalWORKs Caseload and Grants with CalFresh Benefits 21 CalWORKs Recipient Earned Income Limits 22 Earnings Distribution by Case Type 23 Quarterly Earnings for Adult Recipients 24 Proportion of Recipients with Earnings 25 CalWORKs Individuals in Employment 26 Chapter 3 Fiscal Overview 27 CalWORKs Funds: FY 2015-16 29 Funding Reconciliation 30 Chapter 4 Program Chronology 31 A Brief History of CalWORKs 33 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Table of Contents January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency v Chapter 5 Welfare-to-Work (WTW) Participation 43 CalWORKs WTW Activities and Hourly Requirements 47 Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population 49 CalWORKs WTW Education Activities 52 Education and Training 53 Average Monthly Percent of Exemptions to WTW Adults 54 WTW 24-Month Time Clock Exemptions\/Good Cause 56 Participation in Work or Work-Related Activities to Comply with the TANF Work Participation Rate Policy 58 Participation in Work or Work-Related Activities 59 Work Participation Rate Compliance 60 Chapter 6 Recent Program Changes and Outcomes 63 WTW 24-Month Time Clock and Post-24-Month Time Clock 64 Family Stabilization (FS) Program 68 Expanded Subsidized Employment (ESE) 70 Housing Support Program (HSP) 72 Work Incentive Nutritional Supplement (WINS) 73 Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool (OCAT) 74 Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) 77 Cal-Learn 78 Chapter 7 Supportive Services 79 Average Number of Individuals Receiving Supportive Services 80 Child Care Resources for CalWORKs Participants 82 Characteristics of Stage One Child Care Cases 83 Children in CalWORKs Stages One, Two, and Three 85 Behavioral Health Services, Referrals, and Participation 86 Chapter 8 Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates 90 California’s Poverty Rate and National Ranking 92 Children in TANF as a Percentage of Children in Poverty in California and the U.S. 95 CalWORKs Benefit and Resource Model 97 Chapter 9 Research Funds and Program Oversight 102 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Table of Contents January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency vi TANF Research Funds 103 Program Oversight 109 Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and Acronyms 111 B: List of Data Sources 119 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary List of Tables and Figures January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency vii List of Tables and Figures Chapter 1 Caseload Dynamics Table 1A. Characteristics of CalWORKs Cases: FFY 2013 4 Table 1B. Time on Aid Characteristics of CalWORKs Cases 6 Table 1C. CalWORKs Quarterly Caseload Analysis: FY 2006-07 through FY 2014-15 8 Table 1D. CalWORKs Annual Application Approvals by County: FY 2014-15 10 Table 1E. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by County: FY 2014-15 12 Table 1F. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by Reasons by County: FY 2014-15 14 Figure 1A CalWORKs Caseload by AU Type: FY 2013 5 Figure 1B CalWORKs Quarterly Caseload Analysis: FY 2006-07 through FY 2014-15 7 Chapter 2 Benefit, Earnings Levels, and Employment Table 2A. CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment (MAP) Levels 19 Table 2B. Comparison of Benefit Levels in FFY 2008 and FFY 2012 20 Table 2C. CalWORKs Caseload and Grants with CalFresh Benefits: FY 2007-08 through FY 2015-16 21 Table 2D. CalWORKs Recipient Earned Income Limits: FY 2015-16 22 Table 2E. Earnings Distribution for Cases with Work-Eligible Adults and for All Cases: FFY 2013 23 Figure 2A. Quarterly Earnings for CalWORKs Adult Recipients: 1998-2015 24 Figure 2B. Proportion of Adult Recipients with Earnings: 1998-2015 25 Figure 2C. Number of CalWORKs Individuals in Employment: FFYs 2008-2015 26 Chapter 3 Fiscal Overview Table 3A. CalWORKs Funding by Program Area & Fund Sources FY 2015-16 29 Table 3B. Funding Reconciliation for CalWORKs: FY 2015-16 30 Figure 3A. CalWORKs Funds for FY 2015-16 29 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary List of Tables and Figures January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency viii Chapter 5 Welfare-to-Work (WTW) Participation Table 5A. CalWORKs WTW Activities and Hourly Requirements 48 Table 5B. Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population: FY 2006-07 through FY 2014-15 51 Table 5C. CalWORKs WTW Education Activities 52 Table 5D. Number of Community College Degrees, Certificates, and Awards CalWORKs Recipients Received: 2009-2015 53 Table 5E. Average Monthly Percent of Exemptions to WTW Adults: FFYs 2007-2014 54 Table 5F. WTW 24-Month Time Clock Exemptions\/Good Cause 56 Table 5G. Participation in Work or Work-Related Activities: FFYs 2008-2015 59 Table 5H. Summary of WPR Requirements and TANF Penalties: FFYs 2008-2012 60 Table 5I. California’s TANF Work Participation Rate (WPR) History: FFYs 1997-2015 62 Figure 5A. Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population: FY 2006-07 through FY 2014-15 50 Chapter 6 Recent Program Changes and Outcomes Table 6A. CalWORKs Family Stabilization Status Report: FY 2014-15 69 Table 6B. WINS Issuances: FFYs 2014-2015 73 Table 6C. OCAT Appraisals by Month: July through November, 2015 74 Table 6D. OCAT Tool Structure and Recommendations 75 Table 6E. Cal-Learn Average Monthly Participation and Outcomes: 2010-11 Through 2014-15 78 Figure 6A. WTW 24-Month Time Clock Update (SB 1041): FY 2015-16 66 Figure 6B. Statewide Subsidized Employment Monthly Participant Caseload: 70 2013-2015 Chapter 7 Supportive Services Table 7A. Average Number of Individuals Receiving Supportive Services (All Other Families): April-June 2015 80 Table 7B. Average Number of Individuals Receiving Supportive Services (Two-Parent Families): April-June 2015 81 Table 7C. Age, Provider Setting, and Time in Care for Stage One Children: Calendar Year 2014 83 Table 7D. CalWORKs Stage One Child Care: FY 2006-07 through FY 2014-15 84 Table 7E. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation (All Other Families): April-June 2015 86 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary List of Tables and Figures January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency ix Table 7F. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation (Two-Parent Families): April-June 2015 88 Figure 7A. Children in CalWORKs Stages One, Two, and Three Child Care Programs: 2005-2014 85 Chapter 8 Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates Table 8A. Official Poverty Rate and California’s Ranking: 2010-2014 92 Table 8B. Comparison of the Official and Supplemental Poverty Measures 93 Table 8C. Comparison of SPM and OPM in California and the U.S.: 2010-2013 94 Table 8D. Child Poverty Rates and Share of Poor Children in TANF, California and the U.S.: 2002-2014 96 Table 8E. Monthly Benefit Values for CalWORKs Family of Three in Region One 99 Figure 8A. Children in TANF as a Percentage of Children in Poverty: California and the U.S., 2002-2014 95 Figure 8B. Monthly Resources Available to a Family of Three (One Adult and Two Children) by Level of Monthly Earnings 100 Figure 8C. CalWORKs Benefit and Resource Model 2016: Cases with No Earnings and with Median Earnings 101 Chapter 9 Research Funds and Program Oversight Table 9A. Allocation of TANF Research Funds: FY 2009-10 through FY 2018-19 103 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Executive Summary January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency x 2016 CalWORKs Annual Summary – Executive Summary The Supplemental Report of the 2014-15 Budget Package included a requirement for an annual report on the CalWORKs program to cover various relevant components of the program, including caseload dynamics, demographics of families and children living in poverty and deep poverty, the welfare-to-work program, and impacts of recent policy changes. The first of these reports, The CalWORKs Annual Summary, was presented in July 2015. This is the second iteration of the report, which will be presented each year to coincide with the budget calendar. The Annual Summary consists of nine chapters that highlight the components of the CalWORKS program required in the supplemental report language as well as other topics decided through an inclusive stakeholder process. Highlights: \uf0b7 The CalWORKs caseload has declined, but was responsive to the recession. \uf0b7 Program reforms implemented in 2013 and 2014 are in various stages of development and expansion. \uf0b7 A revised benefit and resource model infographic incorporates the Supplemental Poverty Measure for the first time, along with the National School Lunch Program and the new California Earned Income Tax Credit (Chapter 8). Chapter Summaries: Chapter One – Caseload Dynamics provides a comprehensive overview of the CalWORKs caseload. Chapter One includes 2013 data on the number of cases receiving CalWORKs assistance (563,785) delineated by case type (Child-Only cases are the largest segment of the CalWORKS caseload at 36.2 percent, followed by Single-Parent cases at 35.7 percent), cases in sanction status (32,295) and safety net status (73,933). Chapter one contains tables detailing the number of applications for aid (451,439) and the number of those applications approved (230,241) and denied (221,198) in the year. A longitudinal analysis of CalWORKs cases over time follows, illustrating benefits received, average time on aid (the median time on aid for Child-Only cases is 58.0 months; Single-Parent AUs’ median time on aid is 25.0 months), and citizenship status of the CalWORKs client population (99 percent are either U.S. citizens or have legal non-citizen status). Chapter Two – Benefit and Earning Levels provides information relating to maximum income levels. \uf0b7 The chapter presents data describing the earnings distribution of CalWORKs cases, historical average CalWORKs grants, grant levels, and an account of participant employment activities that shows an increase of more than 10,000 CalWORKs individuals in unsubsidized employment since 2013. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Executive Summary January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency xi Chapter Three – Fiscal Overview provides a brief financial picture of the CalWORKs program including funding sources. California receives the majority of funds for CalWORKs from an annual federal TANF block grant of $3.7 billion, and the state contributes an additional $2.9 billion in Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) funding. A chart displaying the distribution of funds across various program components shows that approximately 90 percent of CalWORKs expenditures go to grants, services, child care, and mental health and substance abuse assistance programs. Chapter Four Program Chronology provides a brief history of CalWORKs and its predecessor programs, beginning with the 1935 federal Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program and the programs that led up to the creation of CalWORKs in 1998 to today. Changes highlighted in the 2016 Annual Summary include statewide implementation of the Online CalWORKS Appraisal Tool (OCAT) and changes in eligibility for pregnant women. Chapter Five Welfare-to-Work Participation provides details of the differences between CalWORKs and TANF participation requirements. \uf0b7 A quarterly analysis of the Welfare-to-Work caseload details a gradual decrease in WTW cases receiving exemptions, an increase in those cases in sanction status, and other categories remaining relatively unchanged from 2011 through 2015. \uf0b7 The chapter continues with California’s work participation rate (WPR) trends through Federal Fiscal Year 2015. \uf0b7 Chapter Five concludes with a description of California’s WPR compliance. The State has been in WPR noncompliance for several years and has been preliminarily assessed approximately $899 million in federal penalties since 2007. Five Corrective Compliance Plans have been submitted to the Federal Administration for Children and Families to reduce or eliminate those penalties. Chapter Six – Recent Program Changes and Outcomes describes the most significant recent changes in the CalWORKs program and provides updates on the impact of many of these recent program changes. \uf0b7 26,789 Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool (OCAT) interviews were completed through November 2015, including 18,101 appraisals with recommendations for services. \uf0b7 County participation in Expanded Subsidized Employment (ESE) programs increased, with 47 counties participating in ESE in Fiscal Year 2014-15 and the number of individuals entering subsidized employment growing from 1,771 in 2014 to 7,781 in 2015. \uf0b7 An increasing number of CalWORKs clients will exhaust their 24 Month Time Clocks in 2016. \uf0b7 2,019 families have been permanently housed through the housing support program as of FY 2014-15. Chapter Seven – Supportive Services provides details about the various supports CalWORKs families receive in addition to their cash aid, as well as the number and type of supportive California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Executive Summary January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency xii services provided to participants in the Welfare-to-Work program. Chapter highlights include the average monthly number of individuals receiving supportive services (approximately 21,000 were provided child care; 51,000 transportation; and 10,000 ancillary services statewide each month in the fourth quarter of FY 2014-15). Chapter Eight – Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates describes how poverty is defined and measured, using both the Official Poverty Measure (OPM) and the Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) concepts that are essential to understanding CalWORKs’ design and impact. \uf0b7 The chapter details California’s poverty level using both measures (California’s OPM from 2010 through 2013 was approximately 16 percent and the state’s SPM was approximately 23 percent). \uf0b7 The chapter compares the much greater share of California children in poverty served by CalWORKS compared to similar TANF programs across the nation (in 2014 CalWORKs served over 50 percent of the state’s children in poverty, compared to 19 percent for the nation). \uf0b7 A revised benefit and resource model infographic details the benefits available to a typical CalWORKs family at various income levels and incorporates the SPM for the first time. Chapter 9 Research Funds and Program Oversight discusses the general purpose of CalWORKs program oversight: to review, monitor, and supervise the implementation of public policy. This chapter describes the ways in which oversight occurs in the CalWORKs program, including how research funds are used to strengthen and evaluate program performance. Chapter highlights include a table detailing the historical allocation of TANF research funds and a description of previous and ongoing research projects, including the multi-year SB 1041 Program Evaluation and various collaborative research projects with the University of California at Davis. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Introduction and Overview January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency xiii Introduction and Overview California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) This annual summary was developed as an information tool to provide an overview of the CalWORKs program. Purpose and Objectives The CalWORKs program is California’s version of the federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. CalWORKs provides temporary cash assistance to meet basic family needs. It also provides education, employment, and training programs to assist the family’s move toward self-sufficiency. Components of CalWORKs include time limits on eligibility, work requirements, supportive services to encourage program participation, and parental responsibility. California is among the minority of states that provide TANF benefits to children in need even after their adult caregiver reaches the 48-month time limit for receipt of cash aid; as well, California continues to provide aid to children when adults fail to meet program requirements. Summary of Key Features of CalWORKs \uf0b7 Cash Grants for Families; \uf0b7 48 Months of Cash Assistance and WTW Services; \uf0b7 24 Months of Flexible Work Activities; \uf0b7 Participation Requirements; \uf0b7 Safety Net for Children; \uf0b7 Subsidized Employment Opportunities; \uf0b7 County Flexibility to Design WTW Program; \uf0b7 Holistic Appraisal of Basic Needs and Barriers; \uf0b7 Time Limits; \uf0b7 Immediate Needs Intervention; \uf0b7 Cash Bonuses for Teen Academic Success; \uf0b7 Earnings Disregard; \uf0b7 Child Care\/Supportive Services; \uf0b7 Substance Abuse, Mental Health and Domestic Violence Services; \uf0b7 Homelessness Assistance; \uf0b7 Exemptions from Time Clock and Participation; and \uf0b7 Federal Work Participation Mandates and Penalties. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Introduction and Overview January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency xiv Eligibility Families must meet income and asset tests and children must be deprived of parental support and care due to the incapacity, death, or absence of a parent, or unemployment of the principal wage earner. Time Limits and Time Clocks State law provides for a cumulative 48-month lifetime limit on cash aid for adults. Children of adults who exhaust the 48-month time limit may continue to receive cash aid, if otherwise eligible, up to age 18. There are effectively three categories of time clock associated with the CalWORKs program: The TANF 60-month time limit refers to the cumulative lifetime 60-month federal cash aid time limit for adult recipients of aid; The CalWORKs 48-month time limit refers to the cumulative lifetime 48-month cash aid time limitation for adult CalWORKs recipients; and The Welfare-to-Work 24-Month Time Clock refers to a cumulative 24-month period in a welfare-to-work participant’s lifetime, during which he or she may participate in any activity, so long as participation is consistent with his or her assessment and addresses the need for barrier removal activities, education, or career goals of the participant. Work Requirements CalWORKs provides a wide array of services and supports for families to enter and remain in the workforce. Parents and caretaker adults, unless exempt from work requirements, are required to participate in Welfare to Work (WTW) activities as a condition of receiving aid. WTW activities include unsubsidized and subsidized employment, work experience, on-the- job training, grant-based on-the-job training, work study, self-employment, community service, adult basic education, job skills training, vocational education, job search\/job readiness assistance, mental health counseling, substance abuse treatment, domestic abuse services, and other activities necessary to assist recipients in obtaining employment. An adult in a one-parent assistance unit (AU) is required to participate in WTW activities for an average of 30 hours per week each month or 20 hours per week each month if he or she has a child under the age of 6. In a two-parent AU, one or both adults must participate in WTW activities for a combined total of an average of 35 hours per week. Adults may receive a total of 24 months of flexible CalWORKs services and activities to address any barriers to employment. These 24 months need not be consecutive and can be California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Introduction and Overview January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency xv used at any time during the adult’s 48 months of eligibility. Once the 24 months have been exhausted, adults must meet the federal work participation rate (WPR) requirements, unless they are exempted or receive an extension. CalWORKs has a universal engagement requirement to ensure recipients are participating in appropriate WTW activities as soon as possible. Counties are required to develop WTW plans with a recipient within 90 days from the date an individual begins receiving cash aid. Federal Participation Mandate State work participation requirements are designed to assist in meeting federal work participation rates in order for California to avoid fiscal penalties. Federal work participation rate requirements are as follows: 50 percent of all families with work-eligible adults (both one- and two-parent) must be working or in a countable work activity for 20 or 30 hours per week, depending on family configuration; and 90 percent of families with two work-eligible adults must be working or in a work activity for a combined total of 35 hours each week. The federal government can assess penalties on the state for not achieving work participation rates. In California, counties that do not achieve the federal participation rates will share in any such fiscal penalties unless a statutory exception applies. Supportive Services Supportive services, including child care, transportation, ancillary expenses, and personal counseling, are available for families participating in WTW activities. If needed supportive services are not available, the recipient has good cause for not participating. Special supportive services and intensive case management services are also available for pregnant and parenting teens. These services are provided through the Cal-Learn Program, which is designed to encourage pregnant and parenting teens to return to and\/or stay in school. Cal-Learn teens can get bonuses or be sanctioned four times a year depending on the teen’s grades. An additional bonus is given to each teen upon earning a high school diploma or equivalent. Participation in Cal-Learn is mandatory for pregnant or parenting teens ages 18 and under and voluntary for specified 19 year olds. Parental Responsibility CalWORKs encourages parental responsibility by requiring parents to immunize their aided children under the age of six and cooperate with the child-support enforcement process. Failure to meet these requirements results in a reduction of the adult’s portion of the grant. If a child age 16 or older does not attend school and is deemed a chronic truant, this may result in a reduction of the child’s portion of the grant unless California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Introduction and Overview January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency xvi certain conditions apply. Benefit Levels Grant levels and amounts vary according to family size, exempt status, and geographic location. Families in high cost-of-living areas (Region 1) receive slightly more money than families in other areas (Region 2 [see page 18]). A family in which all adults are disabled or otherwise exempt from work requirements is eligible for the higher exempt grant amount. A non-exempt family of three with no other income living in Region 1 currently receives a monthly grant of $704 while the same family living in Region 2 receives $670. If that family were exempt, it would receive $788 in Region 1 and $751 in Region 2. Program Administration The CalWORKs Program is administered by county welfare departments under supervision of the CDSS. Although eligibility requirements and grant levels are uniform throughout the state, counties are given considerable latitude to design WTW programs that will work best for their diverse populations, size, and culture. Each county must have a CalWORKs county plan describing specific program outcomes and how those outcomes are to be achieved. Legal Authority AB 1542 (Ducheny, Chapter 270, Statutes of 1997), the Welfare to Work Act of 1997, established the CalWORKs Program in California. AB 1542 eliminated the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program and the Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) program and replaced them with the CalWORKs program. Key Features of CalWORKs CalWORKs seeks to address poverty through an array of services designed to assist families in various states of need and to address the various facets of need for each family. CalWORKs provides families with basic means of living through services such as cash assistance, immediate needs intervention, homeless prevention services, and stabilization services for those in crisis. A work focused approach is fostered through the welfare-to-work aspect of the program, which requires adults, unless exempt, to participate in appropriate WTW activities as a condition of receiving aid. In addition to being a work program for adults, CalWORKs endeavors to protect children from deep poverty through continued aid to children when adults fail to meet program requirements or reach the maximum 48-month time limit for cash aid. CalWORKs is also built upon the core concept of flexibility given to 58 individual counties to design their individual California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Introduction and Overview January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency xvii programs, in order to serve their unique and diverse local populations. At the same time, CalWORKs balances its core values of flexibility and protecting children with the goal of meeting federal performance mandates to avoid federal fiscal penalties. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1: Caseload Dynamics January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 1 Chapter 1 Caseload Dynamics This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the CalWORKs caseload, including the number of cases receiving CalWORKs assistance delineated by case type; the percentage of cases with individuals who are exempt from welfare-to-work participation requirements; cases in sanction, child-only, and safety-net status; tables illustrating the number of applications for aid and the number of those approved and denied; a longitudinal analysis of CalWORKs cases over time; and the benefits provided to CalWORKs recipients. CalWORKs cases with an unaided but federally work-eligible adult (specifically, safety-net cases and cases in which the parent is a fleeing felon) are funded from state general fund (GF) that does not count toward the TANF Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) as of Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2014; as a result, these cases are no longer included in the federally defined TANF program for federal reporting purposes. Said another way, safety-net and fleeing felon cases have been moved out of the TANF program. In 2015, the Work Incentive Nutritional Supplement (WINS) program became fully operational. WINS cases are provided a ten dollar monthly cash nutritional benefit funded from state General Fund that counts toward the MOE requirement and, therefore, are counted in the federal TANF caseload that is, WINS cases have been moved in to the TANF caseload. The WINS caseload is not reflected in the CalWORKS caseload tables provided in this chapter, but WINS issuances are displayed in Table 6B. Key Terms in This Chapter The CalWORKs caseload is characterized using the following key terms. Assistance Unit (AU) An AU is a group of related persons living in the same home who have been determined to be eligible for CalWORKs and for whom cash aid has been authorized. An AU is sometimes referred to as a CalWORKs case. An AU or case differs from a household in that a household includes all persons in the same dwelling regardless of their relationship to members of the AU, or their eligibility for CalWORKs aid. Definitions of Assistance Units (AU) Types: o Single-Parent Includes at least one child and one aided adult who is a natural or adoptive parent, a stepparent, or another caretaker relative. o Two-Parent Includes at least one child and two natural or adoptive aided adult parents. o Sanctioned Adults were removed from aid due to non-compliance with program requirements without good cause and compliance efforts have failed. Aid continues for the eligible children in the AU. o Child-Only or Zero-Parent Cases in which only the children in the case are aided because the parents are ineligible due to immigration status or being an California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1: Caseload Dynamics January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 2 SSI recipient or a non-parental, non-needy caretaker is caring for the children. o Safety-Net Cases in which only the children in an AU are aided due to the parent(s) being discontinued for cash aid due to their reaching the 48-month lifetime assistance limit. Safety-net cases are funded with non-MOE state-only funds and not subject to federal TANF reporting rules. o TANF-Timed Out Cases in which the head of household or spouse of the head of household (parent, stepparent, or caretaker relative) has received federal TANF assistance for a total of 60 cumulative months and continues to be eligible for CalWORKs assistance. o Fleeing Felon A person who is fleeing to avoid prosecution, or custody, or confinement, after conviction for a crime or attempt to commit a crime that is a felony. Long-Term Sanction Cases with a parent\/ caretaker who has been sanctioned due to failing or refusing to comply with Welfare-to-Work program requirements, without good cause, for 12 consecutive months or longer, without a break in aid of one month or more. Time on Aid The total number of months a case has received assistance during a retrospective or look-back period. Time on aid is calculated by counting the total number of months aid has been received by the person on aid longest in the case since the start of the look-back period (for instance. in the last six or eight years). Note on Data Sources The CalWORKS Annual Summary provides data on several types of cases. Data does not always match precisely due to differences between data sources. Data from the Research and Data Enterprise Project (RADEP), a random sample of CalWORKS cases collected throughout a federal fiscal year and primarily used to fulfill federal data reporting requirements, is statistically accurate for that purpose but is subject to the usual limitations of sample data. Data from the Welfare-to-Work (WTW) 25 and 25a is reported monthly by each county and counts WTW eligible individuals. Variations in county reporting practices may result in inconsistencies across county WTW 25 and 25a data. In addition, different portions of the CalWORKs Annual Summary report caseload in terms of individuals, work-eligible individuals or families\/cases. Tables and Figures in This Chapter Table 1A. Characteristics of CalWORKs Cases: FFY 2013 4 Table 1B. Time on Aid Characteristics of CalWORKs Cases 6 Table 1C. CalWORKs Quarterly Caseload Analysis: FY 2006-07 through FY 2014-15 8 Table 1D. CalWORKs Annual Application Approvals by County: FY 2014-15 10 Table 1E. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by County: FY 2014-15 12 Table 1F. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by Reasons by County: California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1: Caseload Dynamics January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 3 FY 2014-15 14 Figure 1A. CalWORKs Caseload by AU Type: FY 2013 5 Figure 1B. CalWORKs Quarterly Caseload Analysis: FY 2006-07 through FY 2014-15 7 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1: Caseload Dynamics January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 4 Table 1A. Characteristics of CalWORKs Cases: FFY 2013 The CDSS annually collects data from a random sample of CalWORKs cases (referred to as the RADEP sample) to fulfill federal data reporting requirements. This sample includes interesting characteristics and demographic information that is not available from any other statewide administrative data source. The characteristics in the table below are extrapolated from the sample to represent the whole CalWORKs caseload at the time the sample was drawn. Caution should be used when drawing conclusions about small subsets of populations due to the limited sample size for those populations in RADEP. Characteristic Single- Parent Two- Parent Sanctioned Child- Only Safety Net All Cases Number 201,424 50,291 32,295 205,782 73,993 563,785 AU Size 2.8 3.8 1.7 2.0 2.4 2.5 Average Number of Children in AU 1.8 2.1 1.7 2.0 2.4 2.0 Average Age of Oldest Child 6.5 7.0 9.1 10.3 12.3 8.9 Average Age of Youngest Child 4.0 3.5 6.6 7.1 7.7 5.7 Average Age of Head of Household 29.6 30.8 32.1 38.6 36.8 34.1 Percent with Monthly Earnings 20.7% 37.9% 11.2% 14.9% 20.2% 19.5% Race\/ Ethnicity Hispanic 52.3% 42.6% 48.6% 76.0% 38.9% 58.1% Non-Hispanic Black 21.3% 11.1% 19.3% 9.6% 32.1% 17.4% Non-Hispanic Asian 2.2% 8.9% 1.3% 2.2% 4.9% 3.1% Non-Hispanic White 21.6% 33.6% 28.5% 11.0% 21.4% 19.2% Non-Hispanic Other 2.6% 3.8% 2.3% 1.2% 2.7% 2.2% Language Spoken English 89.9% 83.5% 88.7% 40.9% 86.9% 71.0% Spanish 8.6% 6.3% 10.1% 57.1% 7.4% 25.9% Other 1.6% 10.3% 1.2% 2.1% 6.7% 3.1% Education Percent of Heads of Household Completing High School or Equivalent 52.3% 56.1% 48.7% 8.5% 41.6% 35.0% Percent Unknown 1.5% 1.4% 10.9% 62.3% 12.8% 25.7% AU represents assistance unit. Sanctioned cases have no aided adult because the work-eligible adult is not complying with Welfare- to-Work program requirements and has been removed from the grant calculation (the family is aided with a child-only grant). Safety Net cases have no aided adult because all work-eligible parents in the AU have exceeded their 48- month time limit of support and the family is receiving a child-only grant. Child-Only cases have no eligible adult due to immigration status, receipt of Supplemental Security Income (SSI), or income exceeding the CalWORKs threshold (in the case of non-needy caretakers of foster children). NOTES: Percentages may not add to 100 percent due to missing\/unknown values. Safety-net cases were reported as caseload for TANF purposes in FFY 2013, but no longer are as of FFY 2014. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1: Caseload Dynamics January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 5 Table 1A. Characteristics of CalWORKs Cases (Continued) Characteristic Single- Parent Two- Parent Sanctioned Child- Only Safet y Net All Cases Citizenship Status of Head of Household Citizen 91.5% 83.2% 91.7% 35.2% 90.1% 70.0% Legal Non-Citizen 7.3% 16.7% 8.3% 3.5% 9.8% 7.1% Other\/Unknown 1.2% 0.2% 0.0% 61.3% 0.2% 22.8% Gender of Head of Household Female 92.6% 86.0% 84.4% 92.0% 94.0% 90.9% Age of Children Percent with Children Under One Year Old 18.8% 23.9% 3.0% 6.9% 6.2% 12.3% Percent with Children Under Six Years Old 74.5% 78.3% 51.9% 45.2% 35.6% 57.8% Data Sources: Characteristics based on FFY 2013 RADEP data, analyzed January 11, 2014. (The FFY 2014 RADEP is not used in this table because of the mid-year funding shift for safety-net cases; see p. ii for more information). Time on aid based on data from the Medi-Cal Eligibility Determination System (MEDS). Figure 1A. CalWORKs Caseload by AU Type: FFY 2013 Total Caseload – 563,785 Child-Only 205,782 36% Safety Net 73,993 13% Two-Parent 50,291 9% Single-Parent 201,424 36% Sanctioned 32,295 6% California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1: Caseload Dynamics January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 6 Characteristics of CalWORKs Cases Time on Aid is a different calculation than the CalWORKs 48 Month Clock, as a case may receive assistance in a month that does not count toward their 48-Month Clock due to a qualifying exemption. Time on aid for Single-Parent and Two-Parent cases is calculated by counting the total number of months aid has been received by the person on aid longest in the case since the start of the look-back period. Time on aid for Safety Net\/Fleeing Felon\/Long-Term Sanction cases as well as Child-Only cases is determined by the child member on aid longest since the beginning of the look-back period. Average Months on Aid is most useful for mathematical calculations (for example, for developing budget estimates). Median Months on Aid is most useful for describing a typical case, as half of the cases would be below and half would be above this point. Table 1B. Time on Aid Characteristics of CalWORKs Cases Single- Parent Two- Parent Child-Only Safety Net\/FF\/LTS All Cases Months of Aid Since 1998 Average 41.1 30.8 78.8 100.3 62.0 Median 35.0 25.0 72.0 97.0 52.0 Months of Aid in Last 8 Years Average 32.3 26.6 59.5 69.2 46.7 Median 27.0 22.0 64.0 74.0 43.0 Months of Aid in Last 6 Years Average 29.2 24.9 49.8 55.6 39.9 Median 25.0 21.0 58.0 62.0 39.0 Data source: September 2015 MEDS Extract. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1: Caseload Dynamics January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 7 Figure 1B. CalWORKs Quarterly Caseload Analysis FY 2006-07 through FY 2014-15 The chart below illustrates changes in caseload categories over the last decade. In 2009, Assembly Bill X4 4 exempted parents or caretakers providing primary care to a child age 12 months through 23 months, or two or more children under the age of 6, from participating in Welfare-to-Work activities. As a result, the number of exempt individuals increased from 2009 through 2013. Senate Bill 1041 ended the young child exemptions as of January 1, 2013. Data Source: CA 237 CW – 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 700,000 Total CW Cases Single Parent Two-Parent TANF Timed Out Cases Zero-Parent Families Safety Net http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG281.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1: Caseload Dynamics January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 8 Table 1C. CalWORKs Quarterly Caseload Analysis: FY 2006-07 through FY 2014-15 Total CW Cases Single- Parent Two- Parent TANF Timed- Out Cases Zero- Parent Families Safety Net FY 06-07 Q1 464,109 189,803 33,091 31,510 166,145 43,560 Q2 460,745 189,212 32,981 30,031 164,325 44,195 Q3 457,831 184,310 32,963 29,204 166,750 44,604 Q4 456,439 183,502 32,686 28,498 166,570 45,182 Total 459,781 186,707 32,931 29,811 165,948 44,385 FY 07-08 Q1 456,561 187,057 32,701 28,144 163,378 45,282 Q2 461,639 189,974 33,422 28,359 164,342 45,541 Q3 469,307 190,434 34,929 28,150 169,467 46,327 Q4 476,296 193,897 36,278 27,837 171,072 47,212 Total 465,951 190,341 34,332 28,123 167,065 46,091 FY 08-09 Q1 481,078 199,691 37,348 27,803 169,096 47,139 Q2 494,146 205,708 39,464 28,097 173,033 47,844 Q3 514,523 211,433 42,974 27,821 183,457 48,838 Q4 530,230 217,276 45,735 27,936 189,105 50,178 Total 504,994 208,527 41,380 27,914 178,673 48,500 FY 09-10 Q1 537,063 222,600 48,163 30,421 187,768 48,110 Q2 550,639 227,689 50,816 30,626 191,929 49,579 Q3 561,243 230,280 52,548 30,823 198,748 48,844 Q4 564,443 231,583 53,411 31,673 198,862 48,913 Total 553,347 228,038 51,234 30,886 194,327 48,861 FY 10-11 Q1 573,710 241,413 56,028 32,701 194,050 49,519 Q2 582,262 245,470 56,587 33,939 196,014 50,252 Q3 593,424 247,487 58,060 34,727 202,393 50,758 Q4 597,242 249,018 58,445 36,140 202,557 51,082 Total 586,659 245,847 57,280 34,377 198,753 50,403 FY 11-12 Q1 583,826 238,654 55,246 25,896 193,492 70,538 Q2 577,547 234,959 53,496 24,913 191,996 72,183 Q3 574,986 229,805 52,678 25,387 195,443 71,673 Q4 567,593 226,304 51,591 26,163 191,775 71,761 Total 575,988 232,430 53,253 25,590 193,177 71,539 FY 12-13 Q1 561,830 228,570 51,028 27,200 183,761 71,269 Q2 560,699 226,874 50,065 28,006 184,251 71,502 Q3 562,703 221,170 49,513 28,661 190,429 72,930 Q4 554,447 216,279 47,635 29,470 187,947 73,116 Total 559,920 223,223 49,560 28,334 186,597 72,205 FY 13-14 Q1 547,161 215,887 46,172 30,320 182,059 72,723 Q2 547,004 217,495 46,566 31,655 177,984 73,305 Q3 555,426 220,318 49,006 32,119 176,579 77,404 Q4 554,121 220,086 50,032 32,662 170,294 81,046 Total 550,928 218,447 47,944 31,689 176,729 76,119 FY 14-15 Q1 553,354 220,183 48,142 31,795 176,981 76,253 Q2 541,377 216,023 48,258 33,210 163,670 80,217 Q3 531,242 205,380 46,376 32,937 163,702 82,847 Q4 518,120 194,577 45,191 31,589 159,875 86,888 Total 536,023 209,041 46,992 32,383 166,057 81,551 Data Source: CA 237 CW http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG281.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1: Caseload Dynamics January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 9 CalWORKS Applications, Approvals and Denials: FY 2014-15 There were a total of 451,439 CalWORKs applications in FY 2014-15. Tables 1D, 1E, and 1F detail by county the number of CalWORKs applications that were approved (230,241) and denied (221, 198) in the 2014-15 state fiscal year and the reasons for those denials. Single- Parent families, the most common type of CalWORKs family, comprised the greatest number of applications, approvals, and denials. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1: Caseload Dynamics January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 10 Table 1D. CalWORKs Annual Application Approvals by County: FY 2014-15 Total CW Applications Approved Single- Parent Two-Parent TANF Timed out Cases Zero Parent Families Safety Net Statewide 230,241 128,167 26,586 7,347 50,795 17,346 Alameda 6,059 3,528 627 142 1,128 634 Alpine 4 3 1 – – – Amador 159 88 28 5 18 20 Butte 1,537 843 236 45 237 176 Calaveras 250 158 46 7 19 20 Colusa 104 49 16 3 27 9 Contra Costa 3,825 2,237 354 172 702 360 Del Norte 323 159 78 5 37 44 El Dorado 716 436 98 13 107 62 Fresno 8,602 4,341 1,236 248 1,743 1,034 Glenn 210 117 25 2 44 22 Humboldt 656 361 116 12 87 80 Imperial 2,255 1,371 395 48 259 182 Inyo 75 47 11 2 9 6 Kern 10,216 5,580 1,302 323 2,162 849 Kings 1,443 741 202 32 274 194 Lake 529 298 70 21 92 48 Lassen 238 133 41 7 28 29 Los Angeles 70,718 41,842 5,518 2,252 19,065 2,041 Madera 1,698 745 208 36 573 136 Marin 347 202 18 7 90 30 Mariposa 131 85 23 3 9 11 Mendocino 768 470 105 21 111 61 Merced 3,391 1,633 488 118 827 325 Modoc 83 41 23 1 12 6 Mono 17 13 – – 2 2 Monterey 3,503 1,243 262 81 1,781 136 Napa 354 217 27 4 93 13 Nevada 286 177 48 14 25 22 Orange 8,730 4,660 983 150 2,527 410 Placer 1,149 670 176 29 169 105 Plumas 95 47 16 1 18 13 Riverside 14,693 8,652 1,949 361 2,515 1,216 Sacramento 11,452 5,916 1,771 452 1,603 1,710 San Benito 306 156 34 8 79 29 San Bernardino 22,014 12,129 3,061 962 3,574 2,288 San Diego 12,477 7,180 1,841 411 1,968 1,077 San Francisco 1,778 1,075 110 96 313 184 San Joaquin 6,710 3,619 993 177 1,198 723 San Luis Obispo 1,005 576 110 28 218 73 San Mateo 547 301 43 21 146 36 Santa Barbara 2,364 999 186 72 932 175 Santa Clara 4,126 2,253 488 98 1,011 276 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1: Caseload Dynamics January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 11 Table 1D. CalWORKs Annual Application Approvals by County: FY 2014-15 (continued) Total CW Applications Approved Single- Parent Two-Parent TANF Timed out Cases Zero Parent Families Safety Net Santa Cruz 745 387 53 34 235 36 Shasta 1,452 784 233 45 237 153 Sierra 24 16 1 – 3 4 Siskiyou 375 185 71 10 53 56 Solano 2,158 1,263 241 56 332 266 Sonoma 1,392 864 105 58 291 74 Stanislaus 4,885 2,570 776 201 883 455 Sutter 805 403 136 25 152 89 Tehama 578 286 88 24 117 63 Trinity 75 41 11 3 9 11 Tulare 6,815 3,248 897 222 1,574 874 Tuolumne 360 202 62 18 47 31 Ventura 3,117 1,713 308 116 798 182 Yolo 829 462 127 24 139 77 Yuba 688 352 114 21 93 108 Source: CA 237 CW, Line Items 7a & 7B. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG281.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1: Caseload Dynamics January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 12 Table 1E. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by County: FY 2014-15 Total CW Applications Denied Single- Parent Two-Parent TANF Timed out Cases Zero Parent Families Safety Net Statewide 221,198 142,680 30,904 1,785 42,427 3,402 Alameda 5,054 3,154 486 33 1,217 164 Alpine 3 3 – – – – Amador 222 164 53 1 3 1 Butte 1,573 1,142 329 14 69 19 Calaveras 251 205 38 – 5 3 Colusa 133 88 28 – 14 3 Contra Costa 4,561 2,196 465 27 1,791 82 Del Norte 295 207 55 5 21 7 El Dorado 733 570 92 4 63 4 Fresno 4,968 2,496 570 40 1,698 164 Glenn 163 93 49 2 19 – Humboldt 1,608 1,222 244 12 103 27 Imperial 1,757 1,292 387 8 45 25 Inyo 92 60 27 1 3 1 Kern 13,205 11,383 1,176 72 468 106 Kings 2,016 1,762 196 7 28 23 Lake 496 330 121 2 34 9 Lassen 252 178 54 2 14 4 Los Angeles 47,502 27,470 7,149 692 11,480 711 Madera 1,685 1,058 368 6 227 26 Marin 586 503 46 3 31 3 Mariposa 124 94 15 4 7 4 Mendocino 462 392 48 – 18 4 Merced 2,211 1,579 377 23 206 26 Modoc 59 47 7 – 2 3 Mono 34 26 8 – – – Monterey 5,725 3,905 966 13 830 11 Napa 347 290 29 2 22 4 Nevada 537 422 105 1 6 3 Orange 6,195 2,949 659 42 2,462 83 Placer 1,304 763 310 1 222 8 Plumas 116 83 21 – 10 2 Riverside 22,466 17,198 3,385 118 1,574 191 Sacramento 9,881 4,104 1,150 91 4,125 411 San Benito 344 289 35 – 17 3 San Bernardino 27,596 20,829 5,027 147 1,299 294 San Diego 15,404 8,709 1,142 99 5,218 236 San Francisco 1,602 1,056 121 18 369 38 San Joaquin 7,305 5,797 1,070 42 333 63 San Luis Obispo 938 384 73 2 454 25 San Mateo 2,544 1,431 195 22 873 23 Santa Barbara 2,439 1,094 263 16 1,007 59 Santa Clara 3,230 1,511 337 23 1,296 63 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1: Caseload Dynamics January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 13 Table 1E. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by County: FY 2014-15 (continued) Total CW Applications Denied Single- Parent Two-Parent TANF Timed out Cases Zero Parent Families Safety Net Santa Cruz 770 351 78 4 321 16 Shasta 1,785 1,269 392 15 84 25 Sierra 7 7 – – – – Siskiyou 484 345 109 4 25 1 Solano 1,839 1,225 138 17 400 59 Sonoma 977 712 78 6 174 7 Stanislaus 6,659 4,468 1,405 42 671 73 Sutter 961 700 186 2 64 9 Tehama 729 531 149 4 33 12 Trinity 93 65 22 – 4 2 Tulare 3,399 1,585 403 47 1,205 159 Tuolumne 220 144 56 3 14 3 Ventura 3,320 1,710 285 30 1,242 53 Yolo 1,080 418 140 11 482 29 Yuba 857 622 187 5 25 18 Source: CA 255 CW, Line Item 1. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG286.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1: Caseload Dynamics January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 14 Table 1F. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by Reasons by County: FY 2014-15 Table 1F illustrates the reasons for application for aid denials in the 2014-15 state fiscal year. Of the 221,198 applications denied in the year, the most common reason (41 percent) was for failure to comply with procedural requirements (91,060); the next most common reason (32 percent) was denial for lacking either a child eligible for CalWORKs or a child deprived of support or care (71,628). Total Denials Failure to Comply No Eligible Child\/No Deprivation Financial Other Statewide 221,198 91,060 71,628 49,153 9,357 Alameda 5,054 1,552 1,419 1,640 443 Alpine 3 3 – – – Amador 222 154 31 34 3 Butte 1,573 1,107 226 199 41 Calaveras 251 149 50 47 5 Colusa 133 79 14 38 2 Contra Costa 4,561 1,927 1,691 738 205 Del Norte 295 156 65 67 7 El Dorado 733 446 172 94 21 Fresno 4,968 1,664 2,153 1,025 126 Glenn 163 106 20 35 2 Humboldt 1,608 933 441 198 36 Imperial 1,757 1,063 211 418 65 Inyo 92 42 12 33 5 Kern 13,205 7,287 3,405 2,226 287 Kings 2,016 712 790 442 72 Lake 496 394 32 67 3 Lassen 252 99 73 74 6 Los Angeles 47,502 16,234 17,257 11,231 2,780 Madera 1,685 976 304 366 39 Marin 586 239 206 133 8 Mariposa 124 51 52 19 2 Mendocino 462 242 84 127 9 Merced 2,211 1,356 263 546 46 Modoc 59 28 7 23 1 Mono 34 19 8 7 – Monterey 5,725 2,244 1,766 1,590 125 Napa 347 273 8 64 2 Nevada 537 227 162 129 19 Orange 6,195 1,517 2,338 1,867 473 Placer 1,304 437 696 64 107 Plumas 116 85 10 19 2 Riverside 22,466 11,444 5,649 4,963 410 Sacramento 9,881 3,628 3,360 2,126 767 San Benito 344 265 7 66 6 San Bernardino 27,596 12,296 8,497 6,194 609 San Diego 15,404 4,530 7,007 2,952 915 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1: Caseload Dynamics January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 15 Total Denials Failure to Comply No Eligible Child\/No Deprivation Financial Other San Francisco 1,602 494 516 374 218 San Joaquin 7,305 2,856 2,582 1,589 278 San Luis Obispo 938 332 403 159 44 San Mateo 2,544 948 738 740 118 Santa Barbara 2,439 899 889 557 94 Santa Clara 3,230 1,112 1,094 772 252 Santa Cruz 770 291 339 117 23 Shasta 1,785 1,109 301 330 45 Sierra 7 2 2 3 – Siskiyou 484 229 143 97 15 Solano 1,839 608 671 468 92 Sonoma 977 348 431 158 40 Stanislaus 6,659 3,522 1,626 1,322 189 Sutter 961 635 94 199 33 Tehama 729 572 47 97 13 Trinity 93 70 8 14 1 Tulare 3,399 814 1,358 1,152 75 Tuolumne 220 122 26 66 6 Ventura 3,320 1,075 1,396 746 103 Yolo 1,080 540 299 189 52 Yuba 857 518 179 143 17 Source: CA 255 CW, Line Items 2-10. NOTES Failure to Comply includes but is not limited to failure to include all mandatory persons on the application form, failure to comply with fingerprint\/photo image requirements, refusal to participate in the gathering of evidence to support eligibility and refusal to participate in the face-to-face interview. No Eligible Child refers to the CalWORKs requirement that the family include a minor child who resides with a custodial parent or other adult caretaker relative of the child. No Deprivation refers to the CalWORKs requirement that a child live in a home where at least one parent is absent, deceased, or not working, or is considered disabled. Financial refers to CalWORKs requirements that applicants must have earned income below the stated earned income limits for the family size. Applicant limits for unearned income are generally $1 less than the Minimum Basic Standard of Adequate Care (MBSAC). Applicants with property valued at more than $2,250 or $3,250 (if over 60 or disabled) are ineligible. Other includes cases not approved for reasons not previously listed, including but limited to nonresident status; the application was cancelled or withdrawn; and the client moved and\/or cannot be located. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG286.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2: Benefits, Earnings Levels, and Employment January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 16 Chapter 2 Benefits, Earnings Levels, and Employment This chapter provides information relating to income levels required for initial CalWORKs program eligibility and income levels and grant levels for recipients of CalWORKs. The chapter contains data describing the earnings distribution of CalWORKs cases, historical average CalWORKs grants, grant levels, income level limits for recipients, and an account of participant employment activities. Key Terms in This Chapter Assistance Unit (AU) An AU is a group of related persons living in the same home who have been determined to be eligible for CalWORKs and for whom cash aid has been authorized. An AU is sometimes referred to as a CalWORKs case. An AU or case differs from a household in that a household includes all persons in the same dwelling regardless of their relationship to members of the AU, or their eligibility for CalWORKs aid. CalFresh CalFresh is California’s version of the federal Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP). The CalFresh program helps to improve the health and well-being of qualified California households and individuals by providing monthly electronic benefits (similar to a bank debit card) that can be used to buy most foods at markets and grocery stores to supplement their nutritional needs. Child-Only (ineligible due to immigration status, SSI recipient, or non-needy caretaker relative) Child-only cases are cases in which only the children in an AU are aided due to the exclusion or ineligibility for cash aid of the AU parent(s). Earnings Earnings includes wages, salary, commissions, and self-employment earnings. It is earned income whether the payment is cash, paycheck or personal check, or \”in-kind\” (such as housing that is included with employment). Family Family is used interchangeably with AU (see definition above) in CalWORKs. Household A household includes all persons in the same dwelling regardless of their relationship to members of the AU, or their eligibility for CalWORKs aid. Maximum Aid Payment (MAP) The MAP is the maximum grant level provided for CalWORKs families. MAP levels are established by the California State Legislature and are based on family size, whether the adults in the household are able to work (exempt or non-exempt), and the geographical location of the family residence (Region 1 or Region 2). MAP Exempt The MAP for families with adults who are unable to work because of a temporary or permanent incapacity and cases where no adult is receiving aid (e.g., child-only cases) is higher than for those with adults who are able to work. This higher California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2: Benefits, Earnings Levels, and Employment January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 17 MAP amount is called the MAP exempt level. Non-Exempt MAP The MAP for families with adults who are able to work is lower than for those with adults who are unable to work. This lower MAP amount is called the Non-Exempt MAP. Maximum CalFresh Allotment (MCA) The MCA is the maximum food aid benefit level a family may receive from CalFresh. The MCA varies according to family size and income. Maximum Earned Income Limit The maximum earned income level is the income threshold for CalWORKs recipient families. Minimum Basic Standards of Adequate Care (MBSAC) The MBSAC is the income threshold to determine an applicant family’s eligibility for CalWORKs. If a family’s income falls below the MBSAC (after an initial $90 earned income disregard) for the region in which they reside, they may be eligible for CalWORKs assistance. Region 1 and Region 2 California is divided into two regions for determining grant amounts, based on cost of living: Region 1 counties (higher cost of living): Alameda, Contra Costa, Los Angeles, Marin, Monterey, Napa, Orange, San Diego, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, Sonoma, and Ventura. Region 2 counties (lower cost of living): Alpine, Amador, Butte, Calaveras, Colusa, Del Norte, El Dorado, Fresno, Glenn, Humboldt, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Lake, Lassen, Madera, Mariposa, Mendocino, Merced, Modoc, Mono, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Riverside, Sacramento, San Benito, San Bernardino, San Joaquin, Shasta, Sierra, Siskiyou, Stanislaus, Sutter, Tehama, Trinity, Tulare, Tuolumne, Yolo, and Yuba. Safety Net Safety-net cases are those in which only the children in an AU are aided due to the parent(s) being discontinued for cash aid because they reached the 48-month lifetime assistance limit. Sanction Sanctioning is the process by which parent(s) are removed from CalWORKs support because at least one failed to comply with welfare to work program requirements without good cause, and county staff compliance efforts failed. (Eligible children continue to receive funding.) California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2: Benefits, Earnings Levels, and Employment January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 18 Tables and Figures in This Chapter Table 2A. CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment (MAP) Levels 19 Table 2B. Comparison of Benefit Levels in FFY 2008 and FFY 2012 20 Table 2C. CalWORKs Caseload and Grants with CalFresh Benefits: 21 FY 2007-08 through FY 2015-16 Table 2D. CalWORKs Recipient Earned Income Limits: FY 2015-16 22 Table 2E. Earnings Distribution for Work-Eligible Adults and for All Cases: FFY 2013 23 Figure 2A. Quarterly Earnings for CalWORKs Adult Recipients: 1998-2015 24 Figure 2B. Proportion of Adult Recipients with Earnings: 1998-2015 25 Figure 2C. Number of CalWORKs Individuals in Employment: FFYs 2008-2015 26 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2: Benefits, Earnings Levels, and Employment January 2016 Assistance Unit Size Maximum Aid Payment Exempt Maximum Aid Payment Non- Exempt 1 $369 $331 2 $607 $541 3 $751 $670 4 $891 $799 5 $1,017 $909 6 $1,141 $1,021 7 $1,254 $1,120 8 $1,366 $1,222 9 $1,477 $1,321 10 or more $1,587 $1,418 Table 2A. CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment (MAP) Levels Effective April 1, 2015 The Maximum Aid Payment (MAP) is the maximum grant level provided for CalWORKs families. MAP levels are established by the California State Legislature and are based on family size, whether the adults in the household are able to work (exempt or non-exempt), and the geographical location of the family residence (Region 1 or Region 2). Region 11 Region 21 For more information on CalWORKs historical MAP levels, please refer to the CDSS website at: http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/res\/pdf\/calreports\/MAP-MBSAC.pdf (http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG278.htm). 1California is divided into two regions based roughly on cost of living, Region 1 (higher cost of living) and Region 2 (lower cost of living). Region 1 Counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, Los Angeles, Marin, Monterey, Napa, Orange, San Diego, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, Sonoma, and Ventura. Region 2 Counties: Alpine, Amador, Butte, Calaveras, Colusa, Del Norte, El Dorado, Fresno, Glenn, Humboldt, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Lake, Lassen, Madera, Mariposa, Mendocino, Merced, Modoc, Mono, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Riverside, Sacramento, San Benito, San Bernardino, San Joaquin, Shasta, Sierra, Siskiyou, Stanislaus, Sutter, Tehama, Trinity, Tulare, Tuolumne, Yolo, and Yuba. California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 19 Assistance Unit Size Maximum Aid Payment Exempt Maximum Aid Payment Non- Exempt 1 $387 $350 2 $636 $569 3 $788 $704 4 $936 $840 5 $1,065 $954 6 $1,197 $1,072 7 $1,315 $1,178 8 $1,434 $1,283 9 $1,549 $1,387 10 or more $1,665 $1,490 http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/res\/pdf\/calreports\/MAP-MBSAC.pdf http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG278.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2: Benefits, Earnings Levels, and Employment January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 20 Table 2B. Comparison of Benefit Levels in FFY 2008 and FFY 2012 Before and After Major Program Changes Enacted During the Great Recession This table provides a comparison of the combined resources a typical CalWORKs family had both before and after the major policy changes in the CalWORKs program as a result of the Great Recession. Those policy changes included grant reductions totaling 12 percent, a reduction in the earned income disregard (from an initial disregard to $225 disregard to an initial disregard of $112 disregard), and a reduction in the adult assistance time limit from 60 to 48 months. The top of the table compares the resources available to a family of three (one adult and two children) one family with earned income, the other with no earned income. The bottom of the table looks at a similar family of three, but where the adult is not aided because of sanction status, ineligibility, or timed-out status. Case Type Resources FFY 2008 FFY 2012 Single-Parent Aided Adult Cases – With and Without Income (AU of 3) Aided Adult Maximum Aid Payment1 $723 $638 No income CalFresh Benefit2 $348 $474 Family of 3 Income $0 $0 AU of 3 Total $1,071 $1,112 Aided Adult Avg. Grant $467 $473 With income Avg. CalFresh Benefit $272 $394 Family of 3 Avg. Countable Income3 $897 $721 AU of 3 Avg. \”Spendable\” Income $1,636 $1,589 Cases with No Aided Adult (AU of 2) Sanctioned Avg. Grant $460 $445 Family of 3 AU of 2 Avg. CalFresh Benefit $263 $386 Avg. Countable Income $180 $59 Avg. \”Spendable\” Income $903 $890 Child-Only Avg. Grant $482 $393 Family of 3 Avg. CalFresh Benefit $199 $269 AU of 2 Avg. Countable Income $137 $126 Avg. \”Spendable\” Income $819 $789 Safety-Net Avg. Grant $406 $368 Family of 3 AU of 2 Avg. CalFresh Benefit $345 $468 Avg. Countable Income $271 $186 Avg. \”Spendable\” Income $1,023 $1,022 Data Sources: Research and Data Enterprise Project (RADEP) Federal Sample, FFY 2008 and FFY 2012. 1Non-Exempt Region 1 (counties with a higher cost-of-living) for an Assistance Unit of 3. 2CalFresh Benefit for a single-parent AU of 3 with no income calculated using the non-exempt MAP, average housing costs, and standard deductions for FFY 2008 and FFY 2012. The CalFresh Program, federally known as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, provides monthly electronic benefits that can be used to purchase food. 3Countable income is income that is considered when computing the grant and can include earnings from employment, Worker’s Compensation, Disability, and other income. It does not include SSI benefits or the Earned Income Tax Credit, which would also contribute to a wage-earner’s \”spendable\” income. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2: Benefits, Earnings Levels, and Employment January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 21 Table 2C. CalWORKs Caseload and Grants with CalFresh Benefits Recent History and Projections (FY 2007-08 through FY 2015-16) Table 2C displays the average monthly CalWORKs caseload and grant, as well as the MAP and maximum CalFresh allotment for Fiscal Years 2007-08 through 2015-16. Fiscal Year Average Monthly CalWORKs Cases Average CalWORKs Grants MAP for AU of 3 Region 11 CalFresh MCA for HH of 32 2007-08 465,951 $538 $723 $426 2008-09 504,994 $541 $723 $463 2009-10 553,347 $514 $694 $526 2010-11 586,659 $517 $694 $526 2011-12 575,988 $466 $638 $526 2012-13 559,919 $465 $638 $526 2013-14 550,928 $474 $670 $526 2014-153 535,532 $492 $704 $497 2015-164 505,504 $512 $704 $511 Acronyms used in this table: MAP = Maximum Aid Payment; AU = Assistance Unit; MCA = Maximum CalFresh Allotment; HH = household 1 California’s grant levels are divided into two regions based roughly on cost of living. This chart reflects the California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) Maximum Aid Payment (MAP) for an Assistance Unit (AU) of three in Region 1 Counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, Los Angeles, Marin, Monterey, Napa, Orange, San Diego, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, Sonoma and Ventura. 2 CalFresh benefit amounts are based on a Federal Fiscal Year (October-September) versus the State Fiscal Year (July-June). The FY 2014-15 CalFresh benefit amount is based on the FFY 2014 household (HH) Maximum CalFresh Allotment (MCA) with an adjustment for the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 enhanced benefits expiring in November 2013. 3 The CalWORKs MAP for an AU of three increased to $704 April 1, 2015. 4 Represents projections from the 2015-16 Appropriation. Prior years reflect actual data based on the CA 800 Expenditure Report. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2: Benefits, Earnings Levels, and Employment January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 22 Table 2D. CalWORKs Recipient Earned Income Limits: FY 2015-16 This chart provides the maximum earned income thresholds for a non-exempt recipient family receiving CalWORKs. If the family’s earnings are above the maximum earned Income limit, they would become ineligible for CalWORKs. These limits apply only to earned income. The limits for unearned income would vary based on the types of unearned income received by the family. The chart also provides the Maximum Basic Standards for Adequate Care (MBSAC) which is used in determining applicant financial eligibility for those families that apply for CalWORKs. An applicant family’s income after applying the value of in-kind income for housing, utilities, food and clothing and less $90 for earned income must be below the MBSAC levels in order to qualify for CalWORKs. Region 11 Region 2 1 Assistance Unit Size Applicant Family Recipient Family Applicant Family Recipient Family FY 2015-16 MBSAC2 Maximum Earned Income Limit Non-Exempt FY 2015-16 MBSAC2 Maximum Earned Income Limit Non-Exempt 1 $619 $925 $587 $887 2 $1,014 $1,363 $964 $1,307 3 $1,257 $1,633 $1,194 $1,565 4 $1,492 $1,905 $1,419 $1,823 5 $1,703 $2,133 $1,621 $2,043 6 $1,915 $2,369 $1,822 $2,267 7 $2,105 $2,581 $1,997 $2,465 8 $2,291 $2,791 $2,181 $2,669 9 $2,485 $2,999 $2,356 $2,867 10 $2,698 $3,205 $2,566 $3,061 1California is divided into two regions based roughly on cost of living, Region 1 (higher cost of living) and Region 2 (lower cost of living). 2For applicant families, add $24 for each additional person for assistance units greater than 10. Region 1 counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, Los Angeles, Marin, Monterey, Napa, Orange, San Diego, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, Sonoma and Ventura. Region 2 counties: Alpine, Amador, Butte, Calaveras, Colusa, Del Norte, El Dorado, Fresno, Glenn, Humboldt, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Lake, Lassen, Madera, Mariposa, Mendocino, Merced, Modoc, Mono, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Riverside, Sacramento, San Benito, San Bernardino, San Joaquin, Shasta, Sierra, Siskiyou, Stanislaus, Sutter, Tehama, Trinity, Tulare, Tuolumne, Yolo and Yuba. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2: Benefits, Earnings Levels, and Employment January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 23 Table 2E. Earnings Distribution for Cases with Work-Eligible Adults and for All Cases: FFY 2013 RADEP provides a look at the distribution of CalWORKs cases by amount of earned income. This table shows the number of children and adults in cases with earnings grouped by $100 increments, and the proportion of those cases in relation to the whole. The second column displays only CalWORKs cases that include a work-eligible adult (although the adult may not be aided due to sanction or timed-out status), while the third column of the table below displays all CalWORKs cases (including cases receiving a child-only grant). FFY 2013 Cases with Work Eligible Adults All CalWORKs Cases Earned income Number of Children % of Total Number of Adults % of Total Number of Cases % of Total Number of Children % of Total Number of Adults % of Total Number of Cases % of Total No income 552,335 76% 204,422 73% 285,506 78% 901,834 79% 211,347 74% 453,669 80% $1 to $100 8,689 1% 3,027 1% 4,008 1% 12,830 1% 3,027 1% 5,432 1% $101 to $200 6,320 1% 2,528 1% 3,171 1% 9,251 1% 2,528 1% 5,293 1% $201 to $300 12,513 2% 5,824 2% 7,143 2% 22,049 2% 5,824 2% 11,694 2% $301 to $400 13,806 2% 5,958 2% 6,747 2% 23,530 2% 6,218 2% 10,409 2% $401 to $500 12,894 2% 5,334 2% 6,059 2% 17,294 2% 5,719 2% 8,099 1% $501 to $600 11,433 2% 4,754 2% 5,392 1% 18,638 2% 4,754 2% 7,988 1% $601 to $700 12,872 2% 5,277 2% 5,908 2% 15,426 1% 5,300 2% 7,385 1% $701 to $800 11,010 2% 4,668 2% 5,418 1% 14,944 1% 4,668 2% 7,185 1% $801 to $900 11,880 2% 5,444 2% 6,376 2% 16,679 1% 5,444 2% 8,521 2% $901 to $1000 8,725 1% 4,598 2% 4,505 1% 10,153 1% 4,598 2% 5,103 1% $1001 to $1100 11,175 2% 4,888 2% 5,316 1% 13,238 1% 4,888 2% 6,273 1% $1101 to $1200 7,715 1% 3,555 1% 3,516 1% 9,661 1% 3,555 1% 4,297 1% $1201 to $1300 8,867 1% 3,842 1% 3,684 1% 12,970 1% 3,842 1% 5,106 1% $1301 to $1400 7,579 1% 3,100 1% 3,628 1% 8,629 1% 3,100 1% 4,023 1% $1401 to $1500 9,362 1% 4,035 1% 4,092 1% 10,894 1% 4,035 1% 4,733 1% $1501 to $1600 2,193 0% 1,326 0% 1,046 0% 2,468 0% 1,326 0% 1,197 0% More than $1600 15,095 2% 6,291 2% 5,798 2% 18,656 2% 6,290 2% 7,299 1% TOTAL 724,463 100% 278,871 100% 367,313 100% 1,139,144 100% 286,463 100% 563,706 100% Data Source: FFY 2013 RADEP California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2: Benefits, Earnings Levels, and Employment January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 24 Figure 2A. Quarterly Earnings for CalWORKs Adult Recipients: 1998-2015 The following charts display the latest data available for CalWORKs recipients with earnings and provide an historical look at the quarterly earnings of CalWORKs adult recipients as reported by the Employment Development Department (EDD). The chart on this page shows the trend in the median and mean value of earnings of CalWORKs adults from 1998 through June 2015. The California minimum wage has also been included in the chart for reference. The median and mean earnings of CalWORKs adults have increased since 2013 though the most recent quarter shows little change based on preliminary data. Data Source: EDD Quarterly Wage Earnings for CalWORKs Adult Recipients (from MEDS), http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG287.htm. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG287.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2: Benefits, Earnings Levels, and Employment January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 25 Figure 2B. Proportion of Adult Recipients with Earnings: 1998-2015 This chart illustrates changes in the percentage of CalWORKs adults with earnings between July 1998 and June 2015. The percentage of CalWORKs adult recipients with earnings has risen from 24 percent in the first quarter of 2013 to above 31 percent in the second quarter of 2015, a level last reached in 2008. Changes in the California minimum wage have been included for reference. Data Source: EDD Quarterly Wage Earnings for CalWORKs Adult Recipients (from MEDS), http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG287.htm. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG287.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2: Benefits, Earnings Levels, and Employment January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 26 Figure 2C. Number of CalWORKs Individuals in Employment: FFYs 2008-2015 The figure below below provides the trend in the number of CalWORKS individuals in employment activities from FFY 2008 to FFY 2015 and displays the increases achieved in each of the employment categories (Subsidized, Unsubsidized, and Self-Employment) since FFY 2013. Of note is the approximately 10,000 participant increase in Unsubsidized Employment from FFY 2013 to FFY 2015. Source: WTW 25 and WTW 25A; displays average monthly data based on federal fiscal years. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG291.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG292.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 3: Fiscal Overview January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 27 Chapter 3 Fiscal Overview This chapter provides a brief financial overview of the CalWORKs program, including funding sources and the distribution of funds across the various program components. Funding Sources CalWORKs is collaboratively funded by the federal government, the state General Fund (GF), and California counties. California receives federal funding for CalWORKs through an annual TANF block grant of $3.7 billion. In order to receive the federal funds, California contributes $2.9 billion annually in Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) funding. State MOE funds come from the GF, as well as contributions from California’s 58 counties. Other key sources of CalWORKs funding include the Social Services Block Grant (SSBG), also called Title XX, and non-MOE GF. Expenditures The vast majority of CalWORKs funds are provided as grants and services to California families in need. In FY 2015-16, approximately 90 percent of CalWORKs expenditures went to grants, services, child care, and mental health and substance abuse assistance programs. CalWORKs administrative and services funding is provided in an annual Single Allocation to California counties, which administer the program at the local level. TANF\/MOE funds not allocated to CalWORKs are used to fund programs such as Tribal TANF, an assistance program for Native Americans residing on tribal lands; KinGAP, a program that assists non- parental relatives in caring for children; child care programs administered by the California Department of Education (CDE); and others. Key Terms in This Chapter General Fund (GF) The GF is California’s main governmental operating account. GF revenues come primarily from the state income tax, but state sales and corporate taxes also contribute to the GF. Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) The MOE is a requirement that states expend a specified minimum amount of matching funds on benefits for lower-income families in order to participate in the federal TANF program. California allocates $2.9 billion annually in MOE. Non-MOE General Fund CalWORKs cases that receive assistance from federal TANF, state MOE funds, or some combination, are subject to work participation requirements. Non-MOE General Funds originate in the state GF but are allocated for assistance that is not subject to the federal TANF work participation requirements. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Funding The federal government allocates California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 3: Fiscal Overview January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 28 $16.6 billion annually for TANF. States receive a portion of this total in an annual block grant. To participate in TANF, states must expend a specified amount of dollars in MOE funds that match the TANF funds. California receives approximately $3.7 billion annually in federal TANF funding, and this is matched with roughly $2.9 billion in state-contributed MOE. Title XX Title XX of the Social Security Act, also referred to as the Social Services Block Grant (SSBG), is a funding program provided to states, without a state matching requirement, to assist in supporting a wide range of services, including preventing child abuse, increasing the availability of child care, and providing community-based care for the elderly and disabled. Funds are allocated to the states on the basis of population. Tables and Figures in This Chapter Table 3A. CalWORKs Funding by Program Area & Fund Sources: FY 2015-16 29 Table 3B. Funding Reconciliation for CalWORKs: FY 2015-16 30 Figure 3A. CalWORKs Funds for FY 2015-16 29 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 3: Fiscal Overview January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 29 Fund Sources for FY 2015-16 Appropriation (in millions) TANF in CalWORKs1 Maintenance of Effort (MOE) Other Funds (Non-MOE GF, Title XX) $ 2,601 $ 2,212 $ 774 Total Funds $ 5,587 Fiscal Overview of the CalWORKs Program CalWORKs Funds by Program Area and Funding Source The chart and tables below, and on the following page, display the distribution of funds within each of the CalWORKs program components (grants, administration, services, child care, and mental health and substance abuse treatment). The funding source for each of these components is also provided (TANF, GF, county funds, and Title XX funds). *Stage One only. Stable clients may receive child care in Stage Two, funded by the California Department of Education. Table 3A. CalWORKs Funding by Program Area & Fund Sources: FY 2015-16 Acronyms used on this page: MOE (Maintenance of Effort), TANF (federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families), GF (state General Fund) 1 Approximately $1 billion of the TANF Block Grant is spent in other related programs outside of CalWORKs that serve TANF goals. Funding by Program Area for FY 2015-16 Appropriation (in millions) (in millions) Grants $ 3,215 58% Administration $ 510 9% Services $ 1,325 24% Child Care $ 410 7% Mental Health & Sub. Abuse $ 127 2% Total Funds $ 5,587 100% Grants 58% Administration 9% Services 24% Child Care* 7% Mental Health & Substance Abuse 2% Figure 3A. CalWORKs Funds for FY 2015-16 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 3: Fiscal Overview January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 30 GF EXPENDITURES3 FY 2015-16 GF in CalWORKs $601 Total GF in All Programs $1,411 Table 3B. Funding Reconciliation for CalWORKs: FY 2015-16 FY 2015-16 Appropriation (in Millions) TANF MOE Non-MOE Title XX Total GF County GF\/County CalWORKs1 $2,601 $485 $1,727 $614 $160 $5,587 Cash Assistance Grants $3,215 Administration $510 Services $1,325 Mental Health & Substance Abuse $127 Child Care $410 CDSS Programs (Not CalWORKs) $411 $212 $17 $640 Tribal TANF $83 $78 $0 $161 WINS $0 $30 $0 $30 Other CDSS Programs2 $328 $104 $17 $449 Other State Agencies (Not CDSS) $539 $599 $0 $1,138 Community College $0 $35 $0 $35 CDE Child Care Programs $0 $552 $0 $552 Child Support Pass-Through Payment $0 $12 $0 $12 Student Aid Commission $521 $0 $0 $521 TANF Pass-Through for State Agencies $18 $0 $0 $18 Total Spent in All Programs $3,551 $1,296 $1,744 $614 $160 $7,365 Subaccounts: A portion of funding for CalWORKs grants is shifted from GF to revenues deposited into the CalWORKs MOE Subaccount, Realignment Family Support Subaccount, and Child Poverty and Family Supplemental Support Subaccount. These funds will be redistributed to counties in lieu of GF for CalWORKs expenditures. The CalWORKs MOE Subaccount funds were implemented on September 1, 2011. The Realignment Family Support Subaccount and the Child Poverty and Family Supplemental Support Subaccount were implemented on July 1, 2013. Acronyms used on this page: MOE (Maintenance of Effort), TANF (federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families), WINS (Work Incentive Nutritional Supplement), CDE (California Department of Education), GF (State General Fund) 1Funding for CalWORKs components cannot be broken out by funding type due to overall shifts from TANF to MOE\/Non-MOE. 2Includes KinGAP, other MOE-Eligible Programs in CDSS, and state support costs for CalWORKs. 3For purposes of this chart, GF in CalWORKs reflects MOE and Non-MOE GF expenditures on CalWORKs families for grants, administration, services, mental health, substance abuse, and child care. COUNTY FUND SOURCES CalWORKs MOE and Non-MOE Expenditures FY 2015-16 2.5 Percent of CalWORKs Grants $76 CalWORKs MOE Subaccount $1,121 Realignment Family Support Subaccount $742 Child Poverty & Family Suppl. Subaccount $287 Total $2,226 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4: Program Chronology January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 31 Chapter 4 Program Chronology This chapter provides a brief history of CalWORKs and its predecessors, beginning with the 1935 federal Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program and the programs that led up to the creation of CalWORKs in 1998. Since then, CalWORKs itself has undergone numerous changes as a result of new federal and state laws. Key Terms in This Chapter American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) Part of the federal stimulus package in response to the Great Recession, ARRA was a supplemental appropriation for job preservation and creation, energy efficiency, and science, assistance to the unemployed, and state and local fiscal stabilization. ARRA provided a work participation rate requirement, relief provisions, and funding for subsidized employment for state TANF programs. Assistance to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) AFDC was established by the Social Security Act of 1935 as a grant program to enable states to provide cash welfare payments for needy children who had been deprived of parental support or care because their father or mother was absent from the home, incapacitated, deceased, or unemployed. Earned Income Disregard (EID) The EID is the amount of earnings subtracted from income for determining a CalWORKs cash grant. The maximum has varied with changes in the law. In October of 2013 it was set to the first $225 in earned income and 50 percent of remaining earned income for all CalWORKs cases. Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) The EITC is a tax break (in the form of a refund) for people who work full- or part-time. The EITC refund is not counted as income when computing a person or family’s CalWORKs cash grant, CalFresh allocation, or Medi-Cal benefits. Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool (OCAT) The Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool is a web- based statewide standardized appraisal tool, provides in-depth appraisal of recipient strengths, barriers to employment and overall work readiness of CalWORKs participants, leading to more effective placement in work activities and referrals to supportive services. OCAT is based on the federal Online WORK Readiness Assessment Tool (OWRA). Quarterly Reporting \/Prospective Budgeting (QR\/PB) QR\/PB is a budgeting system put in place in 2003 for the CalWORKs and CalFresh programs. Recipients’ eligibility and benefits are determined for a 3-month period using prospective budgeting and income averaging rules based on information reported by recipients once in the quarter; recipients have the option to report changes that would result in increased grant\/benefits when they occur. Semi-Annual Reporting (SAR) SAR requires households receiving assistance to report California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4: Program Chronology January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 32 income on a semi-annual basis. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF) TANF is a federal program that replaced AFDC and now funds CalWORKs. TANF is designed to help needy families achieve self-sufficiency. States receive block grants to design and operate programs that accomplish one of the four purposes of the TANF program: Provide assistance to needy families so that children can be cared for in their own homes; Reduce the dependency of needy parents by promoting job preparation, work, and marriage; Prevent and reduce the incidence of out-of-wedlock pregnancies; and Encourage the formation and maintenance of two-parent families. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4: Program Chronology January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 33 A Brief History of What Led to the Present Version of CalWORKs The program known as CalWORKs began with the 1935 federal Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, jointly funded and administered by the federal government and the 50 states. AFDC provided cash aid to single mothers with children who had no support from a husband as a result of his death, disability, or absence. By the 1960s, the number of AFDC cases had grown considerably, and the caseload had shifted toward female-headed households that resulted from out-of-wedlock births or divorce. Social scientists and legislators became concerned about a possible creation of a culture of long-term dependency and a transmission of dependency from one generation to the next. In response, a series of reforms in 1967 and 1988 offered AFDC participants financial incentives to work and imposed penalties for not working. By the 1990s, experimentation with various AFDC reforms resulted in the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA). In this act, Congress sought to reduce dependence on aid, limit out-of-wedlock childbirth, encourage the formation of stable two-parent families, and ensure that children could be cared for in their own homes or the homes of relatives. To this end, PRWORA replaced AFDC with Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), changed the funding structure of the program, limited to 60 months the amount of time that families could receive federal aid, and provided incentives for states to encourage support recipients to work. As a response to PRWORA, in 1997, California enacted the Welfare-to-Work Act, which replaced AFDC (and related state programs) with CalWORKs. As required by PRWORA, CalWORKs included a 60-month time limit and an adult-only sanction for noncompliance with the Welfare- to-Work (WTW) requirements. CalWORKs provided a state-funded Safety Net program that continued the child portion of a grant even after the adult in question reached the lifetime limit. It also simplified the monthly earned income disregard to $225 and 50 percent (i.e., for every dollar of earnings beyond the disregard, the grant declines by 50 cents). These adjustments were an effort to encourage aid recipients to work. Between 1998 and the present, CalWORKs has undergone a number of changes as a result of shifting state priorities, federal policy changes, and the Great Recession of the late 2000s. The following chronology explains briefly, year by year, how CalWORKs has changed in response to changes mandated by the U.S. Congress and the California State Legislature. 1998 CalWORKs Implementation W&IC sections 11200-11526.5 The CalWORKs program, California’s version of the TANF program, was implemented. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4: Program Chronology January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 34 CalWORKs 60-Month Time Limit W&IC sections 11266.5, 11454, 11454.5, and 11495.1 Adults in the CalWORKs program were allowed to receive assistance for a lifetime maximum of 60 months, unless the individual was exempt or their cash aid grant was fully reimbursed by child support collection. CalWORKs Single Allocation Re-appropriation W&IC section15204.2 This legislation authorized unspent CalWORKs funding from one year to the next for three years from FY 1997-98 through FY 1999-00. 2002 County Performance Incentives End W&IC section 10544.1 Legislation provided that counties could earn fiscal incentive payments for case exits due to employment, grant reductions due to earnings, and the diversion of applicants from enrolling in CalWORKs. Counties earned approximately $1.092 billion between January 1, 1998, and June 30, 2002. These incentives were discontinued due to budgetary constraints; approximately $400 million of unspent incentives were allocated to counties to spend after June 30, 2002. Base Budget for CalWORKs Single Allocation The CalWORKs Single Allocation base funding for FY 2001-02 and all subsequent years was established at the FY 2000-01 funding level, which was formulated through the Proposed County Administrative Budget (PCAB) process and increased\/decreased by caseload growth\/decline. 2003 Quarterly Reporting \/Prospective Budgeting (QR\/PB) W&IC sections 11265.1 and 11265.2 The monthly reporting\/retrospective budgeting system was replaced with a QR\/PB system for the CalWORKs and CalFresh programs. Under QR\/PB, recipients’ eligibility and benefits are determined for a three month period using prospective budgeting and income averaging rules based on information reported by recipients once in the quarter; recipients have the option to report changes that would result in increased grant\/benefits when they occur. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4: Program Chronology January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 35 2004 Work Participation W&IC section 11325.21 The 18\/24 month time limit was eliminated and counties were required to universally engage all non- exempt adults in work activities (WTW program) within 90 days of applying for CalWORKs. Unless exempt from work requirements, adults were required to participate in at least 20 hours per week of core activities (employment, work experience, on-the-job training, work-study, self-employment, community service, up to twelve months of vocational training, job search and job readiness assistance) and 12 hours per week of core or non-core activities (predominantly educational activities). Employment Services Augmentation W&IC section 11325.22 An additional $50 million in TANF funds was provided for Employment Services. CalWORKs Single Allocation Reappropriation W&IC section15204.2 Unspent CalWORKs Single Allocation funds totaling $40 million were re-appropriated from FY 2003-04 for distribution and expenditure in FY 2004-05. 2005 CalWORKs Single Allocation Reappropriation W&IC section15204.2 Unspent CalWORKs Single Allocation funds totaling $50 million were re-appropriated from FY 2004-05 for distribution and expenditure in FY 2005-06 as an offset to the reduction in CalWORKs Eligibility Administration Basic and Prospective Budgeting savings. 2006 Administration Restoration Budget Act of 2006 section 28.00 Funding was reestablished at the FY 2005-06 spending level with $140 million restored for county CalWORKs administration. 2007 Employment Services Augmentation W&IC section 10535 An additional $90 million in TANF funds was provided for Employment Services to help improve client participation levels. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4: Program Chronology January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 36 Durational Sanctions W&IC section 11327.5 Legislation removed the statutory requirement that noncompliant individuals in the CalWORKs WTW program be subject to financial sanctions of a minimum duration of three or six months for individuals in their second, third or subsequent instance of non-compliance, respectively. Instead, any sanction may end at the point the noncompliant individual performs the activity he or she previously failed or refused to perform. CalWORKs Homeless Assistance Program W&IC section11450 (f) (2) (A) (B) Legislation increased the daily rate for temporary homeless assistance, redefined homelessness criteria to include families who receive a notice to pay rent or vacate, allowed up to two months of rent in arrears to prevent homelessness and allowed a higher rent threshold to secure permanent housing. 2008 Subsidized Employment W&IC section 11322.63 Counties were provided funding outside of the CalWORKs Single Allocation to pay 50 percent of a CalWORKs WTW participant’s wage subsidy while participating in public or private sector Subsidized Employment. Participation is limited to a maximum of six months for each WTW participant, up to 50 percent of the Maximum Aid Payment for the family. Employment Services Base Veto Budget Act of 2008 section 103 The Governor vetoed $60 million of the CalWORKs Single Allocation due to the state’s budget crisis. This was reflected as a $60 million reduction to Employment Services funding. 2009 Four Percent Maximum Aid Payment Reduction W&IC Sections 11450, 11452, and 11453 All CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment levels (including exempt, non-exempt, Region 1 and Region 2) were reduced by four percent. ARRA of 2009 W&IC sections 11320.3 and 11454.5 CDSS was authorized to apply to the Emergency Contingency Fund under ARRA, a multi- year, federal economic stimulus program. Emergency Contingency Fund programs included Basic Assistance, Subsidized Employment, and Non-Recurrent Short-Term Benefits. Temporary Suspension of Subsidized Employment W&IC section11322.64 Subsidized Employment was suspended while funds were available through the ARRA Emergency Contingency Fund. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4: Program Chronology January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 37 WTW Exemptions for Parents of Young Children W&IC section11320.3 (b) (7) Parents with a child between one and two years of age or parents with two children under age six were exempted from WTW requirements to provide counties with a way to absorb a $376 million reduction in Employment Services and Child Care in the CalWORKs Single Allocation. Mental Health and Substance Abuse Funding Flexibility W&IC sections 11325.71 and 11329.5(e) Counties were allowed the flexibility to redirect funding both from and to the CalWORKs Mental Health and Substance Abuse allocations, and both from and to other CalWORKs Employment Services, for FY 2009-10 and FY 2010-11. 2010 TANF Emergency Contingency Fund Continued implementation\/expansion of CalWORKs subsidized employment programs through the TANF Emergency Contingency Fund (ECF) that was part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) economic stimulus package. 2011 Eight Percent Maximum Aid Payment Reduction W&IC sections 11450, 11452, and 11453 All CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment levels (including exempt, non-exempt, and Region One and Region Two) were reduced by eight percent. CalWORKs 48-Month Time Limit W&IC sections 11454, 11454.2, and 11454.5 The CalWORKs time limit for adults was reduced from 60 months to 48 months, counting all months on aid received in California since January 1, 1998, unless the adult has\/had a time limit exemption. Earned Income Disregard (EID) Reduction W&IC section 11451.5 The initial amount of non-exempt earned income disregarded when determining grant amounts decreased from $225 to $112. The disregard of 50 percent of any additional non- exempt earned income was maintained. Changes to the Cal-Learn Program W&IC section 11334.8 Cal-Learn intensive case management services were suspended for one year. Pregnant and parenting teens continued to receive CalWORKs assistance and services in the WTW program. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4: Program Chronology January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 38 Extend Mental Health and Substance Abuse Funding Flexibility W&IC sections 11325.71 and 11329.5(f) Legislation extended the flexibility to redirect funding both from and to the CalWORKs Mental Health and Substance Abuse allocations, and both from and to other CalWORKs Employment Services for FY 2011-12. Changes to Subsidized Employment W&IC section 11322.63 The state’s maximum contribution (outside of the Single Allocation) toward wage subsidies under the Subsidized Employment program was increased to 100 percent of the computed grant for the participant’s AU in the month prior to participation in Subsidized Employment. The eligible population was expanded to include individuals in the CalWORKs Safety Net program and individuals in WTW sanction status. Counties were allowed to continue AB 98 Subsidized Employment for the duration of the placement to participants who become ineligible for CalWORKs due to their Subsidized Employment income. Extend WTW Exemptions for Young Children W&IC sections 11320.3(b) (7), 11320.3(f) (1), and 11320.3(g) The $376 million reduction in the CalWORKs Single Allocation was extended. The young children and good cause for lack of supportive service exemptions were extended through June 1, 2012. 2012 SB 1041 Overview Chapter 47, Statutes of 2012 SB 1041 lowered the minimum hourly participation requirement for single parents (from 32 hours to either 20 hours or 30 hours depending on the age of the youngest child) and provided flexibility in requirements, allowing recipients to pursue schooling and job-skills training as they move toward self-sufficiency. The earned income disregard rose from $112 to $225 (i.e., back to the level in effect prior to 2011), allowing qualifying individuals to keep more of their earnings before their cash grant gets reduced or they no longer qualify for aid. Several reporting requirements were modified to reduce burdens on recipients and county welfare offices; for example, the prior quarterly income verification system was replaced by a semi-annual reporting system. For child-only cases (exclusive of those in sanction status), income verification is now required annually rather than quarterly. The effects of the changes introduced by SB 1041 are currently being evaluated by researchers at the RAND Corporation. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4: Program Chronology January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 39 End of WTW Exemptions for Young Children W&IC sections 11320.3(g), 11320.3(h), and 11320.3(b)(6)(A)(iv) Legislation extended the temporary exemptions for parents of young children through the end of calendar year 2012; adults remained exempt past January 2013 until they had been re- engaged in a WTW plan. Counties were required to re-engage these previously exempted cases over a period of two years, with all cases being re-engaged by January 2015. Additionally, a new once-per-lifetime exemption was created for parents of children under two years of age. WTW 24-Month Time Clock W&IC sections 11320.8, 11322.85, and 11322.86 The eligibility requirements for work-eligible adults in the CalWORKs program was changed by providing 24 months of aid under which WTW participants must meet state-defined work requirements and an additional 24 months of aid only if WTW participants meet federally- defined work requirements. Counties have the option of extending the 24 months of eligibility based on state requirements for 20 percent of its post-24 month caseload if the adult meets specific criteria that suggest additional months of assistance will provide significant progress toward self-sufficiency, or if the adult is facing uniquely adverse labor market conditions. WTW Hourly Participation Requirements W&IC section 11322.8 The hourly work requirements for work-eligible adults in the CalWORKs program were aligned with federal hourly work requirements, and no WTW core hours are required during the WTW 24-Month Time Clock. Single parents with no child under six have to participate in a weekly minimum of 30 hours each week; 20 hours for single parents with a child under six, and 35 hours for two-parent families. After exhausting the WTW 24-Month Time Clock, unless otherwise exempt, or having received an extension, work-eligible adults must meet federal work requirements in order to continue receiving cash aid. Annual Reporting\/Child-Only (AR\/CO) W&IC section 11265.45 The number of reporting periods for child-only cases was reduced from four (under QR\/PB) to one. Child-only cases are ones in which no adult is aided (safety net cases, undocumented citizens, non- needy caretaker relatives, recipients of SSI, etc., excluding WTW sanctioned cases). Restoration of the Cal-Learn Program W&IC sections 11334.6, 11334.8, and 11454.5 Intensive case management services for pregnant and parenting teens were restored, assuming that counties would begin to phase their programs in throughout FY 2012-13. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4: Program Chronology January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 40 Single Allocation Reappropriation AB 1477 (Chapter 630, Statutes of 2012) Legislation provides that $80 million of unspent TANF funds from FY 2010-11 be reverted early to augment the Single Allocation. 2013 Work Incentive Nutritional Supplement (WINS) W&IC section 15525 A monthly additional food assistance benefit was provided to CalFresh households working sufficient hours to meet TANF WPR. The W&IC section 15525 reduced the WINS benefit from $40 to $10 per household per month and changed the implementation date from October 1, 2013, to January 1, 2014. Earned Income Disregard (EID) Restoration to $225 W&IC section 11451.5 The initial disregard of $225 of non-exempt earned income was restored, rescinding the Legislature’s prior action that reduced the EID to $112, and the disregard of 50 percent of all additional earned income was maintained. Semi-Annual Reporting (SAR) W&IC sections 11265.1, 11265.2, 11265.3, and 11265.4 The QR\/PB was replaced with a SAR system, which reduces the number of required income reports made by CalWORKs recipients to twice per year for an aided adult and WTW sanctioned cases. The SAR system imposes two additional income reporting thresholds: 55 percent of the monthly income of a family of three at the federal poverty level plus the amount of earned and unearned income last used to calculate the CalWORKs grant or the level likely to render an AU ineligible for CalWORKs benefits. Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool W&IC section 11325.2(b) Funding was provided for the development and implementation of a statewide standardized appraisal tool, known as the Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool (OCAT), which will lead to more effective placement in work activities and referral to supportive services. Expanded Subsidized Employment W&IC section 11322.63 Counties were allocated funds, in addition and independent of, the CalWORKs Single Allocation, in order to expand Subsidized Employment program opportunities in California. Family Stabilization W&IC section 11325.24 Family Stabilization provides intensive case management and services to ensure a basic level of stability within a family prior to, or concurrently with, participation in WTW activities. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4: Program Chronology January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 41 2014 Vehicle Asset Limit Increase W&IC section 11155 Increases the equity value limit of a vehicle to $9,500 and adds a new exemption for a vehicle given as a gift, family transfer or donation to a client by a family member effective January 1, 2014. Exemption of Child-Only Safety Net and Drug\/Fleeing Felon Cases from Child Support Requirements W&IC sections 11251.3 and 11486.5 The safety net and felon adult CalWORKs cases are funded with non-MOE GF and are no longer required to assign their child support rights to the state as a condition of eligibility. Any receipt of child support that is reasonably anticipated would be considered unearned income and counted against the assistance payment. Counties must remove all child support related sanctions and penalties for these cases retroactively, effective back to June 1, 2014. Changes in WTW Hourly Work Participation Determination W&IC section 11322.8 The determination of hours per week a work-eligible adult must participate in work activities changed from a weekly minimum requirement to an average per week during the month. Changes to Family Stabilization Compliance W&IC section11325.24 Family Stabilization has been amended to provide housing assistance to the families. Recipients who refuse or are unable to follow their family stabilization plans without good cause will be returned to the WTW program. CalWORKs Housing Support W&IC section 11325.24 Housing support, including rental costs, is provided to eligible CalWORKs recipients who are experiencing homelessness or housing instability that would be a barrier to self-sufficiency or child well-being. This is an optional county program. Five Percent Maximum Aid Payment Increase W&IC section 11450.025 All CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment levels (including exempt, non-exempt, Region One and Region Two) were increased by five percent effective March 1, 2014. Approved Relative Caregiver Funding Option W&IC section 11461.3 At county discretion, the amount paid to approved, relative caregivers for the in-home care of children placed with them will be equal to the basic rate paid to foster care providers. CalWORKs Eligibility to Include Drug Felons W&IC section 11251.3 and11486.5 CalWORKs eligibility extended to drug felons, contingent upon compliance with all terms of probation or parole, including participation in drug treatment programs effective California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4: Program Chronology January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 42 April 1, 2015. 2015 Pregnant Women W&IC section 11450 Expands eligibility for CalWORKs and Pregnancy Special Needs Payment to all pregnant women who have no other eligible children beginning in the second trimester. Previously, this population was not eligible until the beginning of the third trimester. Truancy W&IC section 11253 Eliminates the school attendance requirement and penalty to caretaker relatives when a child under the age of 16 is not regularly attending school. Counties will inform the family of how to enroll the child, age 16 or older, in a continuation school within the county and the family may be screened to determine eligibility for family stabilization services. OCAT Statewide Training and Implementation – W&IC section 11325.2(b) In 2013 funding was provided for the development and implementation of a statewide standardized appraisal tool, known as the Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool (OCAT), which will lead to more effective placement in work activities and referral to supportive services. Statewide training and implementation for OCAT was completed in 2015 and OCAT went live in all counties by October 2015. Five Percent Maximum Aid Payment Increase W&IC section 11450.025 All CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment levels (including exempt, non-exempt, Region One and Region Two) were increased by five percent effective April 1, 2015. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5: Welfare-to-Work Participation January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 43 Chapter 5 Welfare-to-Work (WTW) Participation This chapter describes CalWORKs welfare-to-work participation. It begins with a table detailing the differences between the two categories of CalWORKs requirements and the federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) requirements. The chapter then chronicles California’s work participation rate (WPR) trends over various time periods. CalWORKs provides cash assistance to families in need and offers work supports and incentives to help adults gain and maintain employment and to assist families to become self- sufficient. As a condition of receiving CalWORKs assistance, adults must participate in welfare-to-work activities for a minimum average number or hours per week, unless they qualify for an exemption from welfare-to-work participation. California receives an annual federal TANF block grant of $3.7 billion to help fund CalWORKs and a number of other safety net programs. As a condition of receiving the federal funding, CalWORKs is measured by the federal WPR, the primary metric used by the federal Administration for Children and Families (ACF) to quantify the performance of state TANF programs. States that receive TANF funding are required to meet WPR requirements of 50 percent of all families and 90 percent of two- parent families in each federal fiscal year. The WPR is calculated by dividing the number of Work Eligible Individuals (WEIs) meeting federal participation requirements by the total number of WEIs subject to those requirements. Failure to meet federal WPR requirements may result in a federal fiscal penalty for each year of failure. CalWORKs hourly welfare-to-work participation requirements are aligned with, but not identical to, the federal work participation requirements for TANF cases. Required work participation hours and allowable activities for each adult are based on the number of adults in an Assistance Unit (AU), the age of the children in the AU, and the length of time the requirements have been met. A table is provided in this chapter that details differences between the three different time clocks. CalWORKs adults are subject to two main categories of welfare-to-work requirements: CalWORKs minimum standards These requirements allow for a cumulative 24 months of increased flexibility out of the total 48 months of aid, and the aid can be extended under various conditions. Individuals participating in accordance with these requirements are using the Welfare-to-Work 24-Month Time Clock; and CalWORKs federal standards These standards are closely aligned, but not identical to, federal TANF requirements. CalWORKs recipients are subject to these standards after they have participated for a total of 24 cumulative months to meet CalWORKs minimum standards. California has been in WPR non-compliance since 2007, and financial penalties have been preliminarily assessed by the federal government for failure to achieve the required WPR in California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5: Welfare-to-Work Participation January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 44 those years. Federal regulations allow for a number of penalty mitigation options, and California is in the process of exercising those options. One of the options afforded to states to mitigate a federal fiscal penalty for WPR non-compliance is the submittal of a Corrective Compliance Plan (CCP). California has submitted five CCPs. The three CCPs for WPR non-compliance penalties in FFYs 2008 through 2010 were federally approved and are contingent on the State’s WPR compliance in FFY 2015. The remaining two CCPs, for penalties in FFY 2011 and 2012, have been submitted and are pending approval. The CCPs for the 2011 and 2012 penalties, if approved, are subject to WPR compliance in FFY 2016. This chapter ends with details concerning CalWORKs welfare-to-work participation rates over selected time periods. Key Terms in This Chapter 24MTC (24-Month Time Clock) Adult CalWORKs participants are required to engage in welfare-to-work activities during their potentially maximum grant period of 48 months. During the first 24 months of aid receipt there are more activity options. These activities include work, education, and training and mental health, substance abuse, and\/or domestic abuse services. The WTW 24MTC stops when a participant is in appraisal, job search, assessment, or development of a new WTW plan; is meeting the required number of participation hours in certain activities; is participating in Cal- Learn; is exempt; or is being sanctioned. Administration for Children and Families (ACF) The ACF is the federal organization that oversees TANF programs. The ACF is a division of the Department of Health & Human Services. The ACF promotes the economic and social well-being of families, children, individuals, and communities with partnerships, funding, guidance, training, and technical assistance. Corrective Compliance Plan (CCP) – A CCP is one of the approaches provided for states to reduce or eliminate a federal fiscal penalty for WPR noncompliance. As stipulated in 45 CFR 262.6, a CCP must include: \uf0b7 A complete analysis of why the State did not meet requirements; \uf0b7 A detailed description of how the State will correct or discontinue the violation; \uf0b7 The time period in which the violation will be corrected or discontinued; \uf0b7 The milestones, including interim processes and outcome goals, the State will achieve to assure compliance; and \uf0b7 A certification by the Governor that the State is committed to correcting or discontinuing the violation in accordance with the plan. Enrollee This refers to an individual who has, after becoming eligible for CalWORKs, received a notice that he or she is required to participate in welfare to work. Exempt Case This refers to cases with an individual who is exempt from participation in welfare-to-work, due to meeting a qualifying criterion. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5: Welfare-to-Work Participation January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 45 Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) The period, starting on October 1 of one year and ending on September 30 of the next year, on which the federal government bases fiscal and data reporting requirements. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, FFY 2013 begins on October 1, 2012, and ends on September 30, 2013. Good Cause An individual in good cause status is excused from welfare-to-work participation when it has been determined that there is a condition or circumstance that temporarily prevents, or significantly impairs, the individual’s ability to be regularly employed, or to participate in welfare-to-work activities. Good Cause status is defined in the California Department of Social Services (CDSS) Manual of Policies and Procedures (MPP) 42-713. Non-Compliant This refers to an individual who has been sent a notice of non-compliance with welfare-to-work participation requirements but has not yet returned to participation, or been sanctioned. Safety Net This refers to cases in which only the children in an AU are aided due to the parent(s) being discontinued for cash aid due to their reaching the 48-month lifetime assistance limit. Sanctioned Cases This refers to cases with an individual who has been removed from aid due to non-compliance with welfare-to-work participation requirements. Unduplicated Cases This is a calculation included in the Welfare-to-Work 25 and 25A data report that accounts for individuals participating in work or work-like activities and does not duplicate counts for individuals participating in more than one reported activity. Work-Eligible Individual (WEI) an adult (or minor child head-of-household) receiving assistance under TANF or a separate State program or a non-recipient parent living with a child receiving such assistance unless the parent is: \uf0b7 A minor parent and not the head-of-household; \uf0b7 A non-citizen who is ineligible to receive assistance due to his or her immigration status; or \uf0b7 At State option on a case-by-case basis, a recipient of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits or Aid to the Aged, Blind or Disabled in the Territories. The term also excludes: \uf0b7 A parent providing care for a disabled family member living in the home, provided that there is medical documentation to support the need for the parent to remain in the home to care for the disabled family member; \uf0b7 At State option on a case-by-case basis, a parent who is a recipient of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) benefits; and \uf0b7 An individual in a family receiving MOE-funded assistance under an approved Tribal TANF program, unless the State includes the Tribal family in calculating work participation rates, as permitted under CFR 45 261.25. https:\/\/www.law.cornell.edu\/cfr\/text\/45\/261.25 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5: Welfare-to-Work Participation January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 46 Tables and Figures in This Chapter Table 5A. CalWORKs WTW Activities and Hourly Requirements 48 Table 5B. Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population: FY 2006-07 through FY 2014-15 51 Table 5C. CalWORKs Welfare-to-Work Education Activities 52 Table 5D. Number of Community College Degrees, Certificates, and Awards: CalWORKs Recipients Received: 2009-2015 53 Table 5E. Average Monthly Percent of Exemptions Granted to WTW Adults: FFYs 2007-2014 54 Table 5F. Welfare-to-Work (WTW) 24-Month Time Clock Exemptions\/Good Cause 56 Table 5G. Participation in Work or Work-Related Activities: FFYs 2008-2015 59 Table 5H. Summary of WPR Requirements and TANF Penalties: FFYs 2008-2012 60 Table 5I. California’s TANF Work Participation Rate (WPR) History: FFYs 1997-2015 61 Figure 5A. Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population: FY 2006-07 through FY 2014-15 50 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5: Welfare-to-Work Participation January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 47 CalWORKs WTW Activities and Hourly Requirements Table 5A. Description CalWORKs adults are required to participate in WTW activities as a condition of aid, unless exempt, until the maximum 48 months for CalWORKs assistance is reached. Once the 48-month time limit is reached for the adult, aid can continue for an eligible child or children until they reach age 18. Prior Law – CalWORKs participation requirements before January 1, 2013: Under previous law, there were weekly minimum participation requirements of 20 core and 32 total hours per week for single parents, and 20 core and 35 total hours per week for parents in two-parent families. Some non-core activities, such as job skills training, education directly related to employment, and barrier removal activities, could be ‘blended’ with core activities and counted toward the core requirement. Clients could participate in vocational education as a core activity for a lifetime maximum of 12 months. Senate Bill 1041 – CalWORKs participation requirements starting January 1, 2013: During adults’ 48 Months on Aid For 24 Months – CalWORKs recipients are able to participate in any of the full array of CalWORKs WTW activities they need, consistent with an assessment, to become self- sufficient with no core hourly requirement. The 24 months are cumulative and may be used at any time during adults’ maximum 48 months of CalWORKs assistance. During the 24 months, clients must meet new CalWORKs minimum weekly hourly participation requirements. The new law reduced the hourly requirement from 32 to 30 hours per week for single parents and to 20 hours per week for single parents with a child under six. After 24 Months – Unless otherwise exempt or having received an extension, CalWORKs recipients must meet CalWORKs federal standards, based on federal work requirements, in order to continue receiving aid. CalWORKs recipients only can participate in federally countable activities and must meet a weekly core and overall hourly requirement consistent with federal requirements. CalWORKs federal standards allow for an additional 12 months of vocational education to be countable as a core activity. This provides up to three years of predominantly education- focused activities during the 48 months of aid. Participation requirements remain at 30 or 20 hours per week for single parents; however, 20 hours must be in core activities. The core hourly requirement for two-parent families increased to 30 from 20 with the new law, with the overall 35-hour requirement maintained. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5: Welfare-to-Work Participation January 2016 Adults’ 48 Months On Aid Prior Law For 24 Months After 24 Months Hourly Participation Requirements (total hours per week\/core hours required) Single parent with child under 6 32\/20 core 20\/0 core 20\/20 core Single-parent families with children ages 6 and over 32\/20 core 30\/0 core 30\/20 core Two-parent families 35\/20 core 35\/0 core 35\/30 core WTW Activities Core Activities Employment activities1 Work experience Community service On-the-job training (OJT) Employment activities Vocational education (12 month lifetime limit) Job search Job readiness activities Work experience Community service Job skills training Adult basic education Secondary school Barrier removal activities Employment activities Work experience Community service OJT Non-Core Activities 2 Job skills training Adult basic education Satisfactory attendance in a Secondary school Barrier removal activities3 Job skills training Adult basic education Satisfactory attendance in a secondary school Time-Limited Core Activities4 Vocational education (12 month lifetime limit) NA Barrier removal activities Job search Job readiness assistance Vocational education (12 month lifetime limit) Employment Services Child care Supportive services \uf0fc\uf020 \uf0fc\uf020 \uf0fc\uf020 \uf0fc\uf020 \uf0fc\uf020 \uf0fc\uf020 Table 5A. CalWORKs WTW Activities and Hourly Requirements Blendable Activities 1 Employment activities include unsubsidized and subsidized employment, work study, supported work and transitional employment, and grant-based on-the-job training. 2 These non-core activities were blendable activities that could be counted toward the core hourly requirement. 3 Barrier removal activities include mental health, substance abuse, and domestic violence services intended to remove barriers to welfare-to-work participation. 4 Job search, job readiness, and barrier removal activities are limited to four consecutive weeks, not to exceed six weeks in a 12-month period. California Families on the Ro California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 48 d to Self-Sufficiency 48 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5: Welfare-to-Work Participation January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 49 Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population The Welfare-to-Work 25 and 25A (25 & 25A) reports provide data about the welfare-to-work population from each of the 58 California counties. The categorical delineations that comprise the 25 & 25A reflect the welfare-to-work status of the cases and their eligibility to receive cash assistance. The categories are defined as: \uf0b7 Employment Services Total The sum of the Sanction, Non-Compliance, Good Cause, and Unduplicated populations. These populations are separated because it is assumed that exempt or safety-net individuals are included in the unduplicated count because these cases are participating in WTW; \uf0b7 Unduplicated Cases (Undup.) This is a calculation included in the 25 & 25A that accounts for individuals participating in work or work- like activities and does not duplicate counts for individuals participating in more than one reported activity. \uf0b7 Exempt Case This is a case with an individual who is exempt from participation in welfare-to-work, due to meeting a qualifying criterion; \uf0b7 Sanctioned Cases This is a case with an individual who has been removed from aid due to non-compliance with welfare-to-work participation requirements; \uf0b7 Non-Compliant (Non-Compl.) This refers to an individual who has been sent a notice of non-compliance with welfare-to-work participation requirements but has not yet returned to participation, or been sanctioned; \uf0b7 Good Cause An individual in good cause status is excused from welfare-to-work participation when it has been determined that there is a condition or circumstance that temporarily prevents, or significantly impairs, the individual’s ability to be regularly employed or to participate in welfare-to-work activities; and \uf0b7 Safety Net This is a case in which only the children in an AU are aided due to the parent(s) being discontinued for cash aid due to their reaching the 48-month lifetime assistance limit. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5: Welfare-to-Work Participation January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 50 Figure 5A. Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population FY 2006-07 through FY 2014-15 Data Source: WTW 25 and WTW 25A – 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 FY 0 6 -0 7 Q 1 FY 0 6 -0 7 Q 3 FY 0 7 -0 8 Q 1 FY 0 7 -0 8 Q 3 FY 0 8 -0 9 Q 1 FY 0 8 -0 9 Q 3 FY 0 9 -1 0 Q 1 F Y 0 9 -1 0 Q 3 FY 1 0 -1 1 Q 1 F Y 1 0 -1 1 Q 3 FY 1 1 -1 2 Q 1 FY 1 1 -1 2 Q 3 FY 1 2 -1 3 Q 1 FY 1 2 -1 3 Q 3 FY 1 3 -1 4 Q 1 F Y 1 3 -1 4 Q 3 FY 1 4 -1 5 Q 1 F Y 1 4 -1 5 Q 3 N u m b e r o f C as e s Total Unduplicated Exempt Sanctions Noncompliance Good Cause Safety Net http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG291.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG292.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5: Welfare-to-Work Participation January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 51 Table 5B. Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population FY 2006-07 through FY 2014-15 Total Exempt Safety Net Sanctions Non Compliance Good Cause Unduplicated FY 06-07 178,157 44,630 1,828 37,405 23,422 8,855 108,475 Q2 183,814 47,356 1,580 40,089 24,784 8,975 109,966 Q3 188,612 47,835 1,707 42,363 25,966 9,186 111,096 Q4 194,167 50,235 1,949 41,958 26,398 9,636 116,175 Total 186,188 47,514 1,766 40,454 25,143 9,163 111,428 FY 07-08 190,268 50,065 3,968 40,115 24,978 10,361 114,814 Q2 190,827 51,679 5,116 38,788 23,910 10,760 117,370 Q3 197,492 53,210 5,372 39,035 25,394 11,232 121,831 Q4 204,214 56,355 5,539 41,246 25,502 11,519 125,947 Total 195,700 52,827 4,999 39,796 24,946 10,968 119,991 FY 08-09 206,238 56,799 5,490 39,449 25,646 11,864 129,279 Q2 213,792 57,195 5,566 39,695 27,700 12,056 134,341 Q3 227,541 58,805 5,680 41,945 30,699 13,932 140,965 Q4 238,598 61,623 5,522 45,254 30,601 14,858 147,885 Total 221,542 58,605 5,565 41,586 28,662 13,177 138,117 FY 09-10 242,267 62,891 5,391 47,813 30,718 15,988 147,749 Q2 237,176 81,812 5,218 47,454 27,149 16,495 146,078 Q3 226,738 106,013 5,196 45,258 24,949 14,265 142,265 Q4 219,761 114,125 5,133 45,205 23,822 13,056 137,678 Total 231,486 91,210 5,235 46,432 26,660 14,951 143,443 FY 10-11 221,041 122,308 5,298 47,146 23,815 13,067 137,013 Q2 223,591 125,364 5,287 46,669 24,910 13,379 138,633 Q3 229,888 132,187 5,273 47,839 26,113 14,632 141,305 Q4 236,275 137,645 5,453 50,154 27,334 14,600 144,187 Total 227,699 129,376 5,328 47,952 25,543 13,920 140,284 FY 11-12 210,645 132,952 7,608 45,972 25,439 13,499 125,735 Q2 205,551 133,614 7,517 45,861 25,055 12,200 122,435 Q3 204,511 132,701 7,372 47,294 25,209 11,825 120,183 Q4 204,994 132,363 7,471 48,523 25,037 12,212 119,222 Total 206,425 132,907 7,492 46,913 25,185 12,434 121,894 FY 12-13 206,504 132,551 8,850 49,529 25,485 14,122 117,367 Q2 204,604 132,463 8,968 50,192 24,973 12,392 117,047 Q3 204,558 120,994 8,913 50,687 25,232 12,586 116,053 Q4 206,181 115,900 9,232 51,139 26,040 13,238 115,764 Total 205,462 125,477 8,991 50,387 25,433 13,085 116,558 FY 13-14 204,544 107,973 9,034 51,750 24,866 14,191 113,737 Q2 209,371 100,680 6,659 52,895 26,741 13,407 116,328 Q3 219,525 96,460 2,885 57,377 27,590 14,799 119,759 Q4 228,591 92,166 2,914 61,529 27,768 15,841 123,453 Total 215,508 99,320 5,373 55,888 26,741 14,560 118,319 FY 14-15 230,930 87,546 3,154 62,563 27,683 17,110 123,575 Q2 227,448 84,534 3,275 59,607 28,203 16,534 123,105 Q3 223,245 82,526 2,691 59,580 28,456 15,948 119,261 Q4 225,005 82,848 2,835 58,781 29,130 16,822 120,272 Total 226,657 84,364 2,989 60,133 28,368 16,604 121,553 Data Source: WTW 25 and WTW 25A http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG291.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG292.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5: Welfare-to-Work Participation January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 52 Table 5C. CalWORKs Welfare-to-Work Education Activities CalWORKs provides temporary cash assistance to meet basic needs of families, while also providing education, employment and training programs to assist the family’s move toward self-sufficiency. To comply with program requirements, an adult in a one-parent assistance unit must participate, on a monthly basis, in an average number of activity hours per week based on the composition of the assistance unit. Education as a welfare-to-work activity is an option to welfare-to-work program participants in many forms. To assist in these activities, participants are provided with reimbursement for required and related expenses, such as books and lab fees. Included below are descriptions of various welfare-to-work education activities which are available to program participants. ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION Adult Basic Education Instruction in reading, writing, arithmetic, high school proficiency, or general educational development certificate instruction, and English-as-a- second- language. Job Skills Training Directly Related to Employment Training or education for job skills required by an employer to provide an individual with the ability to obtain employment or to advance or adapt to the changing demands of the workplace. Vocational Education and Training College and community college education, adult education, regional occupational centers, and regional occupational programs. Satisfactory Progress in Secondary School\/Certificate Program Achieving satisfactory progress in secondary school or in a course of study leading to a certificate of general educational development. Education Directly Related to Employment Any education or training which is directly related to employment of the participant. Work Experience Training under the close supervision of the activity provider, that helps provide basic job skills, enhance existing job skills, or provide a needed community service that leads to employment. Community Service Training that is temporary and transitional, performed in the public or private nonprofit sector under the close supervision of the activity provider, and provides basic job skills that can lead to employment while meeting a community need. On-The-Job Training Training that is given to a paid participant while the participant is engaged in productive work. The employer is subsidized to offset training costs. This activity may also include paid classroom instruction as required by the participant’s employer. Grant-Based On-The-Job Training This activity includes a funding mechanism in which the recipient’s cash grant, or a portion thereof, or the grant savings resulting from employment, is diverted to the employer as a wage subsidy to offset the wages to the participant, so long as the total amount diverted does not exceed the family’s maximum aid payment. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5: Welfare-to-Work Participation January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 53 Education and Training The WTW 24MTC provides expanded opportunities for engagement of CalWORKs recipients in education and training leading to academic degrees and certificates. Data from the California Community Colleges (CCC) shows: \uf0b7 A 24 percent increase in the number of degrees and certificates awarded to CalWORKs recipients in the 2014-15 academic year compared with the 2011-12 academic year, the last full academic year prior to SB 1041 implementation. \uf0b7 19 percent more Associate degrees earned by CalWORKs recipients in the 2014-15 academic year compared with the 2011-12 academic year, the final full academic year prior to SB 1041 implementation. \uf0b7 19 percent of degrees and certificates awarded to CalWORKs recipients in the 2013-14 academic year were in technological fields (biological and physical sciences, mathematics, technology and computer applications, and automotive technology). Table 5D. Number of Community College Degrees, Certificates, and Awards CalWORKs Recipients Received: 2009-2015 Type of Degree\/Certificate 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 Associate of Arts Degree 7,197 9,244 10,814 11,661 12,431 11,953 Associate of Science Degree 3,440 4,572 5,127 6,152 6,848 7,010 Certificate 60+ units 268 196 253 189 185 198 Certificate 30-<60 units 2,706 3,514 3,814 5,578 5,508 5,591 Certificate 18-<30 units 2,314 2,979 3,155 3,583 4,076 3,560 Certificate 6-<18 units 1,962 2,450 2,107 2,153 2,502 2,500 Certificate <6 units 340 344 301 608 261 358 Non-credit awards 560 285 546 949 1,403 1,148 Total 18,787 23,584 26,119 30,873 33,214 32,318 Source: California Community Colleges Chancellor's Office (August 2015) NOTE: One individual may have received more than one degree, certificate or award in a given year. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5: Welfare-to-Work Participation January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 54 Table 5E. Average Monthly Percent of Exemptions to WTW Adults: FFYs 2007-2014 Some people are unable to participate in welfare-to-work (WTW) activities. They may receive an exemption from required participation in WTW and remain on cash aid. This table displays the average monthly percent of exemptions, by type, granted to Welfare-to-Work adults from Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2007 to FFY 2013. FFY 2007 FFY 2008 FFY 2009 FFY 2010 FFY 2011 FFY 2012 FFY 2013 FFY 2014 Percent of WTW Adults with an Exemption 25.8% 27.3% 26.1% 46.9% 58.7% 64.7% 58.2% 42.4% Reason for Exemption FFY 2007 FFY 2008 FFY 2009 FFY 2010 FFY 2011 FFY 2012 FFY 2013 FFY 2014 Provide Care for Young Children1 N\/A N\/A 9.7% 38.6% 38.8% 38.5% 31.7% 8.1% Child 0-23 Months of Age2 N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A 4.9% 25.6% 1st and 2nd Exemption for Child3 33.7% 33.0% 26.1% 13.0% 12.9% 13.5% 14.7% 17.3% Disabled 28.8% 26.4% 29.6% 16.7% 15.8% 15.6% 17.3% 21.6% Caring for Ill or Incapacitated4 9.7% 9.2% 14.3% 20.7% 22.3% 21.7% 20.2% 17.7% Cal-Learn, Under 16 Years Old, or Child Attending School 10.8% 11.1% 10.3% 5.6% 5.3% 5.4% 4.8% 4.5% Pregnant and Cannot Work 14.0% 17.8% 6.5% 1.7% 1.7% 1.6% 1.9% 2.4% 60 Years of Age or Older 2.3% 2.0% 3.0% 2.2% 1.4% 0.9% 1.6% 1.3% Non-Parent Caretaker Providing Care 0.3% 0.3% 0.5% 1.5% 1.8% 2.7% 2.5% 1.1% Indian Country or Full Time VISTA Volunteer 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% Total5 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Data Source: Percent of WTW Adults with an Exemption based on the WTW 25\/25A. See the WTW 25 and WTW 25A for total adults with exemptions. Reasons for Exemption based on the November 2015 Welfare Data Tracking Implementation Project extract. 1 Short-term young child exemption available to a parent or caretaker relative who has primary responsibility for providing care to one child who is 12 months through 23 months http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG291.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG292.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5: Welfare-to-Work Participation January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 55 of age or at least two children who are under six years of age. This exemption was being phased out as cases were re-engaged for WTW or re-evaluated for other qualifying exemptions. 2 New young child exemption created by SB 1041 for a parent or caretaker relative who has primary responsibility for providing care to one child from birth through 23 months of age. 3 These exemptions are available to the parent or other caretaker relative of a child under six months of age and under three months of age, respectively. 4 Due to a delay in automation, CalWIN used the caring for an ill or incapacitated exemption code as a proxy for the young child exemption. Thus, the ill or incapacitated exemption code is overstated. 5 The total includes duplicate adults, as an adult may receive more than one type of exemption. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5: Welfare-to-Work Participation January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 56 Table 5F. Welfare-to-Work (WTW) 24-Month Time Clock Exemptions\/Good Cause The table below provides information regarding WTW 24-Month Time Clock exemptions and good cause for not participating, and shows what affect each has on the CalWORKs 48-Month Time Limit. Exemption Description WTW 24-Month Time Clock Exemption? CalWORKs 48-Month Time Limit Exemption? Under 16 Years of Age Client is under 16 years of age. Yes N\/A1 Child Attending School Client is 16, 17, or 18 years of age and is attending a school in grade twelve or below, or vocational, or technical school on a full-time basis. Yes N\/A1 Cal-Learn Non-Head of Household Client is receiving aid in their parent's assistance unit, and is eligible for, participating in, or exempt from the Cal-Learn program. Yes Yes Cal-Learn Head of Household Client is receiving aid in his or her own assistance unit, and is eligible for, participating, or exempt from the Cal-Learn program. Yes Yes 60 Years of Age or Older Client who reaches age 60 or older. Yes Yes Client Disability Client has medical verification of a physical and\/or mental disability expected to last at least 30 days and it significantly impairs the individual's ability to be employed or participate in WTW activities.2 Yes Yes Needy Non-Parent Caretaker Relative Client is a Non-Parent caretaker relative who has primary responsibility for caring for a child who is either a dependent, ward of the court, receiving Kin-GAP benefits or at risk for placement in foster care. These caretaking responsibilities must impair his\/her ability to be employed or to participate in WTW activities. Yes Yes Caring for Ill or Incapacitated Member of Household Client is caring for an ill or incapacitated person residing in the home, has medical verification that the illness or incapacity is expected to last at least 30 days, and caretaking responsibility impairs the clients ability to be regularly employed or to participate in WTW activities. Yes Yes Pregnant and Cannot Work or Participate in WTW Activities Client is a woman who is pregnant with medical verification that the pregnancy impairs her ability to be regularly employed or participate in WTW activities, or the county determines that participation will not readily lead to employment or that a training activity is not appropriate. Yes No 1 The CalWORKs 48-Month Time Limit does not apply to this population. 2 This may include pregnancy if the Client Disability criteria are found to apply. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5: Welfare-to-Work Participation January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 57 Table 5F. Welfare-to-Work (WTW) 24-Month Time Clock Exemptions\/Good Cause (continued) Exemption Description WTW 24-Month Time Clock Exemption? CalWORKs 48-Month Time Limit Exemption? Child 0-23 Months of Age Client has primary responsibility for personally providing care to a child from birth to 23 months, inclusive. This exemption shall be available in addition to any other child related exemption outlined below. An individual may be exempt only once in a lifetime under this exemption. Yes Yes Exemption for Child Six Months of Age or Younger Client is caring for a child six months of age or younger. County may lower age to 12 weeks, or extend the age to one year depending on availability of child care and\/or job opportunities. An individual may be exempt only once in a lifetime under this exemption. Yes No Subsequent Exemption for Child 12 Weeks of Age or Younger Subsequent Exemption: Client is caring for a child 12 weeks of age or younger. County may extend the age to six months depending on availability of child care and job opportunities. This exemption is available for parents who have previously received the exemption for care of a child six months of age or younger. Yes No VISTA Volunteer Client is a full-time volunteer in the Volunteers in Services to America (VISTA) Program Yes No Domestic Abuse Client is a past or present victim of domestic abuse. Yes Yes Good Cause Client has good cause for not participating in WTW. Yes No California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5: Welfare-to-Work Participation January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 58 Participation in Work or Work-Related Activities to Comply with the TANF Work Participation Rate Policy The following table illustrates the participation level of CalWORKs clients in federally required work or work-like activities. Federal regulations require all work-eligible adults and minor heads of households receiving TANF assistance to participate in federally allowable welfare-to- work activities for a specified number of hours per week. Required hours of participation are a minimum average of 20, 30, or 35 hours per week in the month, depending on the number of Work-Eligible Individuals and the age(s) of the aided child(ren) in the home. Participating cases are meeting the average hourly participation requirements. Cases with some participation, but less than the required average number of hours per week are characterized as Partially Participating. Cases with no participation are the Not participating population, which includes adults with a WTW sanction, exemption from WTW, or good cause for non-participation. For the purposes of calculating the federal work participation rate, only those cases fully meeting participation requirements are counted. No credit is given for partial participation. The trends in participation of CalWORKs cases with individuals required to participate in federally required welfare-to-work activities from FFY 2008 to FFY 2015 are detailed below. The data illustrate a general trend that paralleled the recent recession, with an increase in total caseload and all participation categories that peaked in FFY 2011 (or in FFY 2012, for the not participating group) and then began a general decline. From FFY 2008 to FFY 2015 the percentage of CalWORKs cases fully meeting the federally required participation level increased (by 10 percentage points), while the percentage of those CalWORKs cases partially meeting the required participation level declined slightly (a 3 percentage point decline) and the percentage of those CalWORKs cases with individuals required to participate, but not participating, declined (by nearly seven percentage points). In absolute terms, the total number of CalWORKs cases with individuals required to participate in federally required welfare-to-work activities decreased from FFY 2008 to FFY 2015 by about 15,000, from 279,288 to 263,662. The number of CalWORKs cases with individuals required to participate in work or work related activities fully meeting the required participation level increased by about 23,000, from 70,334 in FFY 2008 to 93,183 in FFY 2015. The number of those cases partially participating declined by over 11,300, from 47,298 in FFY 2008 to 35,932 in FFY 2015, and the number of those cases not participating decreased by more than 27,000 during the period from 161,656 to 134,547. As noted in chapter 1, safety net and fleeing felon cases were moved out in 2014 and 2015. This move out accounts for some of the changes shown in Table 5G. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5: Welfare-to-Work Participation January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 59 Table 5G. Participation in Work or Work-Related Activities: FFYs 2008-2015 Participation Level FFY 2008 FFY 2009 FFY 2010 FFY 2011 FFY 2012 FFY 2013* FFY 2014* FFY 2015* Participating 70,334 86,487 89,155 102,514 99,026 89,083 93,877 93,183 Partially Participating 47,298 58,944 52,675 61,658 53,797 54,018 43,706 35,932 Not Participating 161,656 179,813 192,345 205,734 205,791 200,132 178,794 134,547 Total Required to Participate 279,288 325,244 334,175 369,906 358,614 343,233 316,377 263,662 Data Source: Administration for Children and Families (ACF) and RADEP NOTE: The share of cases participating does not match Table 5I, California's TANF Work Participation Rate, due to rounding. Figures shown do not include WINS cases displayed in Table 6B. *Preliminary data for FFY 2013, FFY 2014, and FFY 2015, pending final determination by ACF. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5: Welfare-to-Work Participation January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 60 Work Participation Rate Compliance A state participating in the federal TANF program must meet a WPR equal to 50 percent of all Work-Eligible Individuals. There is a separate 90 percent WPR requirement for Work Eligible Individuals in two-parent families; Failure to achieve the WPR requirements results in a penalty equal to an initial five percent reduction of the federal TANF block grant ($3.7 billion). For each successive year of non-compliance, the penalty increases by up to two percent to a maximum of 21 percent; The State's cumulative total potential penalty amount for FFYs 2008 through 2012 is $899 million. Table 5H. Summary of WPR Requirements and TANF Penalties: FFYs 2008-2012 All Families WPR FFY: 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Required Rate: All Families 50% 50% 50% 50% 50% Caseload Reduction Credit1 21% 21% 21% 21% 0% Adjusted WPR target 29% 29% 29% 29% 50% California Actual WPR 25.1% 26.8% 26.2% 27.8% 27.2% Potential Penalty Amount (in millions) $47.7 $113.6 $179.7 $246.1 $312.0 1 Due to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, California received the 2008 Caseload Reduction Credit for FFYs 2009, 2010, and 2011. Corrective Compliance Plan California has submitted five separate CCPs to the federal Administration for Children and Families (ACF). \uf0b7 The first three CCPs, signed by the Governor and submitted to and accepted by ACF in 2014, respond to WPR penalties assessed for WPR noncompliance in Federal Fiscal Years (FFYs) 2008 through 2010. These CCPs stipulate FFY 2015 as the target compliance year to mitigate penalties for FFYs 2008 through 2010. \uf0b7 The fourth and fifth CCPs, signed by the Governor and submitted in 2015 but not yet accepted by ACF, respond to penalties assessed for noncompliance in FFYs 2011 and 2012. These CCPs stipulate FFY 2016 as the target compliance year to mitigate FFY 2011 and 2012 penalties. \uf0b7 If the state achieves WPR compliance in the compliance year, penalties associated with that CCP are cleared. Significant progress may result in penalty reduction. \uf0b7 The preliminary FFY 2015 WPR is 54.7 percent, which is above the 50 percent threshold for compliance. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5: Welfare-to-Work Participation January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 61 Table 5I displays California's 54.7 percent preliminary WPR for FFY 2015 and also provides a historical look at California's WPR from FFY 1997 through FFY 2015 (WPRs for 2013 through 2015 are preliminary). California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5: Welfare-to-Work Participation January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 62 Table 5I. California's TANF Work Participation Rate (WPR) History: FFYs 1997-2015 FFYs 1997 - 2006 (Pre-Deficit Reduction Act) All Families WPR FFY 1997 1998 1999 2000 1 2001 1 2002 1 2003 1 2004 1 2005 1 2006 1 Required Rate 25.0% 30.0% 35.0% 40.0% 45.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% Caseload Reduction Credit 5.5% 12.2% 26.5% 32.1% 39.0% 43.3% 44.2% 46.1% 45.5% 44.9% State Adjusted Required WPR 19.5% 17.8% 8.5% 7.9% 6.0% 6.7% 5.8% 3.9% 4.5% 5.1% California's WPR 29.7% 36.6% 42.2% 27.5% 25.9% 27.3% 24.0% 23.1% 25.9% 22.2% Two-Parent WPR FFY 1997 1998 1999 2000 1 2001 1 2002 1 2003 1 2004 1 2005 1 2006 1 Required Rate 75.0% 75.0% 90.0% NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Caseload Reduction Credit 34.2% 42.3% 53.1% State Adjusted Required WPR 40.8% 32.7% 36.9% California's WPR 42.3% 36.2% 54.3% FFYs 2007-2016 (Post-Deficit Reduction Act) All Families WPR FFY 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 20133 2014 3 20153 2016 Required Rate 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% Caseload Reduction Credit 17.7% 21.0% 21.0% 2 21.0% 2 21.0% 2 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% State Adjusted Required WPR 32.3% 29.0% 29.0% 29.0% 29.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% California's WPR 22.3% 25.1% 26.8% 26.2% 27.8% 27.2% 25.1% 29.8% 54.7% Two-Parent WPR FFY 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 20133 2014 3 20153 2016 Required Rate 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% Caseload Reduction Credit 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 2 90.0% 2 90.0% 2 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% State Adjusted Required WPR 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% California's WPR 31.7% 26.5% 28.6% 35.6% 33.9% 30.8% 30.9% 25.5% 60.7% Data Source: Quality Control Information System 5 (Q5i) (from 1997 through 2006) and RADEP (from 2007 to present) 1 From FFY 2000 - FFY 2006, California moved two-parent cases to Supplemental Security Payment Maintenance of Effort (SSP-MOE) funding, which removed them from the WPR calculation requirements. Since these cases were no longer in the State's TANF program, no two-parent participation rates were published by the federal Administration for Children & Families (ACF). Starting in 2007, California again received a rate for its two-parent caseload, as per requirements of the federal Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. This act required that SSP-MOE funded programs be subject to TANF WPR requirements. 2 Due to the American Recovery and Investment Act of 2009 (ARRA), states can receive the Caseload Reduction Credit (CRC) from either 2007 or 2008, whichever is most beneficial to the state. For California, the caseload reduction credit for 2008 provides the most benefit to the state's WPR. Actual\\Calculated CRC's were: FFY 2009, 6% overall rate and 9.5%2P rate; FFY 2010, 0.1% both rates; FFY 2011, 0% both rates. 3 Preliminary WPRs as of December 2015, pending final determination by ACF. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6: Recent Program Changes and Outcomes January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 63 Chapter 6 Recent Program Changes and Outcomes This chapter describes the most significant recent changes in the CalWORKs program. Specifically it provides updates on the impact of many of these recent program changes, including the number of completed OCAT interviews and the resulting recommendations for services, an increase in county participation in Expanded Subsidized Employment programs, and a 24-Month Time Clock caseload update, among others. CalWORKs underwent a number of modifications as a result of shifting state priorities and budget reductions during the Great Recession, an economic downturn that resulted in increased unemployment and a higher CalWORKs caseload. Between 2009 and 2012, California, like other states, made difficult choices in its TANF program to cope with economic realities, including reduced funding for supportive services and child care. Beginning in 2012, CalWORKs experienced a significant alteration including the creation and implementation of new programs to assist counties with appraisal and assessment of recipient needs, additional services addressing family stabilization and homelessness, and expansion of subsidized employment opportunities. Many of the recent program changes can be understood as evolving from Senate Bill (SB)1041 (Chapter 47, Statutes of 2012) and Assembly Bill (AB) 74 (Chapter 21, Statutes of 2013). These changes were geared toward engaging CalWORKs clients earlier and more extensively and eliminating some of the most prevalent obstacles to long-term self-sufficiency. SB 1041 changes also included aligning welfare-to-work participation with federal requirements and providing more emphasis on flexibility with respect to allowable activities for a cumulative 24 months of welfare-to-work participation. Tables and Figures in This Chapter Table 6A. CalWORKs Family Stabilization Status Report: FY 2014-15 69 Table 6B. WINS Issuances: FFYs 2014-2015 73 Table 6C. OCAT Appraisals by Month: July through November, 2015 74 Table 6D. OCAT Tool Structure and Recommendations 75 Table 6E. Cal-Learn Average Monthly Participation and Outcomes: FY 2010-11 through FY 2014-15 78 Figure 6A. WTW 24-Month Time Clock Update (SB 1041): FY 2015-16 66 Figure 6B. Statewide Subsidized Employment Monthly Participant Caseload: 70 2013-2015 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6: Recent Program Changes and Outcomes January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 64 Welfare-to-Work 24-Month Time Clock and Post-24-Month Time Clock Overview Senate Bill 1041 (Chapter 47, Statutes of 2012) established the Welfare-to-Work 24-Month Time Clock (WTW 24MTC), and implementation was scheduled for January 1, 2013. The first cohort of CalWORKs recipients could have reached the end of the WTW 24MTC in January 2015. The WTW 24-Month Time Clock is a prospective24-month time limit for non-exempt able- bodied adults to receive a wide array of services and supports to enter and remaining the workforce. After the WTW 24MTC expires, clients are expected to meet federal work participation requirements. Other key elements: \uf0b7 More opportunities for education or barrier removal; \uf0b7 The clock stops for a multitude of reasons, including when a client has good cause for not participating; \uf0b7 Recognizing that some adults will not find employment within 24 months, counties will provide 20 percent of the caseload with additional time to complete educational goals or find a job; \uf0b7 Prior to the end of the 24 months, clients receive a series of notices and appointments to develop a new WTW plan designed to meet federal standards; and \uf0b7 Clients who do not receive an extension or are unable to meet federal requirements face the possibility of losing the adult portion of the family's grant. Current data indicates that the vast majority of CalWORKs recipients subject to the WTW 24MTC have months remaining on their clocks. However, it appears that the number of CalWORKs recipients who will have months tick and\/or exhaust their WTW 24MTC will increase in the next 12 months. Status Based on WTW 24MTC data from the January 2016 Welfare Data Tracking Implementation Project (WDTIP) extract, as of December 2015: \uf0b7 Recipients with fewer than 25 months ticked on the WTW 24MTC ............................ 245,617 o Exempt recipients with less than 25 months ticked on the WTW 24MTC .......... 95,010 o Sanctioned recipients with less than 25 months ticked on the WTW 24MTC ........ 620 o Recipients with fewer than 25 months ticked on the WTW 24MTC (excluding sanctioned and exempt) ................................................................... 149,987 \uf0b7 Recipients who have exhausted WTW 24MTC .................................................................. 1,559 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6: Recent Program Changes and Outcomes January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 65 \uf0b7 Total number of WTW 24MTC Extensions and total number of adults removed from the assistance unit for failing to meet CalWORKs federal requirements (post WTW 24MTC participation requirements) are unavailable at this time. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6: Recent Program Changes and Outcomes January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 66 Figure 6A. WTW 24-Month Time Clock Update (SB 1041): FY 2015-16 Preliminary WTW 24-Month Time Clock Impact Estimate Caseload Flow Chart for FY 2015-16 (based on Research Development and Enterprise Project (RADEP) 2014 and WDTIP Welfare Data Tracking Implementation Project data)1 FY 2015-16 Monthly Projected Post WTW 24-Month Grant Reduction Caseload (Rounded for Display Purposes) July August September October November December January February March April May June FY 2015-16 50 70 110 160 240 340 480 650 850 1,100 1,420 1,790 610 1. Caseload displayed represents the number of cases, as opposed to adults, since the number of extensions counties provide is based on cases. 2. The Cases With Months Used on WTW 24-Month Clock That May Exhaust Their Clock in FY 2015-16 or FY 2016-17 is based on July 2015 WDTIP data, as of September 2015, and reflects the number of cases that would exhaust their 24 months within the applicable FY if they use their clock continuously. 3. Based on July 2015 WDTIP data, 9.9 percent of cases with months used on their WTW clock are meeting participation requirements and would have their clock stopped. Based on July 2015 WDTIP, 12.3 percent are exempt and would have their clock stopped. 4. Based on FFY 2014 RADEP data and April 2013 through March 2015 WDTIP\/MEDS\/EDD data, 4 percent of cases with months used on their WTW clock that do not currently have a clock stopper are expected to receive good cause for lack of engagement and have months removed from their WTW 24-Month Clock. Cases are expected to have six months unticked. These cases are reflected in Cases That Will Continue Through Their 24-Month Clock once they utilize their WTW 24-Month Clock, including the unticked months. 5. Based on FFY 2014 RADEP work participation rate data, 29.8 percent of cases that exhaust their WTW clock are expected to being meeting federal participation requirements. The methodology to determine the number of available extensions is based on the number of cases with 18-24 months on their WTW clock, regardless of whether they meet the Cases With Months Used on WTW 24-Month Clock That May Exhaust Their Clock in FY 2015-16 or FY 2016-172 FY 2015-16: (2,210) FY 2016-17: (22,880) Cases with a Clock Stopper3 FY 2015-16: (490) FY 2016-17: (5,060) Cases That Will Continue Through Their 24- Month Clock FY 2015-16: (1,720) FY 2016-17: (17,820) Unengaged Cases With Months Unticked4 FY 2015-16: (70) FY 2016-17: (710) Cases That Will Utilize All 24-Months FY 2015-16: (1,660) FY 2016-17: (17,380) Begin Meeting Cal Fed Work Requirements After Exhausting 24- Month Clock5 FY 2015-16: (490) FY 2016-17: (5,180) Receive an Extension6 FY 2015-16: (430) FY 2016-17: (4,490) Noncompliance Process Initiated for Cases that Exhaust 24-Month Clock FY 2015-16: (740) FY 2016-17: (7,710) Meet Participation or Exemption Requirements During Noncompliance7 FY 2015-16: (110) FY 2016-17: (1,150) Meet Participation Requirements After 4 Months7 FY 2015-16: (20) FY 2016-17: (340) Grant Reduction8 FY 2015-16: (610) FY 2016-17: (6,220) California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6: Recent Program Changes and Outcomes January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 67 participation requirements in that month or subsequent months (which would result in cases having their clock stopped and some cases never reaching 24 months). Therefore, the 20 percent is applied to the total cases with months used on their WTW clock. 6. The methodology to determine the number of available extensions is based on the number of cases with 18-24 months on their WTW clock, regardless of whether they meet the participation requirements in that month or subsequent months (which would result in cases having their clock stopped and some cases never reaching 24 months). Therefore, the 20 percent is applied to the total cases with months used on their WTW clock. 7. Assumes 15 percent of the cases that enter noncompliance will begin meeting the participation requirements, or receive an exemption, to maintain their grant after the noncompliance process. Assumes that 10 percent of the remaining cases will meet the participation requirements and have their grant restored after four months of a grant reduction. 8. Assumes that the WTW 24-Month Clock effectively started on April 1, 2013 due to additional noticing and plan development requirements for these cases. The grant savings will first be realized starting July 2015, after the noncompliance process for participants that reach the end of their 24-month clock in April 2015. The FY 2015-16 and FY 2016-17 caseloads represent the average monthly cumulative caseload in the applicable fiscal year and does not account for adjustments based on county procedures for recipients near the end of their WTW 24Month Clock. If common practice within counties involves removing a substantial number of months from recipients' clocks following a detailed case review, this estimate will be overstated. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6: Recent Program Changes and Outcomes January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 68 Family Stabilization (FS) Program Family Stabilization Program Overview \uf0b7 The Family Stabilization (FS) program is designed to provide a basic level of stability for families in crisis and to increase recipient success during the flexible WTW 24MTC period. Family Stabilization includes but is not limited to: o Intensive case management; and o Barrier removal services \uf0b7 Recipients have a Stabilization Plan with no minimum hourly participation requirements, and up to six months of WTW 24MTC stopping is available (if good cause is determined). Budget Information \uf0b7 $6 million was spent of the $10.8 million allocated for FY 2013-14. \uf0b7 $22.7 million was spent of the $29.7 million allocated for FY 2014-15. \uf0b7 $30.2 million is proposed for the FS program in FY 2015-16. Implementation \uf0b7 Counties submitted FS plans to the CDSS outlining what their FS program will include. Counties were given flexibility to determine the services that are provided and individual program components in order to best meet the needs of each county and the recipients the county serves. \uf0b7 All county FS plans are posted on the CDSS website at: http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/cdssweb\/PG94.htm. Program Data1 o All 58 counties had fully implemented their FS programs as of June 2015 o 2,107 FS cases were open in June 2015 o 2,934 individuals received domestic abuse services, mental health services, substance abuse services, and\/or other services in June 2015 o 781 cases received homeless support\/services in June 2015 Outcomes and Promising Practices \uf0b7 A county survey taken in August 2015 found that: o In 34 counties, caseworkers meet with FS recipients weekly; o In 37 counties, caseworkers spend at least three or more hours a month with FS recipients; o In 44 counties, the average length of time in FS is between three and six months; and o In 45 counties, in general recipients are able to remedy their crisis through FS services. 1 Cases and individuals captured based on monthly totals from July 2014 and June 2015. Totals are not an unduplicated count. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/cdssweb\/PG94.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6: Recent Program Changes and Outcomes January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 69 Table 6A. CalWORKs Family Stabilization Status Report: FY 2014-15 1 Data retrieved from the FSP 14 2 Examples of additional types of Other FS services provided by individual counties. * The numbers in the chart above have been updated to reflect the most current data. Anger Management Collaboration with child welfare Disability or skill assessments\/testing Clothing allowances for children Family Crisis Counseling Financial Planning Financial Training Classes Legal Services Life skills workshops Literacy Mentoring Nutrition education Next Skills Training Parenting Classes Expanded supportive services Vocational assistance CalWORKs Family Stabilization (FS) Status Report1 Fiscal Year 2014-15 (July 2014 vs. June 2015 comparison) July 2014 June 2015 Participation 598 2,107 Open FS cases. 314 1,319 FS cases active in FS only. 57 168 FS cases that transitioned to a WTW plan. 227 620 FS cases that participated concurrently in WTW activities. 165 722 FS cases that received good cause. Services 431 1,994 Total adults who received services. 143 940 Total children who received services. 95 476 Domestic Abuse 236 1,127 Mental Health 39 238 Substance Abuse 344 1,400 Other 2 Housing Support\/Services 268 781 Total Homeless services provided. 982 4,022 Total FS services provided. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6: Recent Program Changes and Outcomes January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 70 Expanded Subsidized Employment (ESE) Program Overview Assembly Bill (AB) 74 (Chapter 21, Statutes of 2013) implemented the Expanded Subsidized Employment (ESE) program, effective July 1, 2013. The ESE program is in addition to the AB 98 Subsidized Employment Program. The ESE program fully or partially subsidizes the wages of CalWORKs recipients for six months to a year. While in an ESE placement the CalWORKs recipient obtains specific skills and experiences relevant for employment in a particular field, with the goal of obtaining permanent unsubsidized employment with the participating employer. County Welfare Departments (CWDs) partner with employers, nonprofits, and local public agencies to match recipients with jobs. Figure 6B. Subsidized Employment Caseload: 2013-2015 The following figure illustrates participants in both ESE and AB 98 subsidized employment programs. The combined total is the summation of both programs' participants and demonstrates a consistent upward trend for subsidized employment activities. *July September 2014 data includes estimations to account for ESE data not reported from Los Angeles County for that period. - 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 P ar ti ci p an ts Figure 6B. Statewide Subsidized Employment Monthly Participant Caseload: 2013-2015 Combined Total Subsidized Employment (AB98) Expanded Subsidized Employment (ESE) California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6: Recent Program Changes and Outcomes January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 71 ESE Program Highlights 1. As of August 2015, 47 counties are participating. All counties are eligible to receive funding to expand current or develop new subsidized employment programs. \uf0b7 The majority of the ESE placements earn between $9.00 and $13.00 per hour. \uf0b7 The participants typically work an average of 30 hours a week. 2. Yearly total of CalWORKs recipients that entered subsidized employment represented by an unduplicated count in the month they were first reported in the ESE program. This number is higher than Figure 6B on the previous page since participants enter and exit the program at various times. \uf0b7 Fiscal Year 2013-14 ........................................................................ 1,771 new participants. \uf0b7 Fiscal Year 2014-15 ........................................................................ 7,798 new participants. 3. Counties reported CalWORKs recipients are finding unsubsidized employment after their subsidy ended. \uf0b7 In Fiscal Year 2013-2014 counties reported 714 recipients found unsubsidized employment after their ESE subsidy ended. \uf0b7 This number increased to over 1,000 recipients in the first three quarters of Fiscal Year 2014-15. 4. Earnings of CalWORKs recipients before and after the subsidy.1 \uf0b7 The following is based on a cohort of 923 ESE participants who entered ESE in April, May, or June of 2014 and had employer reported income in the following quarters: Before-ESE Median Quarterly Income (January\u2010March 2014) .................................. $1,114 During ESE Median Quarterly Income (July\u2010September 2014) ................................. $3,408 During ESE Median Quarterly Income (October-December 2014)............................ $3,205 Post-ESE Median Quarterly Income (January\u2010March 2015) ...................................... $3,240 5. Impact on the state's Work Participation Rate (WPR) \uf0b7 There is an estimated 0.31 point WPR impact per 1,000 cases enrolled in ESE. 1 Quarterly earnings may not include earnings for each month in the quarter. This is particularly true for the quarter before entering subsidized employment. Data source: Employment Development Department. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6: Recent Program Changes and Outcomes January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 72 CalWORKs Housing Support Program (HSP) Program Overview In 2014, Senate Bill (SB) 855 allocated $20 million for a new Housing Support Program (HSP) for eligible CalWORKs recipients; \uf0b7 For fiscal year 2015-2016, the allocation was increased to $35 million; HSP assists homeless CalWORKs families in quickly obtaining permanent housing; and The program also provides wrap-around supports to families to foster housing retention. Implementation Due to limited funding and based on a county's ability to implement quickly and maximize funding, HSP allocations were initially limited to twenty counties; \uf0b7 For fiscal year 2015-2016, the program expanded to include a total of 44 counties; County plans follow evidenced-based models, including those established in the federal Department of Housing and Urban Development's Homeless Prevention and Rapid Re-Housing Program (HPRP); and Rapid Re-Housing and targeted homelessness prevention programs have been implemented nationwide as cost effective strategies to help families exit or avoid homelessness and retain permanent housing. Assistance and Services Provided to Clients Counties were given the flexibility to design their own program, based on the needs of the community. County HSP plans differ in eligibility requirements, services offered, and the duration of a family's eligibility; Housing subsidies may range from a few months to several months, depending on the individual needs of the family; and In following core components of a Rapid Re-Housing program, HSP offers financial assistance and several wrap-around supportive services, including: Financial Assistance o Rental assistance o Security deposits o Utility payments o Moving costs o Motel and hotel vouchers Housing Stabilization & Relocation o Landlord recruitment o Case management o Housing outreach and placement o Legal services o Credit repair Program Outcomes as of the end of Fiscal Year 2014-2015: \uf0b7 5,567 families have been approved for HSP and are receiving services such as temporary housing, assistance with locating permanent housing along with intensive case management; and \uf0b7 2,019 families have been permanently housed. CalWORKs Housing Support Program Webpage: http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/calworks\/PG3658.html California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6: Recent Program Changes and Outcomes January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 73 Work Incentive Nutritional Supplement (WINS) The WINS program provides a ten dollar ($10) per month additional food supplement benefit for CalFresh households that are meeting TANF WPR requirements. WINS cases are receiving CalFresh but are not on CalWORKs; and This food benefit is considered a form of TANF assistance, which means these working CalFresh\/WINS cases are included in the state's TANF WPR calculation; however, TANF rules, such as time limits, do not apply to WINS cases. Table 6B. WINS Issuances: FFYs 2014-2015 Total WINS Cases Includes Both CF and CFAP WINS Issuances from EBT: FFYs 2014-2015 Month Total For The Month Jul-14 114,277 Aug-14 127,532 Sep-14 133,815 Oct-14 166,787 Nov-14 175,645 Dec-14 172,878 Jan-15 176,830 Feb-15 182,963 Mar-15 181,753 Apr-15 179,317 May-15 181,335 Jun-15 182,755 Jul-15 184,404 Aug-15 187,284 Sep-15 200,433 Data source: Office of Systems Integration (OSI) California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6: Recent Program Changes and Outcomes January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 74 Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool (OCAT) OCAT Overview \uf0b7 Standardized statewide welfare-to-work appraisal tool. OCAT is based on the publicly available Online Work Readiness Assessment Tool (OWRA) utilized by the federal Administration for Children and Families. \uf0b7 Provides in-depth appraisals of recipient strengths and barriers to employment and self- sufficiency. \uf0b7 Online CalWORKs OCAT appraisals are projected to take an hour to an hour and a half. This timeframe depends on the amount of barriers the recipient discloses during the interview. \uf0b7 Use of OCAT to conduct appraisals will lead to greater opportunities for CalWORKs recipients by identifying strengths and barriers immediately upon his or her entry into the welfare-to-work program. Implementation As of September 18, 2015, 7,388 appraisals had been completed with recommendations for supportive services. Most recommendations were for mental health services. \uf0b7 Mental health service recommendations: ....................................................................... 12,058 \uf0b7 Other health recommendations: ................................................................................. 2,739 Source: December 2015 OCAT program data. As of December 11, 2015, 26,789 OCAT appraisals had been completed, of which 18,101 appraisals included recommendations for supportive services. Source: December 2015 OCAT program data. The growth of OCAT appraisals from 11 percent of all CalWORKs appraisals in July 2015 to 64 percent in October 2015 (Table 6C) demonstrates the increased utilization of OCAT. OCAT use is expected to continue to increase. Table 6C. OCAT Appraisals by Month: July through November, 2015 Table 6C. OCAT Appraisals by Month: July through November, 2015 Month Pre-July 3 July August September October New CalWORKs Appraisals That Used OCAT 848 1,316 2,977 5,208 6,494 Data Source: WTW 25 and WTW 25A. Next Steps \uf0b7 Regional train-the-trainer sessions completed in June of 2015; counties began training their staff in order to utilize OCAT by October 1, 2015. \uf0b7 The CDSS in conjunction with the Statewide Automated Welfare System is currently evaluating long-term hosting and maintenance options for OCAT. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG291.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG292.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6: Recent Program Changes and Outcomes January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 75 Table 6D. OCAT Tool Structure and Recommendations Tool Structure and Recommendations OCAT begins with a refresher of the recipient's demographic information and proceeds through a questionnaire that generates a set of recommendations based on the recipient's answers to questions (Table 6D). OCAT SECTION INFORMATION COLLECTED & RECOMMENDATIONS PRODUCED Demographics Collects basic information on the recipient. This section's recommendations include: \uf0d8 Financial assistance\/education Employment Collects information on the recipient's job history, skills, and work readiness. This section's recommendations include: \uf0d8 Assessment for education and\/or job search\/readiness activities depending on recipient's employment history \uf0d8 Legal services for recipients who have legal barriers to employment, including family stabilization Education Collects information on the recipient's schooling, and additional training he or she may have received. Also contains California's learning needs screening. This section's recommendations include: \uf0d8 High school or General Education (GED) programs \uf0d8 Evaluating for a Self-Initiated Program \uf0d8 Learning Disability Evaluation and learning needs health related concerns Housing Collects information on recipient's current housing situation and examines whether the recipient has housing difficulties. This section's recommendations include: \uf0d8 Homelessness, housing stability, and Housing Support Program assistance if applicable to the county. \uf0d8 Family Stabilization services Transportation Collects information about the recipient's current transportation methods, and whether they would present a barrier to participation. This section's recommendations include: \uf0d8 Providing supportive services for transportation needs General Health Briefly examines whether a recipient has concerns about his or her own health or health of a family member that would present a barrier to participation. This section's recommendations include: \uf0d8 Evaluation for potential exemptions (disability, caring for an ill or incapacitated household member, etc.) California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6: Recent Program Changes and Outcomes January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 76 OCAT SECTION INFORMATION COLLECTED & RECOMMENDATIONS PRODUCED Emotional and Mental Health Collects information about a recipient's emotional and mental wellbeing. This section's recommendations include: \uf0d8 Evaluation for mental health services, including Family Stabilization Related job readiness activities Substance Use Collects information about a recipient's substance use. This section's recommendations include: \uf0d8 Evaluation for substance abuse services, including Family Stabilization Related job readiness activities Domestic Abuse & Safety Collects information about whether a recipient is a past or present victim of domestic abuse, human trafficking, and other related safety concerns. This section's recommendations include: \uf0d8 Evaluation for domestic abuse services and program waivers. \uf0d8 Referrals to family counseling, appropriate mental health services, and Family Stabilization Evaluation for trafficking\/crime victims' assistance Pregnancy Collects information on whether the recipient or a household member is pregnant. This section's recommendations include: Evaluation for pregnancy related exemption Childcare and Parenting Collects information on whether additional child care support and\/or services are needed by the recipient in order to participate. This section's recommendations include: \uf0d8 Child care supportive services \uf0d8 Child support order modification services Evaluation for exemption based on providing care for an ill or incapacitated household member (child) Relationships Collects information on whether the recipient's current or past relationships may pose a barrier to participation. This section's recommendations include: Relationship counseling and\/or family stabilization services California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6: Recent Program Changes and Outcomes January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 77 The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) Background \uf0b7 WIOA replaces the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 effective July 1, 2015. \uf0b7 TANF programs are mandatory partners with One-Stops (American Job Centers). \uf0b7 Prioritizes service to populations with barriers to employment. \uf0b7 Emphasizes career pathways with no sequence of services, primarily utilizing: o education, o credentials, o work-based training, o barrier removal, and o supportive services. Draft WIOA State Plan for Stakeholder Review \uf0b7 Describes core WIOA programs and partnerships with CalWORKs and Community Colleges. \uf0b7 Discusses co-location of CalWORKs services in One-Stops. \uf0b7 WIOA performance measures will be negotiated with U.S. Departments of Labor and Education. Due Dates: \uf0b7 January 15, 2015: Public comment due on state plan draft. \uf0b7 March 3, 2016: Final state plan due to the U.S. Departments of Labor and Education. \uf0b7 July 1, 2016: State plan and performance measures effective. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6: Recent Program Changes and Outcomes January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 78 Cal-Learn Program Cal-Learn was established in 1993 as a mandatory statewide program for pregnant and parenting teens in families participating in CalWORKs. The Cal-Learn program provides the resources to help teens graduate from high school or its equivalent, become independent, and form healthy families. Cal-Learn uses a combination of intensive case management, financial incentives, and supportive services\u2014including child care, transportation and ancillary expenses, such as, books, school supplies--to address the unique educational, health and other social service needs of CalWORKs pregnant and parenting teens. Table 6E covers four years, from fiscal year (FY) 2011-12 to FY 2014-15 and displays a decline in the Cal-Learn caseload during that timeframe. This decline corresponds with the historic decline in both teen pregnancy and teen child-bearing. Table 6E. Cal-Learn Average Monthly Participation and Outcomes: FY 2010-11 through FY 2014-15 Data Source: STAT 45 monthly reports 1 Good Cause data collected beginning in July 2011 through March 2013. 2 Data collected for FY 2012-13 Repeat Pregnancies includes April through June 2013 only. 3 Repeat Pregnancies category and definition changed to Subsequent Births in June 2014. Key Cal-Learn Outcomes: \uf0b7 Graduation bonuses remained consistent as a percent of the caseload over the four-year period. \uf0b7 Sanctions in FY 2013-14 were the lowest in four years at 1.9 percent, but saw an increase to 2.7 percent in FY 2014-15. \uf0b7 Repeat pregnancies are at the lowest point in FY 2014-15, both in number and as a percent of the caseload. 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 Total Monthly Participants 10,308 9,272 7,729 6,400 Satisfactory Progress Bonuses 486 405 404 329 Graduation Bonuses 149 140 108 86 Sanctions 233 250 149 173 Exemptions, Deferrals, and Good Cause1 123 64 38 38 Repeat Pregnancies\/ Subsequent Births N\/A 642 483 28 http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG290.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7: Supportive Services January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 79 Chapter 7 Supportive Services This chapter displays the spectrum of supports CalWORKs families receive in addition to their cash aid, including food benefits via the CalFresh program and Medi-Cal coverage, and how these benefits are altered as families' earnings increase. Additionally, this chapter presents information about the number and type of supportive services provided to participants in the welfare-to-work program. Key Terms in This Chapter Ancillary Expenses Participants may be eligible to receive ancillary expenses. This can include the cost of books, tools, clothing, fees, or other necessary costs specifically required for the job or training as assigned in the welfare-to-work plan. Behavioral Health Services Services provided to CalWORKs clients in need include treatment for mental health, substance abuse, and domestic violence. Child Care Access to quality child care is essential to the success of CalWORKs. Individuals enrolled in the welfare-to-work program are eligible to receive child care services. The CalWORKs Child Care Program is administered in three stages: Stage One is administered by the county welfare departments; Stages Two and Three are administered by Alternative Payment Program agencies under contract with the California Department of Education (CDE). Transportation Services Transportation services for welfare-to-Work participants are often provided through payment by the county for public transportation or mileage reimbursement. Some counties provide alternative transportation services such as transportation vouchers, vehicle repair programs, commuter programs, and the purchase of motor vehicles or bicycles. Tables and Figures in This Chapter Table 7A. Average Number of Individuals Receiving Supportive Services (All Other Families): April-June 2015 80 Table 7B. Average Number of Individuals Receiving Supportive Services (Two-Parent Families): April-June 2015 81 Table 7C. Age, Provider Setting, and Time in Care for Stage One Children: Calendar Year 2014 83 Table 7D. CalWORKs Stage One Child Care: FY 2006-07 through FY 2014-15 84 Table 7E. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation (All Other Families): April-June 2015 86 Table 7F. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation (Two-Parent Families): April-June 2015 88 Figure 7A. Children in CalWORKs Stages One, Two, and Three Child Care Programs: 2005-2014 85 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7: Supportive Services January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 80 Table 7A. Average Number of Individuals Receiving Supportive Services April June 2015 All (Other) Families The table below shows the average number of individuals receiving CalWORKs supportive services in each county for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2014-15. Child Care Transportation Ancillary Svcs. Statewide 20,982 49,958 10,294 Alameda 1,255 1,923 210 Alpine 1 1 1 Amador 17 16 11 Butte 160 153 35 Calaveras 15 61 9 Colusa 2 2 0 Contra Costa 267 596 155 Del Norte 35 67 58 El Dorado 25 106 15 Fresno 989 1,839 558 Glenn 14 16 11 Humboldt 72 169 36 Imperial 152 250 21 Inyo 11 1 0 Kern 725 909 291 Kings 148 270 66 Lake 26 16 15 Lassen 24 0 0 Los Angeles 5,644 15,728 3,193 Madera 35 53 25 Marin 94 118 9 Mariposa 11 26 3 Mendocino 29 53 51 Merced 137 363 159 Modoc 5 6 2 Mono 0 0 1 Monterey 195 529 120 Napa 37 41 11 Nevada 34 71 21 Orange 845 1,228 225 Placer 179 206 45 Plumas 12 1 0 Riverside 1,900 3,782 987 Sacramento 569 2,930 186 San Benito 43 28 13 San Bernardino 2,300 8,002 1,227 San Diego 1,233 3,799 713 San Francisco 466 483 90 San Joaquin 430 817 267 San Luis Obispo 130 63 72 San Mateo 136 122 19 Santa Barbara 126 154 79 Santa Clara 363 1,333 191 Santa Cruz 212 281 76 Shasta 105 134 74 Sierra 4 4 1 Siskiyou 24 27 23 Solano 178 391 88 Sonoma 116 360 131 Stanislaus 169 683 216 Sutter 66 99 28 Tehama 26 57 21 Trinity 3 12 14 Tulare 511 974 271 Tuolumne 8 33 9 Ventura 380 217 67 Yolo 151 122 23 Yuba 139 230 51 Data sources: Welfare to Work Monthly Activity Report (WTW 25) and Child Care Monthly Report (CW 115) for the months of April, May and June 2015 (averaged). http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG291.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG288.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7: Supportive Services January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 81 Table 7B. Average Number of Individuals Receiving Supportive Services April June 2015 Two-Parent Families The table below shows the average number of individuals receiving CalWORKs supportive services in each county for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2014-15. Child Care Transportation Ancillary Svcs. Statewide 1,542 18,330 3,550 Alameda 58 399 31 Alpine 0 0 0 Amador 0 5 2 Butte 28 62 13 Calaveras 1 35 4 Colusa 1 1 0 Contra Costa 2 109 19 Del Norte 5 18 17 El Dorado 0 38 9 Fresno 69 806 257 Glenn 2 6 5 Humboldt 13 71 12 Imperial 13 106 4 Inyo 4 3 0 Kern 20 318 103 Kings 11 105 22 Lake 3 9 8 Lassen 2 0 0 Los Angeles 308 3,963 858 Madera 4 23 12 Marin 3 15 2 Mariposa 0 12 0 Mendocino 2 19 23 Merced 15 165 70 Modoc 0 9 1 Mono 0 0 0 Monterey 9 155 35 Napa 2 6 2 Nevada 4 20 4 Orange 55 342 51 Placer 17 76 12 Plumas 0 2 0 Riverside 119 1,599 369 Sacramento 108 1,844 162 San Benito 4 10 5 San Bernardino 139 3,378 464 San Diego 211 2,067 256 San Francisco 38 76 15 San Joaquin 44 287 107 San Luis Obispo 1 11 11 San Mateo 6 58 13 Santa Barbara 11 48 29 Santa Clara 30 361 40 Santa Cruz 13 55 15 Shasta 3 62 23 Sierra 1 0 0 Siskiyou 2 22 16 Solano 15 88 31 Sonoma 8 57 24 Stanislaus 16 357 98 Sutter 8 71 20 Tehama 5 28 14 Trinity 2 8 11 Tulare 56 594 186 Tuolumne 0 16 5 Ventura 40 34 15 Yolo 2 65 17 Yuba 8 237 25 Data sources: Welfare to Work Monthly Activity Report (WTW 25A) and Child Care Monthly Report (CW 115A) for the months of April, May and June 2015 (averaged). http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG292.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG289.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7: Supportive Services January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 82 Child Care Resources for CalWORKs Participants To ensure an adequate supply of child care resources to CalWORKs recipients and those transitioning off welfare to work, AB 1542 eliminated seven former welfare-related child care programs and consolidated them into a three-stage CalWORKs child care program. The purpose of this program is to help a family transition smoothly from the immediate, short-term child care needed as a parent starts work or work activities to the stable, long-term child care necessary for the family to leave and remain off aid. The CalWORKs Child Care Program is administered in three stages. Stage One is administered by the California Department of Social Services through the county welfare departments (CWDs), and it provides child care subsidies until the CWD determines the family is stable. Stages Two and Three are administered by the California Department of Education (CDE) through contracts with Alternative Payment Program (APP) agencies. Stage One begins with a family's entry into the CalWORKs program. Clients leave Stage One after six months or when their situation is stable, and when there is a slot available in Stage Two or Three; Stage Two begins after six months or after a recipient's work or work activity has stabilized, or when the family is transitioning off of aid. Clients may continue to receive child care in Stage Two up to two years after they are no longer eligible for aid; and Stage Three begins when a funded space is available and when the client has acquired the 24 months of child care, after transitioning off of aid (for former CalWORKs recipients). If the persons are receiving CalWORKs cash aid and are in one of the following situations, they could be eligible for child care benefits: 1. They are working; 2. They are attending a county welfare department-approved education or training program; 3. They are teens participating in Cal-Learn; 4. They choose to refuse a cash aid payment and accept diversion services; or 5. They have been receiving cash assistance and have transitioned off but need child care to retain employment. Participants are required to verify employment, child care costs, and hours and dates of employment or educational\/training activities. There are certain age limits for children. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7: Supportive Services January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 83 Characteristics of Stage One Child Care Cases The following table shows the ages of children, child care settings, and time spent in care (full or part time) for children in Stage One Child Care. Stage One begins with a family's entry into the CalWORKs program. Clients leave Stage One after six months or when their situation is stable, and when there is a slot available in Stage Two or Three. Table 7C. Age, Provider Setting, and Time in Care for Stage One Children (Calendar Year 2014) % of Children in Stage One Age of Child 0-24 Months 17% 2-5 Years 54% 6 Years and Older 29% Child Care Setting License-Exempt 49% Child Care Centers 27% Family Child Care Homes 24% Time in Care Full Time 61% Part Time 39% Data Source: Characteristics based on January 2014 through December 2014 Statewide Automated Welfare System (SAWS) Consortia data. The CalWORKs Information Network (CalWIN) data includes only seven of their eighteen counties. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7: Supportive Services January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 84 Table 7D. CalWORKs Stage One Child Care: FY 2006-07 through FY 2014-15 The following table shows trends in Stage One Child Care participation from FY 2006-07 to FY 2014-15. Data Sources: CDSS CW 115\/115A Monthly Reports, CDSS WTW 25 and WTW 25A Monthly Reports, and California Department of Education 801A Archived Data. See CDSS website for links to monthly reports: http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/ 1 The sum of \"Children in Licensed Care\" and \"Children in Licensed-Exempt Care\" will not equal \"Total Children\" because children can be served by more than one provider. 2 The \"Budgeting Utilization Rate\" is a representation of the CalWORKs caseload and is not specific to the portion of the population with age-eligible children. This rate compares the number of CalWORKs aided families receiving Stage One or Stage Two subsidized care to the number of Unduplicated Adults on the WTW 25\/25A report to provide a rough estimate of how many WTW families are using Stage One or Stage Two care. 3 In comparison to the Budgeting Utilization rate, the utilization rate for Stage One and Two families with age-eligible children was 30 percent in FY 2014-15. This is not adjusted for cases that do not need care, for example, school-aged children who do not need care due to school schedule or two-parent families in which the one parent is participating while the second parent is expected to provide care. Children in Licensed Care1 Children in Licensed- Exempt Care Children in Aided Families Children in Safety Net Families Children in No Longer Aided Families Total Children Total Families Stage 1 Budgeting Utiliz. Rate2 Stage 1&2 Budgeting Utiliz. Rate2 FY 06-07 22,333 33,950 43,250 2,827 9,189 55,265 30,729 22% 33% Q2 23,035 32,892 43,054 2,405 9,557 55,017 30,810 22% 32% Q3 22,200 30,702 39,827 2,267 10,057 52,151 29,344 20% 31% Q4 22,524 31,567 41,078 2,345 9,849 53,272 30,026 20% 30% Annual Mthly Avg 22,523 32,278 41,802 2,461 9,663 53,926 30,227 21% 31% FY 07-08 22,649 33,612 42,710 2,213 10,505 55,428 30,639 21% 29% Q2 23,727 35,107 45,025 2,118 10,779 57,922 32,484 22% 29% Q3 23,796 34,587 43,932 2,128 11,460 57,520 32,244 20% 28% Q4 26,995 37,165 47,096 2,371 13,805 63,273 35,423 21% 28% Annual Mthly Avg 24,292 35,118 44,691 2,208 11,637 58,536 32,697 21% 29% FY 08-09 26,918 37,179 47,409 2,329 13,501 63,239 34,983 20% 26% Q2 26,226 36,585 48,489 1,981 11,453 61,924 35,056 21% 26% Q3 23,731 34,375 46,094 1,749 9,491 57,334 32,590 19% 24% Q4 23,375 34,821 47,807 1,513 8,132 57,452 33,001 19% 24% Annual Mthly Avg 25,063 35,740 47,450 1,893 10,644 59,987 33,908 20% 25% FY 09-10 21,381 33,715 45,684 1,294 7,409 54,387 30,754 18% 24% Q2 20,828 33,558 45,457 1,077 7,079 53,612 30,957 18% 24% Q3 18,113 29,678 39,621 880 6,646 47,146 27,605 16% 23% Q4 18,866 29,951 40,369 797 7,003 48,169 28,742 18% 24% Annual Mthly Avg 19,797 31,725 42,783 1,012 7,034 50,829 29,515 17% 24% FY 10-11 17,799 28,581 37,484 766 7,182 45,433 26,846 16% 23% Q2 17,275 26,927 37,218 675 5,689 43,582 26,297 16% 23% Q3 17,157 24,918 36,097 582 4,871 41,550 25,198 16% 22% Q4 18,515 26,855 39,306 541 4,905 44,752 27,530 17% 23% Annual Mthly Avg 17,687 26,820 37,526 641 5,662 43,829 26,468 16% 23% FY 11-12 17,212 24,221 33,913 990 5,803 40,707 24,707 17% 24% Q2 17,162 22,561 32,992 617 5,525 39,134 24,482 17% 25% Q3 16,286 19,374 29,447 371 5,431 35,249 22,123 15% 23% Q4 17,161 19,539 30,494 323 5,448 36,264 23,016 16% 24% Annual Mthly Avg 16,955 21,424 31,711 575 5,552 37,838 23,582 16% 24% FY 12-13 16,470 18,247 28,965 280 5,055 34,300 21,211 15% 23% Q2 17,355 18,922 30,464 284 5,080 35,828 22,445 16% 24% Q3 16,470 18,247 28,965 280 5,055 34,300 20,906 15% 23% Q4 17,701 18,374 30,459 248 4,983 35,690 22,279 16% 24% Annual Mthly Avg 16,999 18,448 29,713 273 5,044 35,030 21,710 16% 23% FY 13-14 16,933 18,309 29,420 233 5,093 34,746 20,871 16% 23% Q2 17,880 19,182 31,538 215 4,856 36,609 22,287 17% 24% Q3 17,163 17,604 29,833 241 4,318 34,391 20,905 15% 22% Q4 18,987 18,889 32,623 229 4,593 37,444 22,734 16% 23% Annual Mthly Avg 17,741 18,496 30,853 229 4,715 35,798 21,699 16% 23% FY 14-153 18,589 18,961 32,158 219 4,778 37,155 21,715 15% 23% Q2 19,733 19,234 32,995 252 5,280 38,527 23,054 16% 23% Q3 18,717 18,036 30,700 252 5,434 36,386 21,674 15% 23% Q4 19,806 18,273 31,970 257 5,463 37,690 22,518 16% 23% Annual Mthly Avg 19,211 18,626 31,956 245 5,239 37,440 22,240 16% 23% http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG276.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG291.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG292.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/ California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7: Supportive Services January 2016 Figure 7A. Children in CalWORKs Stages One, Two, and Three Child Care Programs: 2005-2014 Data Sources: CDSS CW 115\/115A Monthly Reports, California Department of Education Quarterly Reports See CDSS website for links to monthly reports: http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 85 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 85 http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG276.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7: Supportive Services January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 86 Table 7E. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation April June 2015 All (Other) Families The following table shows the average number of individuals referred to and receiving CalWORKs services in each of the following categories. WTW 25 Mental Health Treatment Substance Abuse Treatment Domestic Abuse Treatment Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Statewide 3,965 5,382 1,123 1,188 2,538 3,174 Alameda 65 143 1 91 174 229 Alpine 0 1 0 0 0 0 Amador 2 1 1 0 1 1 Butte 40 55 4 10 8 5 Calaveras 5 7 10 3 3 1 Colusa 0 0 0 0 0 0 Contra Costa 140 47 15 6 578 25 Del Norte 435 0 297 0 255 0 El Dorado 6 10 4 4 0 0 Fresno 56 85 44 70 12 15 Glenn 16 23 0 2 2 8 Humboldt 68 68 14 17 5 6 Imperial 17 90 13 7 3 1 Inyo 0 1 0 0 0 0 Kern 168 115 27 22 35 19 Kings 105 68 10 6 5 7 Lake 17 22 8 6 4 2 Lassen 0 0 0 0 0 0 Los Angeles 969 2,573 176 305 1,158 2,498 Madera 21 4 7 1 5 0 Marin 23 32 10 3 1 2 Mariposa 0 2 0 0 1 0 Mendocino 10 4 6 8 5 2 Merced 63 68 6 12 0 2 Modoc 0 0 0 0 2 0 Mono 1 1 1 1 0 0 Monterey 122 105 3 15 9 6 Napa 10 6 6 4 0 0 Nevada 0 0 2 2 1 1 Orange 337 340 5 15 40 92 Placer 23 29 13 10 2 8 Plumas 3 0 0 0 0 0 Riverside 163 156 23 15 9 9 Sacramento 15 41 1 16 2 4 San Benito 0 1 0 0 0 0 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7: Supportive Services January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 87 WTW 25 Mental Health Treatment Substance Abuse Treatment Domestic Abuse Treatment Substance Abuse Treatment Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. San Bernardino 100 64 30 20 39 38 San Diego 176 161 139 150 19 9 San Francisco 15 44 0 2 0 0 San Joaquin 33 7 4 2 1 1 San Luis Obispo 6 5 3 3 0 3 San Mateo 3 3 3 2 0 0 Santa Barbara 7 17 0 0 0 1 Santa Clara 84 233 35 120 0 43 Santa Cruz 22 30 10 11 0 4 Shasta 46 59 5 6 1 2 Sierra 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siskiyou 6 8 0 1 1 0 Solano 29 51 4 4 4 9 Sonoma 49 81 19 38 1 5 Stanislaus 116 50 98 44 78 32 Sutter 11 41 4 19 0 4 Tehama 42 27 24 7 18 12 Trinity 3 4 2 3 2 4 Tulare 197 272 13 56 46 49 Tuolumne 0 1 0 1 3 5 Ventura 50 52 11 21 3 2 Yolo 14 24 0 17 0 0 Yuba 56 48 12 10 2 5 Data source: Quarterly CalWORKs Report April June 2015. 1. Referrals and average participants are summed because an individual will only be reported once for an evaluation referral, but can participate over several months. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG298.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7: Supportive Services January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 88 Table 7F. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation April June 2015 Two-Parent Families The following table shows the average number of individuals referred to and receiving CalWORKs services in each of the following categories. WTW 25A Mental Health Treatment Substance Abuse Treatment Domestic Abuse Treatment Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Statewide 1063 849 409 253 304 113 Alameda 9 20 0 12 23 31 Alpine 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amador 2 2 3 2 0 0 Butte 16 21 0 0 1 1 Calaveras 3 1 6 2 2 0 Colusa 0 0 0 0 0 0 Contra Costa 36 7 4 0 151 1 Del Norte 234 0 183 0 51 0 El Dorado 1 1 2 2 0 0 Fresno 17 17 16 14 0 2 Glenn 4 5 0 0 0 0 Humboldt 24 17 3 2 1 2 Imperial 9 30 13 1 1 0 Inyo 0 1 0 0 0 0 Kern 51 26 1 2 1 0 Kings 20 13 2 1 3 1 Lake 5 5 2 2 2 1 Lassen 0 0 0 0 0 0 Los Angeles 108 229 23 36 30 55 Madera 6 2 2 0 2 0 Marin 5 6 0 1 0 0 Mariposa 0 2 0 1 0 0 Mendocino 5 0 1 1 2 0 Merced 18 19 7 10 1 1 Modoc 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mono 0 0 0 0 0 0 Monterey 11 10 0 2 0 0 Napa 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nevada 0 0 0 0 0 0 Orange 117 117 0 5 0 1 Placer 2 10 2 6 1 1 Plumas 0 0 0 0 0 0 Riverside 47 39 5 3 2 1 Sacramento 1 8 0 3 0 1 San Benito 0 1 0 0 0 0 San Bernardino 34 19 8 6 0 0 San Diego 34 20 13 21 0 0 San Francisco 3 3 0 0 0 0 San Joaquin 4 2 1 0 0 0 San Luis Obispo 0 0 0 0 0 0 San Mateo 2 1 1 1 0 0 Santa Barbara 2 1 1 1 0 0 Santa Clara 28 78 12 40 0 0 Santa Cruz 3 4 2 4 0 0 Shasta 17 13 3 4 0 0 Sierra 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siskiyou 6 5 0 0 0 0 Solano 5 10 2 3 1 1 Sonoma 6 9 3 7 1 0 Stanislaus 48 12 53 22 14 3 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7: Supportive Services January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 89 WTW 25A Mental Health Treatment Substance Abuse Treatment Domestic Abuse Treatment Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Sutter 3 10 3 11 0 0 Tehama 11 7 9 3 5 2 Trinity 1 0 0 0 0 0 Tulare 68 32 8 7 6 6 Tuolumne 2 0 2 2 1 0 Ventura 5 3 6 7 2 2 Yolo 1 0 0 4 0 0 Yuba 29 13 7 4 0 0 Data source: Quarterly CalWORKs Report April - June 2015. 1. We sum referrals and average participants because an individual will only be reported once for an evaluation referral, but an individual can participate over several months. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG298.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8: Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 90 Chapter 8 Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates One of the main goals of CalWORKs is to reduce child poverty. Knowing how poverty is defined and measured is essential to understanding the program's design and impact. This chapter surveys the context for the CalWORKs program from a poverty perspective, including the following topics: The level of poverty in California and the U.S.; How the official poverty measure (OPM) and supplemental poverty measure (SPM) are calculated; Why the SPM finds a higher poverty level in California than the OPM; A comparison of the share of poor children that is served by the TANF program in California and in the United States as a whole; and How the total value of benefits from safety net programs compares to the poverty level for CalWORKs families with different levels of earnings. Data about CalWORKs and poverty show that California provides assistance to many more of its poor children than does the nation as a whole: more than 50 percent in 2014, compared to just 19 percent in the entire U.S. population of children in poverty.1 Key Terms in This Chapter Official Poverty Measure (OPM) The most common poverty measure, the OPM was developed by the Social Security Administration in the 1960s.2 A simple tool based on a family's food budget, the OPM helps policymakers and the public understand the economic status of various segments of the population and study changes in economic well-being over time. It is widely used as a benchmark to determine eligibility for various government welfare programs. If a family's total income falls below the relevant poverty threshold (which varies by family size and composition but not by geographic region), the family as well as all family members are considered to be in poverty. The income in OPM includes cash income (before tax), and excludes noncash in-kind transfers such as food stamps and housing subsidies. Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) More recently, the SPM has been proposed as a better way to learn about who is poor. The SPM accounts for income from certain government benefits (such as food stamps) and for necessary expenses such as taxes, medical out-of- pocket costs, child care, and shelter expenses that are not in the official poverty measure. The threshold is adjusted by family size, composition, geographic region, and housing status (whether a family is renting, owns with a mortgage, or owns without a mortgage). 1 U.S. Census Bureau; Administration for Children and Families (ACF). 2 Gordon M. Fisher, The Development and History of the Poverty Thresholds (Social Security Administration, 1992). Retrieved from https:\/\/www.ssa.gov\/history\/fisheronpoverty.html. https:\/\/www.ssa.gov\/history\/fisheronpoverty.html California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8: Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 91 Tables and Figures in This Chapter Table 8A. Official Poverty Rate and California's Ranking: 2010-2014 92 Table 8B. Comparison of the Official and Supplemental Poverty Measures 93 Table 8C. Comparison of the OPM and SPM in California and the U.S.: 2010-2013 94 Table 8D. Child Poverty Rates and Share of Poor Children in TANF, California and the U.S.: 2002 to 2014 96 Table 8E. Monthly Benefit Values for CalWORKs Family of Three in Region One 99 Figure 8A. Children in TANF as a Percentage of Children in Poverty: California and the U.S.: 2002-2014 95 Figure 8B. CalWORKs Benefit Model for Family of Three: One Adult and Two Children 100 Figure 8C. CalWORKs Benefit and Resource Model 2016: Cases with No Earnings and with Median Earnings 101 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8: Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 92 California's Poverty Rate and National Ranking According to the Official Poverty Measure (OPM), 15.8 percent of all Californians and 22.9 percent of California's children lived in poverty in 2014 (Table 8A). The corresponding figures for the U.S. as a whole were 14.8 percent and 21.1 percent, respectively. California's poverty rates have dropped by approximately one percentage point since 2011, partly as a result of an improving economy. The State ranks 17th in the nation for both overall and child poverty. Table 8A. Official Poverty Rate and California's Ranking: 2010-2014 OPM Poverty Rate and California's Ranking Year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Overall Poverty Rate 16.3% (14th highest) 16.9% (10th highest) 15.9% (16th highest) 14.9% (18th highest) 15.8% (17th highest) Child Poverty Rate 23.4% (18th highest) 24.3% (11th highest) 22.5% (19th highest) 20.3% (18th highest) 22.9% (17th highest) Source: Carmen DeNavas-Walt and Bernadette D. Proctor, Income and Poverty in the United States, Current Population Reports P602-252 (U.S. Census Bureau, September 2015). Data are from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement. 2014 data retrieved from http:\/\/www.census.gov\/hhes\/www\/cpstables\/032015\/pov\/pov46_000.htm. Measuring Poverty with the OPM and SPM The OPM and SPM are fundamentally different ways of understanding poverty (Table 8B). The OPM assumes that food costs consume one-third of a family's budget and defines poverty levels in relation to food prices, adjusted annually for inflation; the SPM considers the cost of basic needs for families just at the line between the bottom and middle thirds of the income distribution. Major Differences between the OPM and SPM Who is counted? The OPM defines a family as individuals related by birth, marriage, or adoption. In contrast, the broader definition of the SPM resource unit includes individuals related by birth, marriage or adoption, as well as cohabitating partners and foster children. As a result, the number of people who could be counted as poor is larger for the SPM than for the OPM. What is income ? The OPM counts cash income. The SPM considers cash income plus any in-kind benefits such as nutritional assistance and then subtracts several categories of expenses from income. http:\/\/www.census.gov\/hhes\/www\/cpstables\/032015\/pov\/pov46_000.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8: Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 93 How are poverty lines adjusted over time and between groups? The OPM adjusts for inflation using the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for All Goods and calculates poverty lines by family size and age of family members. The SPM is revised to reflect rising levels and standards of living (for example, for variation in family\/individual expenses\/costs, with adjustment for geographic differences in prices across the states\/geographic areas). Do housing costs matter? Housing costs are not considered in calculating the OPM, but are in the SPM. Table 8B. Comparison of the Official and Supplemental Poverty Measures Component OPM SPM Units of Analysis (1) Families and (2) unrelated individuals (1) Families\/cohabiting partners\/foster children and (2) unrelated individuals Income Pre-tax cash income and cash transfers (e.g., unemployment compensation, child support) After-tax cash income plus certain after-tax in-kind transfers, less certain expenses Expenses N\/A Subtracts medical, child care and work-related expenses (including transportation) from income Calculating the Poverty Line Three times the economy food plan of the 1960s, updated annually for inflation The mean of the 30th to 36th percentile of expenditures on food, clothing, shelter and utilities (FCSU) of consumer units with two children, multiplied by 1.2 to account for other \"key\" spending Adjustments for Family Size and Composition Family size, composition and age of householder Broader definition of family that includes unmarried partners, foster children, and unrelated children under 15; family size and composition Adjustments for Housing Costs N\/A Geographic adjustment for housing costs Updating Poverty Thresholds CPI Five-year moving average of expenditures for FCSU Based on Kathleen Short, The Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2014, Current Population Reports P60-254 (U.S. Census Bureau, September 2015). https:\/\/www.census.gov\/content\/dam\/Census\/library\/publications\/2015\/demo\/p60-254.pdf California Poverty Rates Based on the OPM and the SPM In September 2015, the U.S. Census Bureau released two sets of poverty data: rates using the OPM and rates using the SPM. Poverty in California was much higher as measured by the SPM than by the OPM: In 2011-13, for example, California's poverty rate was 23.4 percent according to the SPM and 16.0 percent using the OPM (Table 8C). For the U.S. as a whole, poverty rates were roughly one percentage point higher using the SPM. https:\/\/www.census.gov\/content\/dam\/Census\/library\/publications\/2015\/demo\/p60-254.pdf California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8: Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 94 Table 8C. Comparison of the OPM and SPM in California and the U.S.: 2010-2012 and 2011-13 Official Poverty Measure Supplemental Poverty Measure 2010-2012 2011-2013 2010-2012 2011-2013 California 16.5% 16.0% 23.8% 23.4% United States 15.1% 14.9% 16.0% 15.9% Kathleen Short, The Research Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2013, Current Population Report P60-251 (U.S. Census Bureau, October 2014). http:\/\/www.census.gov\/content\/dam\/Census\/library\/publications\/2014\/demo\/p6 0-251.pdf (Questions for income and health insurance coverage in the Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement (CPS ASEC) were changed starting in 2013, so the U.S. Census Bureau did not publish state-level three-year SPM estimates in 2015; that series will be published again next year.) Why is the SPM Higher than the OPM in California? Local Housing Costs: Unlike the OPM, the SPM accounts for regional variation in the cost of living. For the period 2011 to 2013, California was one of the ten states with the highest housing costs in the U.S. The SPM was higher than the OPM in all ten of those states.3 Given the relationship between housing costs and the SPM-OPM differential, it may not be surprising that the SPM is higher than the OPM in California. 3 New Jersey, Hawaii, Maryland, California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Alaska, New York, and Virginia (U.S. Census Bureau, The Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2013; 2011-13 American Community Survey 3-year Estimates of Median Monthly Housing Costs, Table B25105). http:\/\/www.census.gov\/content\/dam\/Census\/library\/publications\/2014\/demo\/p60-251.pdf http:\/\/www.census.gov\/content\/dam\/Census\/library\/publications\/2014\/demo\/p60-251.pdf California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8: Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 95 Figure 8A. Children in TANF as a Percentage of Children in Poverty: California and the U.S., 2002 - 2014 The share of California's children in poverty who receive TANF benefits has historically been much higher than the share in other states and the nation. In 2014, while the national percent of poor children receiving TANF was only 19.0 percent, California served 51.1 percent of its poor children more than two and a half times the national share. CalWORKs policies that strengthen support for children include providing aid to age 18 and continuing to provide aid when a parent's portion of aid is ended because of non-compliance with program rules. Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau and Administration for Children and Families (ACF). The data source for California children on TANF was updated from the CA 237 CW to ACF for this version of the annual summary so that a better comparison can be made to the U.S. overall. 57.8% 57.5% 56.3% 55.7% 55.2% 55.4% 50.9% 53.2% 50.2% 50.5% 53.0% 57.8% 51.1% 33.9% 31.6% 30.4% 29.1% 26.9% 23.4% 21.7% 21.3% 20.9% 21.1% 20.5% 20.8% 19.0% 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Children in TANF As a Percentage of Children in Poverty: California and the U.S., 2002-2014 California U.S. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8: Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 96 Table 8D. Child Poverty Rates and Share of Poor Children in TANF, California and the U.S.: 2002 to 2014 Year California U.S. Children on TANF CA Children in Poverty CA Percent Children in Poverty CA Percent Poor Children in TANF U.S. Children in TANF and SSP MOE U.S. Children in Poverty (1,000s) U.S. Percent Children in Poverty U.S. Percent Poor Children in TANF 2002 1,031,347 1,783,000 18.7% 57.8% 4,118,797 12,133 16.7% 33.9% 2003 1,010,719 1,757,000 18.7% 57.5% 4,062,665 12,866 17.6% 31.6% 2004 1,014,920 1,804,000 19.0% 56.3% 3,969,376 13,041 17.8% 30.4% 2005 992,639 1,781,000 18.6% 55.7% 3,758,077 12,896 17.6% 29.1% 2006 952,014 1,724,000 18.1% 55.2% 3,455,961 12,827 17.4% 26.9% 2007 928,743 1,677,000 17.9% 55.4% 3,119,519 13,324 18.0% 23.4% 2008 965,627 1,898,000 20.2% 50.9% 3,056,690 14,068 19.0% 21.7% 2009 1,054,257 1,981,000 21.0% 53.2% 3,294,392 15,451 20.7% 21.3% 2010 1,116,594 2,225,000 23.4% 50.2% 3,432,780 16,401 22.0% 20.9% 2011 1,140,453 2,260,000 24.3% 50.5% 3,409,383 16,134 21.9% 21.1% 2012 1,093,821 2,065,000 22.5% 53.0% 3,298,369 16,073 21.8% 20.5% 2013 1,065,894 1,843,000 20.3% 57.8% 3,049,590 14,659 21.8% 20.8% 2014 1,069,584 2,093,000 22.9% 51.1% 2,949,590 15,540 21.1% 19.0% Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau and Administration for Children and Families (ACF). The data source for California children on TANF was updated from the CA 237 CW to ACF for this version of the annual summary so that a better comparison can be made to the U.S. overall. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8: Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 97 CalWORKs Benefit and Resource Model 2016 Background CalWORKs cash assistance is one of many program benefits that provide comprehensive support to families in need. When looking at the resources available to cash assistance families, it is important to recognize that many CalWORKs families also receive benefits from the following programs: \uf0b7 CalFresh; \uf0b7 Medi-Cal; \uf0b7 CalWORKs Child Care; \uf0b7 Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); and \uf0b7 Child Tax Credit. The CalWORKs Benefit and Resource Model provides a snapshot of several of these benefits as a family's earnings gradually increase. CalWORKs grants vary by household size. The benefit model displays the interaction between monthly benefits and resources available to CalWORKs families along with their earning levels for a family of three with one aided adult and two aided children.4 Earned income changes the benefit amounts of these programs and increases the total resources available for the family. The updated 2016 model adds the federal school lunch program and the new state EITC - programs that benefit many CalWORKs recipients. The model now displays the poverty threshold under both the OPM and the SPM. Medi-Cal benefits and child care are not included as resources, as those two components are reflected as expenses instead of income in the SPM framework. The new Figure 8C displays information regarding the share of CalWORKs recipients who have no earnings and the share with earnings in at least one month of 2014, along with total monthly resources for those groups (assuming median monthly earnings for all recipients with any earnings in 2014). The Women, Infants and Children (WIC) health and nutrition program subsidy is not included because only approximately one-third of CalWORKs recipients receive this benefit.5 Housing subsidies are excluded because reliable data are not available. As noted above, the model reflects benefits and resources available to aided adults and children. Cases that include ineligible adults or children due to the maximum family grant policy or citizenship status would receive less. 4 In December 2014, there were a total of 270,777 one- and two-parent CalWORKs cases; 59,686, or 22.0 percent, had one aided adult and two aided children. (Data source: MEDS 2014 Q4.) 5 California Department of Public Health; Women, Infants & Children Program; Data Analysis, Research & Evaluation Section; accessed September 10, 2015. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8: Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 98 Data Sources This model was developed using the following data: The CalWORKs grant is based on the non-exempt maximum aid payment for a family of three in high-cost counties (Region 1) as of April 1, 2015. The CalWORKs Earned Income Disregard (EID) policy allows families to exclude the first $225 of their income from the cash grant calculation, as well as 50 percent of all income above $225. The CalFresh benefit is based on the maximum monthly allotments for Federal Fiscal Year 2016 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service. The EITC and Child Tax Credits are displayed as monthly amounts, based on 2015 tax year information. However, most families that are eligible for the EITC and Child Tax Credits receive them as a lump-sum tax refund. For a family with two children, the state EITC is 85 percent of the federal EITC up to earnings of $6,935 per year (approximately $578 per month). The state EITC begins to phase out at that point, while the federal EITC continues to phase in to earnings of $13,870 per year (approximately $1,156 per month). The monthly National School Lunch Program benefit for one child is derived by dividing total average 2010-11 and 2011-12 school-year reimbursement rates by 12, based on data from the California Department of Education and the Public Policy Institute of California.6 That number is multiplied by two (the number of children in the model's family type) and then by 63 percent, the estimated share of children in CalWORKs families who are school-age (FFY 2014 RADEP data). Net earnings are after deductions for Social Security, Medicare and federal and state income tax. The OPM threshold is from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines for 2015. The SPM threshold is CDSS' calculation of the average threshold for California families of three with two children, using 2014 SPM research files from the U.S. Census Bureau. 6 Sarah Bohn, et al., The California Poverty Measure: A New Look at the Social Safety Net (Public Policy Institute of California, October 2013); http:\/\/www.ppic.org\/content\/pubs\/other\/1013SBR_appendix.pdf. http:\/\/www.ppic.org\/content\/pubs\/other\/1013SBR_appendix.pdf California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8: Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 99 Table 8E. Monthly Benefit Values for a CalWORKs Family of Three in Region One: One Aided Adult and Two Aided Children Resources and Poverty Measures Earnings Before Tax $0 $200 $400 $600 $800 $1,000 $1,200 $1,400 $1,600 $1,800 Net Earnings After Taxes $0 $185 $369 $554 $739 $924 $1,108 $1,293 $1,478 $1,662 CalWORKs Grant $704 $704 $617 $517 $417 $317 $217 $117 $17 $0 CalFresh Benefit $498 $439 $406 $379 $352 $325 $298 $271 $244 $180 School Lunch $54 $54 $54 $54 $54 $54 $54 $54 $54 $54 Child Tax Credit $0 $0 $23 $53 $83 $113 $143 $167 $167 $164 Federal Earned Income Tax Credit $0 $81 $161 $241 $321 $401 $462 $462 $443 $401 State Earned Income Tax Credit $0 $69 $137 $188 $120 $52 $0 $0 $0 $0 Total Resources to the Family $1,256 $1,531 $1,766 $1,985 $2,085 $2,185 $2,282 $2,364 $2,402 $2,460 Official poverty measure (OPM) $1,674 $1,674 $1,674 $1,674 $1,674 $1,674 $1,674 $1,674 $1,674 $1,674 Supplemental poverty measure (SPM) $2,078 $2,078 $2,078 $2,078 $2,078 $2,078 $2,078 $2,078 $2,078 $2,078 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8: Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 100 Supplemental poverty measure (SPM), $2,078 Official poverty measure (OPM), $1,674 $1,256 $1,531 $1,766 $1,985 $2,085 $2,185 $2,282 $2,364 $2,402 $2,460 $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 $3,000 $0 $200 $400 $600 $800 $1,000 $1,200 $1,400 $1,600 $1,800 Earnings Before Tax Figure 8B. Monthly Resources Available to a Family of Three (One Adult and Two Children) by Level of Monthly Earnings State Earned Income Tax Credit Federal Earned Income Tax Credit Child Tax Credit School Lunch CalFresh Benefit CalWORKs Grant Net Earnings After Taxes California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8: Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 101 Figure 8C. CalWORKs Benefit and Resource Model 2016: Cases with No Earnings and with Median Earnings No Earnings 45% With Earnings (Median monthly earnings $657) 55% Share of Cases with Earnings for at Least One Month in 2014 - One Aided Adult and Two Aided Children* Source: MEDS and EDD base wage data 2015 Q2. * In December 2014, there were 59,686 CalWORKs cases with this family type. $704 $498 $54 $1,256 OPM, $1,674 SPM, $2,078 $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 $0 Monthly Resources Available to Families with No Earnings $606 $489 $371 $54 $61 $263 $170 $2,013 OPM, $1,674 SPM, $2,078 $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 $657 Monthly Resources Available to Families with Median Earnings State Earned Income Tax Credit Federal Earned Income Tax Credit Child Tax Credit School Lunch CalFresh Benefit CalWORKs Grant Net Earnings After Taxes California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9: Research Funds and Program Oversight January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 102 Chapter 9 Research Funds and Program Oversight The general purpose of CalWORKs program oversight is to review, monitor, and supervise the implementation of public policy. This chapter describes the various ways in which oversight occurs in the CalWORKs program, including how research funds are used to strengthen and evaluate program performance. This chapter explains how the California Department of Social Services (CDSS) uses Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) funds to assess the effectiveness of the CalWORKs program. Also described in this chapter are steps taken by CDSS to oversee and supervise counties in their implementation of recent changes to the CalWORKs program\u2014notably, the changes enacted by Senate Bill 1041 (Chapter 47, Statutes of 2012) and Assembly Bill 74 (Chapter 21, Statutes of 2013). Taken together, these two pieces of legislation represent the most significant policy transformation of the state's welfare program since the 1990s, including new flexibility built into the program, expanded services for recipients, and a new, in\u2010depth tool for evaluating family needs. The CDSS has prioritized efficient and effective program oversight to strengthen the CalWORKs program through better county operations and service delivery, with the ultimate goal of increasing successful outcomes for CalWORKs families. Table in This Chapter Table 9A. Allocation of TANF Research Funds: Research Project Names and Budgets by Year, 103 FY 2009-10 through FY 2018-19 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9: Research Funds and Program Oversight January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 103 TANF Research Funds This section provides information about the use of federal TANF research funds. Table 9A. displays ten years of actual and estimated expenditures by project. Projects using funding in FY 2007-08 or later are described in more detail on the following pages. Table 9A. Allocation of TANF Research Funds Research Project Names and Budgets by Year, FY 2009-10 through FY 2018-19 Research Project FY 2009-10 FY 2010-11 FY 2011-12 FY 2012-13 FY 2013-14 FY 2014-15 FY 2015-163 FY 2016-174 FY 2017-184 FY 2018-194 Total Women's Health Survey $106,000 $106,000 UC Berkeley Library $46,704 $46,704 UC Davis Research Projects 1 $606,056 $1,112,515 $667,991 $464,491 $629,789 $0 $200,000 $200,000 $200,000 $200,000 $4,280,842 Spanish Language LD Screening $397,898 $473,871 $800,040 $984,139 $813,573 $3,469,521 CalWORKs Annual Summary $49,196 $49,196 UCB Performance Indicators $41,315 $41,315 $41,315 $41,315 $41,315 $43,488 $44,950 $44,950 $44,950 $44,950 $429,863 EDD Data Contract $15,371 $15,371 $15,371 $15,371 $15,371 $29,539 $29,539 $29,539 $42,066 $42,066 $249,604 CalWORKs Technical Academy $320,000 $320,000 SB 1041 Statewide Evaluation 2 $995,593 $1,999,795 $2,997,902 $2,496,416 $498,662 $8,988,368 DHCS Data Contract $6,600 $5,160 $5,160 $7,000 $7,000 $30,920 Child Care Characteristics (pending) $833,333 $1,000,000 $166,667 $2,000,000 Total $1,533,344 $1,643,072 $1,524,717 $1,505,316 $2,495,641 $2,128,618 $3,277,551 $3,609,398 $1,792,678 $460,683 $19,971,018 1 Does not include UC Davis projects listed separately below. 2 The RAND annual budget figures are those of the original contract executed June 30, 2015 and do not reflect reallocation of funding among years or project expansions that may occur. 3 Estimated budgets are subject to change. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9: Research Funds and Program Oversight January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 104 TANF Research Funds: Details of Research Projects Women's Health Survey Time Period: FYs 2007-08 through 2009-10 Total Cost: $312,600 The CDSS provided questions for the Department of Health Care Services (DHCS) Women's Health Survey. After the survey was conducted, the results were provided to CDSS. Current Status: Completed. Food Stamps for Non-Citizens Time Period: FY 2007-08 Total Cost: $42,289 This contract examined the factors affecting non-citizens' SNAP participation rates. Current Status: Completed. Veterans' Trauma Time Period: FY 2007-08 Total Cost: $202,476 This contract studied the effect of veterans' trauma on participation in CalWORKs programs. Current Status: Completed. UC Berkeley Library Time Period: FY 2007-08 through FY 2009-10 Total Cost: $130,204 This contract was an agreement in which the UC Berkeley Library provided literature reviews and article retrieval for CDSS research requests. Current Status: Completed. UC Davis Research Projects: California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9: Research Funds and Program Oversight January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 105 University of California, Davis (UC Davis) This multi-purpose research contract supports short- and long-term projects to inform CDSS programming. Over the period FY 2009-10 through FY 2013-14, more than 90 percent of expenditures from this funding were directed to the Spanish Language Learning Disabilities (LD) Screening Tool Project, which is described below; another UCD project, the UC Davis Confidentiality 2009 Report, is also listed. Funding for the multi-purpose contract is also used for discrete ad hoc data analysis projects, literature reviews, and consulting services to support program needs; deliverables include a draft Request for Proposals (RFP) for the Senate Bill (SB) 1041 Evaluation Study and a report to guide the RFP for the Child Care Characteristics Study. Time Period: Began FY 2007-08; anticipated to continue indefinitely Total Allocation: $5,291,601 through FY 2017-18 Information about three major UC Davis research projects is provided below. Current Status: Renewal of the contract will begin FY 2015-16. UC Davis: Spanish Language LD Screening Tool Project Time Period: FY 2009-10 through FY 2013-14 Total Cost: $3,469,521 A collaborative effort between CDSS and the University of California, Davis, Center for Public Policy Research (CPPR), this project involves the development of a short, valid measure ( screen ) for Spanish-speaking adult applicants for Welfare to Work (WTW) to determine those at risk for learning disabilities. Low-income adults whose primary language is Spanish were invited to participate through various community-based organizations and agencies. Participants were administered two standardized achievement measures and the screening tools. Certified professionals (clinical psychologists and educational psychologists) provided diagnoses of whether participants had a learning disability; these diagnoses were used to assess the accuracy of the pilot screening measures. Recommendations regarding the screens were provided based on these findings. Current Status: The project was completed June 30, 2014. UC Davis: CalWORKs Annual Summary Time Period: FY 2014-15 Total Cost: $49,196 In this project, UC Davis provided technical assistance in compiling program information and data for a new CalWORKs summary. The first iteration of the document was posted to the California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9: Research Funds and Program Oversight January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 106 CDSS website and provides information to policymakers, researchers, and the public. Current Status: Completed. Exemplar Human Services Time Period: FY 2008-09 Total Cost: $125,000 Funds were used to hire Exemplar as a consultant to create a work plan and data collection reports that would monitor Welfare to Work (WTW) performance measures and meet federal and state WTW requirements. Current Status: Completed. University of California, Berkeley (UCB) California Child Welfare Indicators Project (CCWIP) Time Period: Ongoing beginning in FY 2008-09 Total TANF Cost 2008-09 through FY 2017-18: $426,228 The Center for Social Services Research (CSSR) at UC Berkeley receives and processes quarterly Child Welfare Services\/Case Management System data on California youth in foster care and produces statewide and county-specific tables and reports regarding maltreatment allegations, caseload, and performance outcomes. These reports are used by CalWORKs staff to formulate future welfare caseload projections. The project is housed in the School of Social Welfare and provides policymakers, child welfare workers, researchers, and the public with direct access to customizable information on California's entire child welfare system. Additional funding for this project is provided by the Stuart Foundation. Current Status: The CDSS will continue to provide data to CSSR for the foreseeable future. CCWIP website: http:\/\/cssr.berkeley.edu\/ucb_childwelfare\/. Employment Development Department (EDD) Time Period: FY 2008-09 through FY 2017-18 Total Cost through FY 2017-18: $210,382 The EDD provides base wage employment data to CDSS under this contract and data for reports and analysis of the effect of programs and pilots. Current Status: The EDD will continue to provide data to CDSS for the foreseeable future. CalWORKs Technical Academy Time Period: FY 2009-10 Total Cost: $320,000 http:\/\/cssr.berkeley.edu\/ucb_childwelfare\/ California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9: Research Funds and Program Oversight January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 107 Funds were used to pay for a regional forum to present new strategies to help TANF participants obtain jobs. Current Status: Completed. SB 1041 Statewide Evaluation Time Period: FY 2013-14 through FY 2017-18 Total Cost: $8,988,368 Senate Bill (SB) 1041 requires CDSS to contract with an independent, research-based institution for an evaluation of the SB 1041 changes and a written report to be provided to the Legislature. The Research and Development (RAND) Corporation was selected through a competitive bidding process to conduct the evaluation. The FY 2013-14 budget funds will be shifted to FY 2014-15 to reflect the actual project start date. Six counties are participating: Sacramento, Fresno, Riverside, Los Angeles, Alameda, and Stanislaus. Current Status: \uf0b7 The first annual report, a description of the study design, research questions, and background, was provided in 2015, and is available at the RAND Corporation website, http:\/\/www.rand.org\/pubs\/research_reports\/RR919.html. \uf0b7 The year two annual report is projected for release early in 2016. This report will include findings from interviews, surveys, recipient and staff focus groups and administrative data analysis. Findings from the California Socioeconomic Survey (CalSES) will likely not be sufficiently complete for inclusion into the year two report. Study Design and Progress The evaluation attempts to isolate the effects of SB 1041 on county welfare staff, operations, and CalWORKs recipients by collecting and examining data on five important components. Due to the complexity for surveying each California county, some portions of the study will concentrate on six focal counties that are representative of the state as a whole in terms of demographic and socio-graphic makeup, CalWORKs caseload, urban\/rural mix, and other important factors. The focal counties are Sacramento, Alameda, Stanislaus, Fresno, Riverside and Los Angeles. \uf0b7 A Process Study \/ County Welfare Operations Impact Study: how the SB 1041 changes were implemented; county staff levels and distribution, resources, supportive services payments, and provision and timing of WTW activities to clients. o State-Level Interviews Completed o All-County Welfare Directors Survey Completed http:\/\/www.rand.org\/pubs\/research_reports\/RR919.html. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9: Research Funds and Program Oversight January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 108 o Focal County Key Staff Interviews Completed o Focal County CalWORKs recipient focus groups Completed \uf0b7 Recipient Status Study \/Recipient Tracking Study: a point-in-time snapshot of the activities and services clients receive and an analysis of clients over time, while on and after leaving aid. o Underway - Data collection and analysis from the CDSS, Employment Development Department and other internal administrative sources is ongoing. \uf0b7 Recipient Impact Study: the number of families participating, completion of WTW activities, treatment of barriers, employment status and earnings, and child well-being. o Underway The CalSES, a three year longitudinal survey of a multi-cohort sample of CalWORKs recipients (N=1,500) with an embedded in-home child supplement sample of 1,000 of the sample families. o Underway Longitudinal analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) data will be incorporated to make comparisons between CalWORKs families and similar families in the rest of the country. Department of Health Care Services (DHCS) Time Period: FY 2014-15 through FY 2017-18 Total Cost FY 2014-15 through FY 2017-18: $22,080 The DHCS provides CDSS with monthly Medi-Cal Eligibility Data System (MEDS) extract files. These files are used by CDSS to generate federal reports, analyze program issues, and track participation by recipients in the CalWORKs and CalFresh programs. Current Status: The DHCS will continue to provide data to CDSS for the foreseeable future. Child Care Characteristics Survey Research Project Time Period: FYs 2015-16 through 2017-18 Total Cost: $2,000,000 The California Department of Social Services (CDSS) Child Care Programs Bureau will award a contract on a competitive basis to study the characteristics of families, children, and providers of subsidized child care in California. The study will be a fact-finding data collection effort. The data will inform decision makers on child care and development programs to identify service gaps for program development, make strategic funding decisions, and improve program effectiveness for needy families. Current status: Pending completion of a Request for Proposal process and contract execution. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9: Research Funds and Program Oversight January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 109 Program Oversight The CDSS believes that timely oversight and ongoing monitoring will help ensure that families receive the maximum benefit of the new flexibility built into the program, and that technical assistance is being provided to counties to achieve the ultimate goal of the program: increasing successful outcomes for CalWORKs families. Current efforts include: New reporting Contracted Evaluation with RAND Corporation o SB 1041 Evaluation of Reforms o An independent evaluation of the impact of SB 1041, including changes to the client time clock and work requirements conducted by the RAND Corporation, in partnership with the American Institutes for Research o Annual progress reports will be provided o Covers the full range of adult and child impacts of CalWORKs reforms o Year One Report: http:\/\/www.rand.org\/pubs\/research_reports\/RR919.html County Monitoring SB 1041 Field Monitoring Visits o One\u2010day county visits that include data collection, county worker interviews, case file reviews, and local welfare advocate input o 40 visits completed to date. \uf0a7 27 reports online: http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/cdssweb\/PG95.htm County Peer Review o Sharing of promising and best practices between and among counties o Peer review teams visit counties to conduct informational interviews and focus groups, review policies and procedures, and review client case files o Eight peer review visits were completed to date o Summary reports: http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/calworks\/PG2108.htm Eligibility Case File Reviews o One\u2010day county visits that include a review of major eligibility factors: citizenship and residency, income and resource limitations, family http:\/\/www.rand.org\/pubs\/research_reports\/RR919.html http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/cdssweb\/PG95.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/calworks\/PG2108.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9: Research Funds and Program Oversight January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 110 composition and grant levels. A Summary of Findings will be forwarded to the county upon completion of the review o The eight largest counties will be reviewed in 2015, beginning early spring o More detailed information: http:\/\/www.dss.cahwnet.gov\/lettersnotices\/PG980.htm http:\/\/www.dss.cahwnet.gov\/lettersnotices\/PG980.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and Acronyms January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 111 Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and Acronyms 24MTC (24-Month Time Clock, CalWORKs): Adult CalWORKs participants are required to engage in Welfare-to-Work activities during their potentially maximum grant period of 48 months. During the first 24 months of aid receipt there are more activity options. These activities include work, education, training, and mental health, substance abuse, and\/or domestic abuse services. The WTW 24-Month Time Clock stops when a participant is in appraisal, job search, assessment, or development of a new WTW plan; is meeting the required number of participation hours in certain activities; is participating in Cal- Learn; is exempt; or is being sanctioned. 48MTC (48-Month Time Clock, CalWORKs): CalWORKs adults are eligible to receive cash aid for a lifetime maximum of 48 countable months. This 48-month time limit applies to aid received under CalWORKs and other state programs funded by the federal TANF Program since January 1, 1998. The time limit may be extended beyond 48 months if the adult fails to find employment or qualifies for a clock-stopping exemption while on aid. The 48-month time limit does not apply to children or non-minor dependents. 60MTC (60-Month Time Clock, TANF): Families with an adult who has received federally funded assistance for a total of 60 months are not eligible for additional cash assistance under the federal TANF program. However, a state can make an exception to the time limit for up to 20 percent of its caseload. States may also extend assistance beyond the 60-month time limit using other specified funds, such as state TANF MOE funds. ACF (the Administration for Children & Families): The ACF is the federal organization that oversees TANF programs. The ACF is a division of the Department of Health & Human Services. The ACF promotes the economic and social well-being of families, children, individuals and communities with partnerships, funding, guidance, training and technical assistance. AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children): Established by the Social Security Act of 1935 as a grant program to enable states to provide cash welfare payments for needy children who had been deprived of parental support or care because their father or mother was absent from the home, incapacitated, deceased, or unemployed. It was replaced by PRWORA in 1996. Ancillary Expenses: CalWORKs participants may be eligible to receive ancillary expenses, which can include the cost of books, tools, clothing, fees, or other necessary costs specifically required for the job or training as assigned in the welfare-to-work plan. ARRA (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009): Part of the federal stimulus package in response to the Great Recession, ARRA was a supplemental appropriation for job preservation and creation, energy efficiency and science, assistance to the unemployed, and state and local fiscal stabilization. ARRA provided a work participation rate requirement, relief provisions, and funding for subsidized employment for state TANF programs. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and Acronyms January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 112 AU (Assistance Unit): An AU is a group of related persons living in the same home who have been determined to be eligible for CalWORKs and for whom cash aid has been authorized. An AU is sometimes referred to as a CalWORKs case. An AU or case differs from a household in that a household includes all persons in the same dwelling regardless of their relationship to members of the AU, or their eligibility for CalWORKs aid. Behavioral Health Services: Services provided to CalWORKs clients in need include treatment for mental health, substance abuse, and domestic violence. CalFresh: CalFresh is California's version of the federal Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP). The CalFresh program helps to improve the health and well-being of qualified California households and individuals by providing monthly electronic benefits (similar to a bank debit card) that can be used to buy most foods at markets and grocery stores to supplement their nutritional needs. Cal-Learn: Part of the CalWORKs program that requires CalWORKs custodial teen parents (up to the age of 19) to attend an educational program that will lead to a high school diploma or its equivalent. CalWORKs: California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids, the state welfare-to- work program that provides income support and access to health coverage on a temporary basis. CalWORKs was formerly Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). CCP (Corrective Compliance Plan): A CCP is one of the approaches provided for states to reduce or eliminate a federal fiscal penalty for WPR noncompliance. CDSS: California Department of Social Services, which is responsible for the CalWORKs program. CFAP (California Food Assistance Program): A state-funded CalFresh program for legal permanent non-citizens residing in the U.S., and determined to be ineligible for federal food stamp benefits solely due to their immigration status. Child Care: Access to quality child care is essential to the success of CalWORKs. Individuals enrolled in the welfare-to-work program are eligible to receive child care services. The CalWORKs Child Care Program is administered in three stages: Stage One is administered by the county welfare departments; Stages Two and Three are administered by Alternative Payment Program agencies under contract with the California Department of Education (CDE). Child-Only: Cases in which only the children in an AU are aided due to the exclusion or ineligibility for cash aid of the AU parent(s). CTC (Child Tax Credit): A federal tax credit designed to help families offset the cost of raising California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and Acronyms January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 113 children. Under current law, the credit is worth up to $1,000 per child under age 17 at the end of a tax year, and it is subtracted from the amount of income tax owed by a family. If the credit exceeds the amount of taxes the family owes, a percentage of the remaining credit is given back to the family in a refund check. (A family must have at least $3,000 in earned income to claim any portion of the credit.) Earnings: Earnings include wages, salary, commissions, and self-employment earnings. It is earned income whether the payment is cash, paycheck, personal check, or \"in-kind\" (such as housing that is included with employment). EID (Earned Income Disregard): The amount of earnings that is subtracted from income for determining a CalWORKs cash grant. The maximum has varied with changes in the law. In October 2013 it was set to the first $225 in earned income and50 percent of remaining earned income for all CalWORKs cases. EITC (Earned Income Tax Credit): A tax break (in the form of a refund) for people who work full-time or part-time. The EITC refund is not counted as income when computing a person's or family's CalWORKs cash grant, CalFresh allocation, or Medi-Cal benefits. Enrollee: Enrollee refers to an individual who has, after becoming eligible for CalWORKs, received a notice that he or she is required to participate in welfare to work. ES (Employment Services): Assistance with obtaining employment. ESE (Expanded Subsidized Employment): A program that creates job opportunities for CalWORKs participants; provides connections to the labor force; builds and improves skills; and involves counties forming partnerships with private employers and non-profits\/public agencies and either partially or fully funding wages. (ESE plans are explained on the CDSS website at: http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/calworks\/PG3412.htm.) Exemption: An exemption excuses a CalWORKs participant from Welfare to Work requirements. Many exemptions do not use up the 48-month allowable period on aid. A participant may be exempt because of a disability that will last 30 days or more and significantly impairs Welfare to Work performance; pregnancy; care of an infant or young child; lack of CalWORKs funds for support services needed to allow work participation; serving as a full-time Volunteers In Service To America (VISTA) volunteer; domestic violence; providing foster care; being under 16 or over 60 years old, or 18 or under and attending school; living on tribal land; and having poor access to services and training opportunities. FS (Family Stabilization): The FS program provides intensive case management and services that may be in addition to those provided by the county's Welfare to Work program to clients who are experiencing an identified situation or crisis. The program assists clients transition to Welfare to Work 24 Month Time Clock activities that are best aligned with their continued success in the CalWORKs program, including education\/training, work study, subsidized employment, or less intensive barrier removal http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/calworks\/PG3412.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and Acronyms January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 114 activities. FY: Fiscal year; in California, July 1 through the following June 30. FFY (Federal Fiscal Year): The period, starting on October 1 of one year and ending on September 30 of the next year, on which the federal government bases fiscal and data reporting requirements. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, FFY 2013 begins on October 1, 2012, and ends on September 30, 2013. GF (General Fund): The GF is California's main governmental operating account. GF revenues come primarily from the state income tax, but state sales and corporate taxes also contribute to the GF. Good Cause: An individual in good cause status is excused from welfare-to-work participation when it has been determined that there is a condition or circumstance that temporarily prevents, or significantly impairs, the individual's ability to be regularly employed or to participate in welfare to work activities. Great Recession: Common name for the economic downturn beginning in 2007-2008 and continuing into 2009-2010; referred to by the International Monetary Fund as the worst recession since World War II. California's unemployment rate reached 12.4 percent in 2010 (22.1 percent counting people who were working part-time and wished to be more fully employed). Household: A household includes all persons in the same dwelling regardless of their relationship to members of the AU or their eligibility for CalWORKs aid. HSP (Housing Support Program): Assists homeless CalWORKs families or those threatened with eviction to obtain and retain housing. Kin-GAP (Kinship Guardianship Assistance Payment Program): Establishes financial assistance for relative caregivers of a child under age 19 who are granted legal guardianship by the dependency court, allowing termination of dependency court jurisdiction. MAP (Maximum Aid Payment): The MAP is the maximum grant level provided for CalWORKs families. MAP levels are established by the California State Legislature and are based on family size, the status of the family (exempt or non-exempt), and the geographical location of the family residence (Region 1 or Region 2). MCA (Maximum Cal-Fresh Allotment): The MCA is the maximum benefit level of food aid a family may receive from CalFresh. MCA varies according to family size and income. Maximum Earned Income Limit: If a family's earnings are above the Maximum Earned Income limit, the family will not receive any CalWORKs grant. The limit is based on Region (1 or 2) and AU size. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and Acronyms January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 115 Medi-Cal: A free or low-cost form of health coverage for children and adults with limited income and resources. (This is California's version of the federal Medicaid program.) MEDS (Medi-Cal Eligibility Data System): The MEDS is a statewide database containing client eligibility information for processing Medi-Cal, CalFresh, and CalWORKs administrative records. MBSAC (Minimum Basic Standards of Adequate Care): The MBSAC is the income threshold to determine applicant family's eligibility for CalWORKs. If a family's income falls below the MBSAC (after an initial $90 earned income disregard) for the region in which they reside, they may be eligible for CalWORKs assistance. MOE (Maintenance of Effort): The MOE is a requirement that states expend a specified minimum amount of matching funds on benefits for lower income families in order to participate in the federal TANF program. California allocates $2.9 billion annually in MOE. Non-Compliant (Individuals): This refers to an individual who has been sent a notice of non- compliance with welfare-to-work participation requirements but has not yet returned to participation, or been sanctioned. Non-Compliant (States): States that fail to meet the federal work participation rates are subject to a penalty of up to 5 percent of the state's block grant. The penalty increases by 2 percentage points each consecutive year of noncompliance, up to a maximum of 21 percent of the block grant. Depending on the degree of noncompliance\u2014for example, how close the state came to meeting the participation requirement\u2014the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services may reduce or waive the penalty. As an additional incentive to meet the federal requirements, states that are in compliance are subject to a lower maintenance-of- effort (MOE) spending requirement (75 percent instead of 80 percent of their FFY 1994 welfare-related spending). In California, this means that if the state meets the participation rates, it has the option of reducing spending by $182 million each year. Non-MOE General Fund: CalWORKs cases that receive assistance from federal TANF, state MOE funds, or some combination, are subject to work participation requirements. Non- MOE General Funds originate in the state GF but are allocated for assistance that is not subject to the federal TANF work participation requirements. OCAT (Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool): The Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool is a statewide standardized appraisal tool which provides in-depth appraisal of recipient strengths and barriers to employment and self-sufficiency, leading to more effective placement in work activities and referrals to supportive services. OCAT is based on the federal Online WORK Readiness Assessment Tool (OWRA). OPM (Official Poverty Measure): The OPM was developed in the 1960s based on a family's California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and Acronyms January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 116 food budget and currently it is widely used as a benchmark to determine eligibility for various government welfare programs. If the total income for a family falls below the relevant poverty threshold (which varies by family size and composition but not by geographic region), then the family as well as all family members are considered in poverty. The income in OPM includes cash income (before tax) and excludes noncash in-kind transfers such as food stamps and housing subsidies. PRWORA (federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996): In this act, Congress sought to reduce dependence on aid, limit out-of-wedlock childbirth, encourage the formation of stable two-parent families, and ensure that children could be cared for in their own homes or the homes of relatives. PRWORA replaced AFDC with Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF), changed the funding structure of the program, limited to 60months the amount of time that families could receive federal aid, and provided incentives for states to encourage support recipients to work. QR\/PB (Quarterly Reporting \/Prospective Budgeting): A budgeting system put in place in 2003 for the CalWORKs and CalFresh programs. Recipients' eligibility and benefits are determined for a 3-month period using prospective budgeting and income averaging rules based on information reported by recipients once in the quarter; recipients have the option to report changes that would result in increased grant\/benefits when they occur. RADEP (Research and Development Enterprise Project): RADEP is a web-based data collection tool used by county and state staff to collect federal TANF disaggregated data. The data is used by the federal Department of Health and Human Services to calculate the State's federal work participation rates. Region 1 and Region 2: The state of California is divided into two sets of counties, with Region 1 containing counties that generally have a higher cost of living than the counties in Region 2. Safety Net: Cases in which only the children in an AU are aided due to the parent(s) being discontinued for cash aid because they reached their 48-month lifetime assistance limit. Sanction: The process by which parent(s) are removed from CalWORKs support because at least one failed to comply with WTW program requirements without good cause, and county staff compliance efforts failed. Eligible children continue to receive funding. SAR (Semi-Annual Reporting): SAR requires households receiving CalWORKs assistance to report income on a semi-annual basis. SIP (Self-Initiated Program): Applies to a CalWORKs recipient who was enrolled in school and performing satisfactorily before applying for cash aid. SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program): A federal program that is referred to as CalFresh in California. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and Acronyms January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 117 SPM (Supplemental Poverty Measure): The SPM extends the official poverty measure by taking account of some government benefits (such as food stamps) and necessary expenses such as taxes, medical out-of-pocket, child care, and shelter expenses that are not in the official poverty measure. The threshold is adjusted by family size, composition, geographic region, and housing status (renting, owner with mortgage, and owner without mortgage). SSDI (Social Security Disability Insurance): Tied to the Social Security retirement program, SSDI is for workers who become disabled before retirement age and who have worked and paid Social Security taxes for many years. SSI (Supplemental Security Income): A U.S. government program that provides stipends to low-income people who are either aged (65 or older), blind, or disabled. TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families): This is a federal program that replaced AFDC and now funds CalWORKs. TANF is designed to help needy families achieve self- sufficiency. Time on Aid: The total number of months a case has received assistance during the look- back period, calculated by the person on aid longest in the case since the beginning of the look-back period (e.g., in the last six or eight years). Title XX: Title XX of the Social Security Act, also referred to as the Social Services Block Grant (SSBG), is a funding program provided to states, without a state matching requirement, to assist in supporting a wide range of services, including preventing child abuse, increasing the availability of child care, and providing community-based care for the elderly and disabled. Funds are allocated to the states on the basis of population. Transportation Services: Transportation services for welfare-to-work participants are often provided through payment by the county for public transportation or mileage reimbursement. Some counties provide alternative transportation services such as transportation vouchers, vehicle repair programs, commuter programs, and the purchase of motor vehicles or bicycles. Tribal TANF: Assists the Indian Tribes of California by providing the funding, tools, and resources necessary for each Tribe or Consortium to administer its own Tribal TANF Program. Unduplicated Count: A count of WTW participants that eliminates duplication in cases in which a person is involved in more than one approved activity. WDTIP: The Welfare Data Tracking Implementation Project, a statewide welfare time-on- aid tracking and reporting system that is accessible to county welfare eligibility workers through MEDS. WDTIP eliminates the need for counties to manually contact other counties outside their respective consortia system and\/or other states to obtain information relative to the TANF 60-month and CalWORKs 48-month time limits for time- California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and Acronyms January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 118 on-aid by providing eligibility workers an automated tool with which they can obtain up- to-date information for CalWORKs applicants and recipients. WEI (Work-Eligible Individual): The federal designation for individuals required to participate in federal TANF work activities for a specified minimum number of hours. A work-eligible individual is an adult or minor head-of-household receiving TANF assistance, or a non-recipient parent living with a child receiving such assistance. WINS (Work Incentive Nutritional Supplement): A $10 per month supplemental food benefit program for working families who are receiving CalFresh benefits but not receiving CalWORKs or TANF benefits. WIOA (STET Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act of 2014): Intended to help job seekers access employment, education, training, and support services to succeed in the labor market and to match employers with the skilled workers they need to compete in the global economy. WIOA supersedes the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 and amends the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act, the Wagner-Peyser Act, and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The Act took effect July 1, 2015, the first full program year after enactment. WPR (Work Participation Rate): The rate at which adult CalWORKs recipients are meeting welfare-to-work participation requirements. When this rate is not 50 percent or higher for single-parent families and 90 percent for two-parent families, the State may be penalized by the federal government. WTW (Welfare to Work): WTW activities are a condition for adults to receive CalWORKs aid. The activities include unsubsidized and subsidized employment, work experience, on-the-job training, a grant based on-the-job training, work study, self-employment, community service, adult basic education, job skills training, vocational education, job search\/job readiness assistance, mental health counseling, substance abuse treatment, domestic abuse services, and other activities necessary to assist recipients in obtaining employment. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix B: List of Data Sources Used January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 119 Appendix B: List of Data Sources Used Administration for Children and Families (ACF) - Office of Family Assistance http:\/\/www.acf.hhs.gov\/programs\/ofa\/programs\/tanf\/data-reports The ACF is a division of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and provides a variety of data reports including TANF caseload data, expenditure data, and work participation rate data. CA 237 CW CalWORKs Cash Grant Caseload Movement Report http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG281.htm The monthly CA 237 CW report contains statistical information on CalWORKs caseload movement for Two-Parent Families, Zero Parent Families, All Other Families, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Timed-Out Cases, and Safety Net\/Drug or Fleeing Felon Cases (SN\/DFF). This report includes data on the number of applications requested or restored, cases added, cases exiting, and cases transferred from other counties during the month. California Department of Education 801A Archived Data http:\/\/www.cde.ca.gov\/sp\/cd\/ci\/cdd801ainfo.asp The CDD-801A report is a list of all families and children that received Early Education and Support Division (EESD)-subsidized services for a specified month. It is submitted monthly by every agency that contracts with EESD to provide subsidized child care and development services. The CDD-801A reports are also used to draw a sample of approximately 250 cases per month on which more detailed information is gathered through a separate report, the CDD- 801B. CalWORKs Quarterly Report http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG298.htm The Quarterly CalWORKs Report is an information tool to monitor the progress of the CalWORKs Program and provide periodic snapshots of the data for some key program components. The first quarterly report was completed for FY 2014-15 and covers July through September 2014. CW 115\/115A Child Care Monthly Report CalWORKs Families http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG288.htm - CW 115 http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG289.htm - CW 115A This report contains the number of CalWORKs families and children approved\/authorized\/certified to receive Stage One Child Care during the report month. This report also includes data on the number of children transferred to Stage Two as well as children waiting to be transferred. Data for Two-Parent Families is reported on the CW 115A, while data http:\/\/www.acf.hhs.gov\/programs\/ofa\/programs\/tanf\/data-reports http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG281.htm http:\/\/www.cde.ca.gov\/sp\/cd\/ci\/cdd801ainfo.asp http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG298.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG288.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG289.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix B: List of Data Sources Used January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 120 for All Other Families is reported on the CW 115. Medi-Cal Eligibility Data System (MEDS) This data system is a statewide database containing client eligibility information for processing Medi-Cal, CalFresh, and CalWORKs administrative records. Research and Development Enterprise Project (RADEP) RADEP is a web-based data collection tool used by county and state staff to report federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) disaggregated data which is used by the federal Department of Health and Human Services to calculate the State's federal work participation rates. The RADEP data is collected as a random stratified sample of approximately 3,000 CalWORKs active cases over each federal fiscal year and provides characteristics data relating to the TANF caseload in that specific year. Statewide Automated Welfare System (SAWS) Consortia The SAWS project is the automation of county welfare business processes for CalWORKs, CalFresh, Medi-Cal, Foster Care, Refugee, and County Medical Services. The Office of Systems Integration is responsible for state-level project management and oversight. Each individual consortium is responsible for its own local project management. The SAWS project is comprised of three consortia: Los Angeles Eligibility, Automated Determination, Evaluation and Reporting (LEADER) Consortium, Welfare Client Data System (WCDS) Consortium (also known as CalWIN), and Consortium IV (C-IV). The CalWIN Consortium includes the following counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, Fresno, Orange, Placer, Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, Sonoma, Tulare, Ventura and Yolo. The C-IV Consortium includes the following counties: Alpine, Colusa, Humboldt, Kings, Merced, Napa, San Benito, Sierra, Amador, Del Norte, Imperial, Lake, Modoc, Nevada, San Bernardino, Siskiyou, Butte, El Dorado, Inyo, Lassen, Mono, Pumas, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Calaveras, Glenn, Kern, Madera Monterey, Riverside, Shasta, Sutter, Marin, Mariposa, Mendocino, Tehama, Trinity, Tuolumne and Yuba. U.S. Census Bureau http:\/\/www.census.gov\/easystats\/# The U.S. Census Bureau provides access to selected statistics collected through the American Community Survey, the Current Population Survey, the Decennial Census, and other data- collection tools. http:\/\/www.census.gov\/easystats\/ California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix B: List of Data Sources Used January 2016 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 121 Welfare Data Tracking Implementation Project (WDTIP) http:\/\/www.wdtip.ca.gov\/ WDTIP is a statewide welfare time-on-aid tracking system that interfaces with existing county consortia State Automated Welfare Systems (SAWS). WDTIP eliminates the need for counties to manually contact other counties outside their respective consortia system and\/or other states to obtain information relative to the TANF 60-month, CalWORKs 48-month, and Welfare-to- Work 24-month time limitations for time-on-aid by providing eligibility workers an automated tool from which they can obtain up-to-date information for CalWORKs' applicants and recipients. WTW 25\/25A - CalWORKs Welfare-To-Work Monthly Activity Report http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG291.htm - WTW 25 http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG292.htm - WTW 25A This report summarizes data on work-eligible adults in the CalWORKs program Welfare-to- Work Enrollees, those exempt from work, and those sanctioned for not participating. This report also counts the number of adults engaged in the various eligible work or education activities that could be included in a Welfare-to-Work plan, as well as adults who receive post- aid supportive services after they time out or income off cash assistance. Data for Two-Parent Families is reported on the WTW 25A, while data for All Other Families is reported on the WTW 25. http:\/\/www.wdtip.ca.gov\/ http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG291.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG292.htm Preface Table of Contents List of Tables and Figures Executive Summary Introduction and Overview Chapter 1: Caseload Dynamics Chapter 2: Benefits, Earnings Levels, and Employment Chapter 3: Fiscal Overview Chapter 4: Program Chronology Chapter 5: Welfare-to-Work Participation Chapter 6: Recent Program Changes and Outcomes Chapter 7: Supportive Services Chapter 8: Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates Chapter 9: Research Funds and Program Oversight Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and Acronyms Appendix B: Data Sources "

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” CalWORKs California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency ANNUAL SUMMARY JANUARY 2017 CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SERVICES WELFARE TO WORK DIVISION California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency i THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY BLANK. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Preface January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency ii Preface This report is being produced pursuant to a Supplemental Report of the 2014-15 Budget Package, which reads: The Department of Social Services shall collaborate with legislative staff, the Legislative Analyst’s Office (LAO), and key stakeholders on the creation of an annual report on California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs), covering children living in poverty and deep poverty in the program, caseload dynamics, demographics of families, and impacts and implementation of recent policy changes, and other components to be decided in the course of those discussions. The report will also address the use and outcomes of research funds. Progress shall be provided in the form of a verbal update by January 15, 2015, with the first iteration of the report to be presented by April 1, 2015, at which date there shall be consideration regarding the annual date ongoing. The first version of the CalWORKs Annual Summary was published May 2015 and is available at http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/cdssweb\/entres\/pdf\/CalWORKsAnnualSummary2015.pdf The second version was published in January 2016 and is available at: http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/cdssweb\/entres\/pdf\/CW_AnnualSummary2016.pdf Senate Bill (SB) 1041 (Chapter 47, Statutes of 2012, Section 22), added the following provision into law: \uf0b7 Welfare and Institutions Code 11334.6(a) The California Department of Social Services shall provide to the budget committees of the Legislature, no later than February 1, 2013, and, notwithstanding Section 10231.5 of the Government Code, on February 1 annually thereafter, a report that includes all of the following information: 1) The number of counties implementing a Cal-Learn Program. 2) The number of recipients being served in each county with intensive case management services. 3) Outcomes for recipients, including graduation rates and repeat pregnancies. The CalWORKs Annual Summary fulfills that reporting requirement. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/cdssweb\/entres\/pdf\/CalWORKsAnnualSummary2015.pdf http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/cdssweb\/entres\/pdf\/CW_AnnualSummary2016.pdf California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Preface January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency iii A Note about Data from the Research and Development Enterprise Project (RADEP) This report contains data from RADEP, a data tool used to report California’s federal work participation rates for the federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. The RADEP data is collected from a random sample of approximately 3,000 active CalWORKs cases over each federal fiscal year. Note on Data Sources The CalWORKS Annual Summary provides data from numerous sources on several types of cases. Data does not always match precisely due to differences between data sources. Data from the Research and Development Enterprise Project (RADEP), a random sample of CalWORKS cases collected throughout a federal fiscal year and primarily used to fulfill federal data reporting requirements, is statistically accurate for that purpose but is subject to the usual limitations of sample data. Different portions of the CalWORKs Annual Summary report caseload in terms of individuals, work-eligible individuals, or families\/cases. Note to reader: Some tables and charts in the summary reflect the overall CalWORKs caseload while others may reflect specific types of cases, e.g. only cases with earnings or only cases that receive federal TANF or MOE funding. Please refer to any table headings, narrative or footnotes to identify the total population identified in each table and chart. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Table of Contents January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency iv Table of Contents Preface ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ii A Note about Data from the Research and Development Enterprise Project (RADEP) ………. iii Table of Contents ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv List of Tables and Figures …………………………………………………………………………………………. vii 2017 CalWORKs Annual Summary – Executive Summary ……………………………………………… x Highlights: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. x Chapter Summaries: ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. x Introduction and Overview ………………………………………………………………………………………… xiv California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) …………………………….. xiv Purpose and Objectives …………………………………………………………………………………………… xiv Summary of Key Features of CalWORKs …………………………………………………………………… xiv Eligibility …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. xv Time Limits and Time Clocks …………………………………………………………………………………….. xv Work Requirements ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. xv Federal Participation Mandate ………………………………………………………………………………….. xvi Supportive Services ………………………………………………………………………………………………… xvi Parental Responsibility …………………………………………………………………………………………….. xvi Benefit Levels …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. xvii Program Administration ……………………………………………………………………………………………. xvii Legal Authority ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. xvii Key Features of CalWORKs ……………………………………………………………………………………… xvii Chapter 1 Caseload Dynamics ………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 Key Terms in This Chapter ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 Tables and Figures in This Chapter ……………………………………………………………………………… 3 Characteristics of CalWORKs Cases ……………………………………………………………………………. 8 CalWORKS Applications, Approvals and Denials: FY 2015-16 ……………………………………… 12 Chapter 2 Benefits, Earning Levels, and Employment ………………………………………………. 21 Key Terms in This Chapter ………………………………………………………………………………………… 21 Tables and Figures in This Chapter ……………………………………………………………………………. 23 MAP Levels …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Table of Contents January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency v CalWORKs Caseload and Grants with CalFresh Benefits ……………………………………………… 25 CalWORKs Recipient Earned Income Limits ……………………………………………………………….. 26 Earnings Distribution for Work-Eligible Adult Cases with Earnings ………………………………….. 27 Chapter 3 Fiscal Overview ………………………………………………………………………………………. 31 Funding Sources ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 31 Expenditures …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 31 Key Terms in This Chapter ………………………………………………………………………………………… 31 Tables and Figures in This Chapter ……………………………………………………………………………. 32 Fiscal Overview of the CalWORKs Program ………………………………………………………………… 33 Chapter 4 Program Chronology ………………………………………………………………………………. 37 Key Terms in This Chapter ………………………………………………………………………………………… 37 A Brief History of What Led to the Present Version of CalWORKs ………………………………….. 39 Chapter 5 Welfare-to-Work (WTW) Participation ……………………………………………………….. 51 Key Terms in This Chapter ………………………………………………………………………………………… 52 Tables and Figures in This Chapter ……………………………………………………………………………. 54 CalWORKs WTW Activities and Hourly Requirements Table 5A. Description …………………… 55 During adults’ 48 Months on Aid ………………………………………………………………………………… 55 Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-To-Work Population ………………………………………………….. 57 Education and Training …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62 Participation in Work or Work-Related Activities to Comply with the TANF Work Participation Rate Policy ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 67 Work Participation Rate Compliance …………………………………………………………………………… 69 Status of Corrective Compliance Plans ……………………………………………………………………….. 70 Chapter 6 Recent Program Changes and Outcomes ………………………………………………… 73 Tables and Figures in This Chapter ……………………………………………………………………………. 73 Welfare-to-Work 24-Month Time Clock and Post-24-Month Time Clock …………………………… 74 Family Stabilization (FS) Program ………………………………………………………………………………. 78 Expanded Subsidized Employment (ESE) …………………………………………………………………… 80 ESE Program Highlights ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 81 Post-Aid Earnings …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 82 Work Incentive Nutritional Supplement (WINS) ……………………………………………………………. 84 Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool (OCAT) ………………………………………………………………….. 85 The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) ………………………………………………… 88 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Table of Contents January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency vi Cal-Learn Program …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 89 Chapter 7 Supportive Services ………………………………………………………………………………… 91 Key Terms in This Chapter ………………………………………………………………………………………… 91 Tables and Figures in This Chapter ……………………………………………………………………………. 91 Child Care Resources for CalWORKs Participants ……………………………………………………….. 97 Characteristics of Stage One Child Care Cases …………………………………………………………… 98 Chapter 8 Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates …………………………………………………….. 107 Key Terms in This Chapter ………………………………………………………………………………………. 107 Tables and Figures in This Chapter ………………………………………………………………………….. 108 California’s Poverty Rate and National Ranking …………………………………………………………. 109 Measuring Poverty with the OPM and SPM ……………………………………………………………….. 109 CalWORKs Benefit and Resource Model 2016 …………………………………………………………… 114 Chapter 9 Research Funds and Program Oversight………………………………………………… 119 Tables and Figures in This Chapter ………………………………………………………………………….. 119 TANF Research Funds ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 120 TANF Research Funds: Details of Research Projects …………………………………………………. 121 Program Oversight …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 126 Chapter 10 Homeless Assistance and Housing Support …………………………………………. 127 Key Terms in This Chapter ………………………………………………………………………………………. 127 Tables and Figures in This Chapter ………………………………………………………………………….. 127 CalWORKs Homeless Assistance Program ……………………………………………………………….. 128 CalWORKs Housing Support Program (HSP) …………………………………………………………….. 129 Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and Acronyms ………………………………………………………… 131 Appendix B: List of Data Sources Used ……………………………………………………………………. 139 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary List of Tables and Figures January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency vii List of Tables and Figures Chapter 1 Caseload Dynamics ………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 Figure 1A. FFY 2016 Total CalWORKs Cases Breakdown1: …………………………………………… 4 Table 1A. Characteristics of TANF\/MOE Funded CalWORKs Cases: FFY 2015 ………………… 5 Table 1B. Characteristics of TANF\/MOE Funded CalWORKs Cases: FFY 2015 (continued) .. 7 Table 1C. Time on Aid Characteristics of CalWORKs Cases ………………………………………….. 8 Figure 1B. CalWORKs Quarterly Caseload Analysis FY 2007-08 through FY 2015-16 ……….. 9 Table 1D. CalWORKs Quarterly Caseload Analysis: FY 2007-08 through FY 2015-16 ……. 10 Table 1E. CalWORKs Annual Application Approvals by County: FY 2015-16 ………………….. 13 Table 1F. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by County: FY 2015-16 ……………………… 15 Table 1G. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by Reasons by County: FY 2015-16 …….. 17 Chapter 2 Benefits, Earning Levels, and Employment ………………………………………………. 21 Table 2A. CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment (MAP) Levels Effective October 1, 2016 ……. 24 Table 2B. CalWORKs Caseload and Grants with CalFresh Benefits Recent History and Projections (FY 2007-08 through FY 2016-17) …………………………………………………………….. 25 Table 2C. CalWORKs Recipient Earned Income Limits: FY 2016-17 ……………………………… 26 Table 2D. Earnings Distribution for Work-Eligible Adult Cases with Earnings for FY 2015-16 27 Figure 2A. Quarterly Earnings for CalWORKs Adult Recipients: 2003-2016 …………………….. 28 Figure 2B. Proportion of Adult Recipients with Earnings: 2003-2016 ………………………………. 29 Figure 2C. Number of CalWORKs Individuals in Employment: FFYs 2008-2015 ………………. 30 Chapter 3 Fiscal Overview ………………………………………………………………………………………. 31 Figure 3A. CalWORKs Funds for FY 2016-17 ……………………………………………………………… 33 Table 3A. CalWORKs Funding by Program Area & Fund Sources: FY 2016-17 ……………….. 34 Table 3B. Funding Reconciliation for CalWORKs: FY 2016-17 ………………………………………. 35 Chapter 5 Welfare-to-Work (WTW) Participation ……………………………………………………….. 51 Table 5A. CalWORKs WTW Activities and Hourly Requirements ……………………………………. 56 Figure 5A. Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population FY 2007-08 through FY 2015-16 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 58 Table 5B. Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population FY 2007-08 through FY 2015-16 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 59 Table 5C. CalWORKs Welfare-to-Work Education Activities …………………………………………. 61 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary List of Tables and Figures January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency viii Table 5D. Number of Community College Degrees, Certificates, and Awards CalWORKs Recipients Received: 2009-2016 ……………………………………………………………………………….. 62 Table 5E. Average Monthly Percent of Exemptions Granted to WTW Adults: FFYs 2007-2015 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63 Table 5F. Welfare-to-Work (WTW) 24-Month Time Clock Exemptions\/Good Cause ………….. 65 Table 5G. Participation in Work or Work-Related Activities (TANF cases only): FFYs 2008- 2015 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 68 Table 5H. Summary of WPR Assessed Penalties and Compliance Status……………………….. 69 Table 5I. California’s TANF Work Participation Rate (WPR) History: FFYs 1997-2016 ………. 71 Chapter 6 Recent Program Changes and Outcomes ………………………………………………… 73 Figure 6A. WTW 24-Month Time Clock Update (SB 1041): FY 2016-17 ………………………….. 76 Table 6A. CalWORKs Family Stabilization Status Report: FY 2015-16 ……………………………. 79 Figure 6B. Subsidized Employment Caseload: 2013-2016 …………………………………………….. 80 Table 6B. Welfare-To-Work Annual Earnings by County: One Year After Exit, FFY 2014 ….. 82 Table 6C. WINS Issuances: FFYs 2015-2016 ……………………………………………………………… 84 Table 6D. OCAT Appraisals by Month: FY 2015-16 ……………………………………………………… 85 Table 6E. OCAT Tool Structure and Recommendations………………………………………………… 86 Table 6F. Cal-Learn Average Monthly Participation and Outcomes: FY 2012-13 through FY 2015-16 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 89 Chapter 7 Supportive Services ………………………………………………………………………………… 91 Table 7A. Average Number of Individuals Receiving Supportive Services July September 2015 All (Other) Families …………………………………………………………………………………………… 93 Table 7B. Average Number of Individuals Receiving Supportive Services July September 2015 Two-Parent Families ………………………………………………………………………………………… 95 Table 7C. Age, Provider Setting, and Time in Care for Stage One Children: FY 2015-16 …. 98 Table 7D. CalWORKs Stage One Child Care: FY 2006-07 through FY 2014-15 ………………. 99 Figure 7A. Children in CalWORKs Stages One, Two, and Three Child Care Programs: 2006- 2015 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 101 Table 7E. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation July September 2015 All (Other) Families ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 103 Table 7F. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation July September 2015 Two-Parent Families ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 105 Chapter 8 Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates …………………………………………………….. 107 Table 8A. Official Poverty Rate and California’s Ranking: 2011-2015 ……………………………. 109 Table 8B. Comparison of the Official and Supplemental Poverty Measures ……………………. 110 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary List of Tables and Figures January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency ix Table 8C. Comparison of the OPM and SPM in California and the U.S.: 2010-2012 to 2013-15 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 111 Figure 8A. Children in TANF as a Percentage of Children in Poverty: California and the U.S., 2002 – 2015 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 112 Table 8D. Child Poverty Rates and Share of Poor Children in TANF, California and the U.S.: 2002 to 2015 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 113 Table 8E. Monthly Benefit Values for a CalWORKs Family of Three in Region One: One Aided Adult and Two Aided Children …………………………………………………………………………. 116 Figure 8B. Monthly Resources Available to a Family of Three (One Adult and Two Children) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 117 Figure 8C. CalWORKs Benefit and Resource Model 2016: Cases with No Earnings and with Median Earnings ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 118 Chapter 9 Research Funds and Program Oversight………………………………………………… 119 Table 9A. Allocation of TANF Research Funds Research Project Names and Budgets by Year, FY 2009-10 through FY 2018-19 ……………………………………………………………………… 120 Chapter 10 Homeless Assistance and Housing Support …………………………………………. 127 Table 10A. Application Approvals and Shelter Expenditures: FY 2015-16 ……………………… 128 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Executive Summary January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency x 2017 CalWORKs Annual Summary – Executive Summary The Supplemental Report of the 2014-15 Budget Package included a requirement for an annual report on the CalWORKs program to cover various relevant components of the program, including caseload dynamics, demographics of families and children living in poverty and deep poverty, the welfare-to-work program and impacts of recent policy changes. The first of these reports, The CalWORKs Annual Summary, was presented in July 2015, and a second edition was presented in January of 2016. This is the third iteration of the report, which will be presented each year to coincide with the budget calendar. The Annual Summary consists of ten chapters that highlight the components of the CalWORKS program required in the supplemental report language as well as other topics decided through an inclusive stakeholder process. Highlights: \uf0b7 The CalWORKs caseload continues to decline. \uf0b7 Program reforms implemented in 2013 and 2014 are in various stages of development and expansion. \uf0b7 A revised benefit and resource model infographic incorporates the Supplemental Poverty Measure, along with the National School Lunch Program, the California Earned Income Tax Credit and the utility assistance programs (Chapter 8). \uf0b7 This third CalWORKS Annual Summary includes a new chapter detailing Homeless Assistance and an update for the Housing Support Program. Chapter Summaries: Chapter One – Caseload Dynamics provides a comprehensive overview of the CalWORKs caseload. The chapter begins with the Characteristics of TANF\/MOE funded CalWORKs cases, a new look at the CalWORKS caseload that reflects the move-out of the Safety-Net, Fleeing Felon, and Long-Term Sanction population from the TANF\/MOE funding stream. This characteristics analysis presents the important attributes of this TANF\/MOE funded CalWORKs cases population, including average AU (Assistance Unit) size (2.6 individuals, adults and children, in all TANF\/MOE funded cases), benefit amounts (monthly benefit of $512 for the average AU), number of children (average of 2 children per case), percentage with monthly earnings (21%), average and median time on aid, and many others. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Executive Summary January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency xi Chapter One concludes with a longitudinal depiction of the quarterly CalWORKs caseload from FY 2007-08 through FY 2015-16, as well as data reporting CalWORKs annual applications and denials (by county) in FY 2015-16. Chapter Two – Benefit and Earning Levels provides information about income levels required for benefit eligibility and corresponding benefit levels. This chapter presents data describing the average monthly CalWORKs caseload and grant, a historical look at the Maximum Aid Payment (MAP) and maximum CalFresh allotment, figures displaying changes in the mean and median average earned income for CalWORKS adult recipients over time, and others. Chapter Three – Fiscal Overview provides a brief financial picture of the CalWORKs program including funding sources and major expenditure categories. California receives the majority of funds for CalWORKs from an annual federal TANF block grant of $3.7 billion, and the state contributes an additional $2.9 billion in Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) funding. Chapter Three includes a figure displaying the distribution of funds across various program components which shows that approximately 90 percent of CalWORKs expenditures go to grants, services, child care, and mental health and substance abuse assistance programs. Chapter Four Program Chronology provides a brief history of CalWORKs and its predecessor programs, beginning with the 1935 federal Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program and the programs that led up to the creation of CalWORKs in 1998 to today. Changes highlighted in the 2017 Annual Summary include an increase in the Maximum Aid Payment (MAP), repeal of the Maximum Family Grant (MFG), and a provision to assist grieving parents or caretakers in the event of the loss of a child. Chapter Five Welfare-to-Work Participation provides details of California’s Welfare-to-Work program and population. The chapter includes a description of the differences between CalWORKs and TANF participation requirements and a quarterly analysis of the Welfare-to- Work caseload from 2006 through 2015. The chapter continues with California’s work participation rate (WPR) trends through Federal Fiscal Year 2015, and concludes with an account of California’s WPR compliance. The State has been in WPR noncompliance for several years and has been preliminarily assessed federal penalties each year since 2007. Seven Corrective Compliance Plans have been submitted to the Federal Administration for Children and Families to reduce or eliminate those penalties. Chapter Five details these compliance efforts. Chapter Six – Recent Program Changes and Outcomes describes the most significant recent changes in the CalWORKs program and provides updates on the impact of many of these recent program changes. The 2017 Annual Summary updates information about the 24-Month Time Clock, the Family Stabilization (FS), and Expanded Subsidized Employment (ESE) programs, the Online CalWORKS Appraisal Tool (OCAT), the Cal-Learn program and the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA). Chapter Seven – Supportive Services provides details about the support CalWORKs families receive in addition to their cash aid, including food benefits via the CalFresh program and Medi- California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Executive Summary January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency xii Cal coverage, and how these benefits are altered as families’ earnings increase. Additionally, this chapter presents information about the Child Care resources available to CalWORKS recipients, and the number and type of other supportive services provided to participants in the welfare-to-work program. Chapter Eight – Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates One of the main goals of CalWORKs is to reduce child poverty. Chapter Eight describes how poverty is defined and measured, using both the Official Poverty Measure (OPM) and the Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) concepts that are essential to understanding CalWORKs’ design and impact. The chapter details California’s poverty level using both measures (California’s OPM in 2015 was approximately 14 percent and the state’s SPM was approximately 21 percent). \uf0b7 The chapter compares the much greater share of California children in poverty served by CalWORKS compared to similar TANF programs across the nation (in 2015 CalWORKs served 56 percent of the state’s children in poverty, compared to approximately 16 percent for the nation); and \uf0b7 A revised benefit and resource model infographic details the benefits available to a typical CalWORKs family at various income levels and incorporates the SPM. Chapter 9 Research Funds and Program Oversight discusses the general purpose of CalWORKs program oversight: to review, monitor, and supervise the implementation of public policy, and the resources available for these purposes. This chapter describes the ways in which oversight occurs in the CalWORKs program, including how research funds are used to strengthen and evaluate program performance. Chapter highlights include a table detailing the historical allocation of TANF research funds and a description of previous and ongoing research projects, including the multi-year SB 1041 Program Evaluation and various collaborative research projects with the University of California at Davis. Chapter 10 Homeless Assistance and Housing Support provides an overview of the housing support available in the CalWORKs Homeless Assistance and CalWORKs Housing Support Programs. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Executive Summary January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency xiii THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY BLANK. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Introduction and Overview January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency xiv Introduction and Overview California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) This annual summary was developed as an information tool to provide an overview of the CalWORKs program. Purpose and Objectives The CalWORKs program is California’s version of the federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. CalWORKs provides temporary cash assistance to meet basic family needs. It also provides education, employment, and training programs to assist the family’s move toward self-sufficiency. Components of CalWORKs include time limits on eligibility, work requirements, supportive services to encourage program participation, and parental responsibility. California is among the minority of states that provide TANF benefits to children in need even after their adult caregiver reaches the 48-month time limit for receipt of cash aid; as well, California continues to provide aid to children when adults fail to meet program requirements. Summary of Key Features of CalWORKs \uf0b7 Cash Grants for Families; \uf0b7 48 Months of Cash Assistance and welfare-to- work (WTW) Services; \uf0b7 24 Months of Flexible Work Activities; \uf0b7 Participation Requirements; \uf0b7 Safety Net for Children; \uf0b7 Subsidized Employment Opportunities; \uf0b7 County Flexibility to Design WTW Program; \uf0b7 Holistic Appraisal of Basic Needs and Barriers; \uf0b7 Time Limits; \uf0b7 Immediate Needs Intervention; \uf0b7 Cash Bonuses for Teen Academic Success; \uf0b7 Earnings Disregard; \uf0b7 Child Care\/Supportive Services; \uf0b7 Substance Abuse, Mental Health and Domestic Violence Services; \uf0b7 Homelessness Assistance; \uf0b7 Exemptions from Time Clock and Participation; and \uf0b7 Federal Work Participation Mandates and Penalties. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Introduction and Overview January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency xv Eligibility Families must meet income and asset tests and children must be deprived of parental support and care due to the incapacity, death, or absence of a parent, or unemployment of the principal wage earner. Time Limits and Time Clocks State law provides for a cumulative 48-month lifetime limit on cash aid for adults. Children of adults who exhaust the 48-month time limit may continue to receive cash aid, if otherwise eligible, up to age 18. There are effectively three categories of time clock associated with the CalWORKs program: \uf0b7 The TANF 60-month time limit refers to the cumulative lifetime 60-month federal cash aid time limit for adult recipients of aid; \uf0b7 The CalWORKs 48-month time limit refers to the cumulative lifetime 48-month cash aid time limitation for adult CalWORKs recipients; and \uf0b7 The Welfare-to-Work 24-Month Time Clock refers to a cumulative 24-month period in a welfare-to-work participant’s lifetime, during which he or she may participate in any activity, so long as participation is consistent with his or her assessment and addresses the need for barrier removal activities, education, or career goals of the participant. Work Requirements CalWORKs provides a wide array of services and supports for families to enter and remain in the workforce. Parents and caretaker adults, unless exempt from work requirements, are required to participate in Welfare to Work (WTW) activities as a condition of receiving aid. WTW activities include unsubsidized and subsidized employment, work experience, on-the-job training, grant-based on-the-job training, work study, self-employment, community service, adult basic education, job skills training, vocational education, job search\/job readiness assistance, mental health counseling, substance abuse treatment, domestic abuse services, and other activities necessary to assist recipients in obtaining employment. An adult in a one-parent assistance unit (AU) is required to participate in WTW activities for an average of 30 hours per week each month or 20 hours per week each month if he or she has a child under the age of 6. In a two-parent AU, one or both adults must participate in WTW activities for a combined total of an average of 35 hours per week. Adults may receive a total of 24 months of flexible CalWORKs services and activities to address any barriers to employment. These 24 months need not be consecutive and can be used at any California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Introduction and Overview January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency xvi time during the adult’s 48 months of eligibility. Once the 24 months have been exhausted, adults must meet the federal work participation rate (WPR) requirements, unless they are exempted or receive an extension. CalWORKs has a universal engagement requirement to ensure recipients are participating in appropriate WTW activities as soon as possible. Counties are required to develop WTW plans with a recipient within 90 days from the date an individual begins receiving cash aid. Federal Participation Mandate State work participation requirements are designed to assist in meeting federal work participation rates in order for California to avoid fiscal penalties. Federal work participation rate requirements are as follows: \uf0b7 50 percent of all families with work-eligible adults (both one- and two-parent) must be working or in a countable work activity for 20 or 30 hours per week, depending on family configuration; and \uf0b7 90 percent of families with two work-eligible adults must be working or in a work activity for a combined total of 35 hours each week. The federal government can assess penalties on the state for not achieving work participation rates. In California, counties that do not achieve the federal participation rates will share in any such fiscal penalties unless a statutory exception applies. Supportive Services Supportive services, including child care, transportation, ancillary expenses, and personal counseling, are available for families participating in WTW activities. If needed supportive services are not available, the recipient has good cause for not participating. Special supportive services and intensive case management services are also available for pregnant and parenting teens. These services are provided through the Cal-Learn Program, which is designed to encourage pregnant and parenting teens to return to and\/or stay in school. Cal-Learn teens can get bonuses or be sanctioned four times a year depending on the teen’s grades. An additional bonus is given to each teen upon earning a high school diploma or equivalent. Participation in Cal-Learn is mandatory for pregnant or parenting teens ages 18 and under and voluntary for specified 19 year olds. Parental Responsibility CalWORKs encourages parental responsibility by requiring parents to immunize their aided children under the age of six and cooperate with the child-support enforcement process. Failure California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Introduction and Overview January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency xvii to meet these requirements results in a reduction of the adult’s portion of the grant. If a child age 16 or older does not attend school and is deemed a chronic truant, this may result in a reduction of the child’s portion of the grant unless certain conditions apply. Benefit Levels Grant levels and amounts vary according to family size, exempt status, and geographic location. Families in high cost-of-living areas (Region 1) receive slightly more money than families in other areas (Region 2 [see page 24]). A family in which all adults are disabled or otherwise exempt from work requirements is eligible for the higher exempt grant amount. A non-exempt family of three with no other income living in Region 1 currently receives a monthly grant of $714 while the same family living in Region 2 receives $680. If that family were exempt, it would receive $799 in Region 1 and $762 in Region 2. Program Administration The CalWORKs Program is administered by county welfare departments under supervision of CDSS. Although eligibility requirements and grant levels are uniform throughout the state, counties are given considerable latitude to design WTW programs that will work best for their diverse populations, size, and culture. Each county must have a CalWORKs county plan describing specific program outcomes and how those outcomes are to be achieved. Legal Authority AB 1542 (Ducheny, Chapter 270, Statutes of 1997), the Welfare to Work Act of 1997, established the CalWORKs Program in California. AB 1542 eliminated the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program and the Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) program and replaced them with the CalWORKs program. Key Features of CalWORKs CalWORKs seeks to address poverty through an array of services designed to assist families in various states of need and to address the various facets of need for each family. CalWORKs provides families with basic means of living through services such as cash assistance, immediate needs intervention, homeless prevention services, and stabilization services for those in crisis. A work focused approach is fostered through the welfare-to-work aspect of the program, which requires adults, unless exempt, to participate in appropriate WTW activities as a condition of receiving aid. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Introduction and Overview January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency xviii In addition to being a work program for adults, CalWORKs endeavors to protect children from deep poverty through continued aid to children when adults fail to meet program requirements or reach the maximum 48-month time limit for cash aid. CalWORKs is also built upon the core concept of flexibility given to 58 individual counties to design their individual programs, in order to serve their unique and diverse local populations. At the same time, CalWORKs balances its core values of flexibility and protecting children with the goal of meeting federal performance mandates to avoid federal fiscal penalties. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Introduction and Overview January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency xix THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY BLANK. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 1 Chapter 1 Caseload Dynamics This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the CalWORKs caseload, including the number of cases receiving CalWORKs assistance delineated by case type: the percentage of cases with individuals who are exempt from welfare-to-work participation requirements; cases in sanction, child-only, and safety-net status; a longitudinal analysis of CalWORKs cases over time; tables illustrating the number of applications for aid and the number of those approved and denied; and the benefits provided to CalWORKs recipients. CalWORKs cases with an unaided but federally work-eligible adult (specifically, safety-net cases and cases in which the parent is a fleeing felon) are funded from state general fund (GF) that does not count toward the TANF Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) starting from Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2014; as a result, these cases are no longer included in the federally defined TANF program for federal reporting purposes. Or rather, safety-net and fleeing felon cases have been moved out of the TANF program. In 2015, the Work Incentive Nutritional Supplement (WINS) program became fully operational. WINS cases are provided with a ten dollar monthly cash nutritional benefit funded from state General Fund that counts toward the MOE requirement and, therefore, are counted in the federal TANF caseload that is, WINS cases have been moved in to the TANF caseload. The WINS caseload is not reflected in the CalWORKS caseload tables provided in this chapter, but WINS issuances are displayed in Table 6C. Key Terms in This Chapter The CalWORKs caseload is characterized using the following key terms. \uf0b7 Assistance Unit (AU) An AU is a group of related persons living in the same home who have been determined to be eligible for CalWORKs and for whom cash aid has been authorized. An AU is sometimes referred to as a CalWORKs case. An AU or case differs from a household in that a household includes all persons in the same dwelling regardless of their relationship to members of the AU, or their eligibility for CalWORKs aid. \uf0b7 Definitions of Assistance Units (AU) Types: o Single-Parent or 1-Parent Includes one or more children, and one aided adult who is a natural or adoptive parent, a stepparent, or another caretaker relative. o Two-Parent or 2-Parent Includes at least one child and two natural or adoptive aided adult parents. o WTW Participants Includes Single-Parent and Two-Parent households with an aided adult who is NOT exempt from work activities and NOT sanctioned. o WTW Exempts Includes Single-Parent and Two-Parent households where the aided adult(s) are exempt from work activities. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 2 o WTW Sanction Adults were removed from aid due to non-compliance with program requirements without good cause or compliance efforts have failed. Aid continues for the eligible children in the AU. o Child-Only or Zero-Parent Cases in which only the children in the case are aided because the parents are ineligible due to immigration status or being an SSI recipient or a non-parental, non-needy caretaker is caring for the children. o Safety-Net Cases in which only the children in an AU are aided because the parent(s) are discontinued for cash aid due to their reaching the 48-month lifetime assistance limit. Safety-net cases are funded with non-MOE state-only funds and not subject to federal TANF reporting rules. o TANF-Timed Out Cases in which the head of household or spouse of the head of household (parent, stepparent, or caretaker relative) has reached federal TANF assistance time limit of 60 months, but still has time left on CalWORKs assistance. o Fleeing Felon Cases in which only children in an AU are aided because parent(s) are fleeing to avoid prosecution. \uf0b7 Long-Term Sanction Cases with a parent or caretaker who has been sanctioned due to failing or refusing to comply with welfare-to-work program requirements, without good cause, for 12 consecutive months or longer. \uf0b7 Non-MOE Moved Out All cases that are funded with non-MOE General Fund dollars (Safety Net, Fleeing Felon, and Long-Term Sanctioned) and, as such, are moved out of the Work Participation Rate calculation. \uf0b7 Time on Aid Time on aid for WTW Cases is calculated by the aided adult on aid longest (as an adult) since the beginning of the look-back period. Time on aid for CalWORKs Non-MOE cases (Safety Net, Fleeing Felon and Long-Term Sanction) as well as the Child-Only cases is determined by the child member on aid longest since the beginning of the look-back period. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 3 Tables and Figures in This Chapter Figure 1A. FFY 2016 Total CalWORKs Cases Breakdown1: …………………………………………… 4 Table 1A. Characteristics of TANF\/MOE Funded CalWORKs Cases: FFY 2015 ………………… 5 Table 1B. Characteristics of TANF\/MOE Funded CalWORKs Cases: FFY 2015 (continued) .. 7 Table 1C. Time on Aid Characteristics of CalWORKs Cases ………………………………………….. 8 Figure 1B. CalWORKs Quarterly Caseload Analysis FY 2007-08 through FY 2015-16 ……….. 9 Table 1D. CalWORKs Quarterly Caseload Analysis: FY 2007-08 through FY 2015-16 ……. 10 Table 1E. CalWORKs Annual Application Approvals by County: FY 2015-16 ………………….. 13 Table 1F. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by County: FY 2015-16 ……………………… 15 Table 1G. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by Reasons by County: FY 2015-16 …….. 17 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 4 Figure 1A. FFY 2016 Total CalWORKs Cases Breakdown1: This chart provides a representation of the CalWORKs caseload based on status of the adult(s) in the case. Cases with adults subject to WTW program rules are represented in Exempt, Sanctioned, and Participant categories. Cases without an aided adult, and not subject to WTW, comprise the Child Only category. Cases in the Non-MOE Moved Out are funded with state- only General Fund (outside the federal funding structure) and include cases where the adult(s) reached the maximum allowable 48 months of CalWORKs assistance or who have been in WTW sanction for 12 months or longer. Definitions: Child-Only cases reflect cases without an aided adult (excluding Safety Net, Fleeing Felon and Sanctioned cases). Non-MOE Moved Out cases reflect the Safety Net, Fleeing Felon and Long-Term Sanctioned CalWORKs cases. Note: 1Includes all TANF\/MOE Cases (from Table 1A) as well as Non-MOE funded cases. Data Sources: MEDS Quarter 3 2016 and WDTIP October 2016 WTW PARTICIPANTS 34% WTW EXEMPT 13%WTW SANCTION 6% CHILD ONLY 29% NON-MOE MOVED OUT 18% California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 5 Table 1A. Characteristics of TANF\/MOE Funded CalWORKs Cases: FFY 2015 The Safety Net, Fleeing Felon and Long-Term Sanctioned CalWORKs cases are now funded by Non-MOE GF and detailed characteristics information are no longer collected for these cases in the RADEP system. The Long-Term Sanctioned cases were shifted to Non-MOE GF in March 2015 and are partially reflected in the data below. Child-Only cases reflect cases without an aided adult (excluding Safety Net, Fleeing Felon and Sanctioned cases). Types of Cases Characteristic WTW Participants WTW Exempt WTW Sanction Child- Only All TANF\/ MOE % of Cases 41.1 15.3 7.8 35.8 100.0 Average AU Size 2.9 3.1 2.2 2.1 2.6 Average Benefit $538 $574 $450 $469 $512 Average # of Children in AU 1.8 1.9 2.2 2.1 2.0 Average Age of Oldest Child 7.3 6.3 9.2 11.1 8.7 Average Age of Youngest Child 4.8 3.2 5.5 7.5 5.6 % with Children Under 1 Year 9.3 35.6 7.7 5.8 12.8 % with Children Under 6 Years 65.6 75.4 58.1 40.4 57.7 Average Age of Head of Household 30.3 30.7 31.9 40.2 34.1 E a rn in g s % with Monthly Earnings 34.5 20.3 11.4 10.0 20.9 Average Monthly Earnings of Cases w\/ Earnings $1,032 $1,024 $712 $980 $1,005 G e n d e r\/ R a c e \/E th n ic it y % Female 88.5 90.3 90.0 92.0 90.2 % Hispanic 49.4 45.2 53.8 75.9 58.5 % White (Non- Hispanic) 22.8 31.5 20.3 11.9 20.3 % Black (Non- Hispanic) 21.0 17.4 18.3 9.7 16.0 % Asian (Non- Hispanic) 4.4 3.3 4.8 1.6 3.2 % Other 2.4 2.6 2.8 1.0 2.0 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 6 Table 1A. Characteristics of TANF\/MOE Funded CalWORKs Cases: FFY 2015 (continued) Types of Cases Characteristic WTW Participants WTW Exempt WTW Sanction Child- Only All TANF\/ MOE L a n g u a g e s S p o k e n % English 88.7 88.1 87.7 38.3 70.5 % Spanish 8.0 6.4 11.6 60.2 26.8 % Other 3.3 5.5 0.7 1.5 2.8 E d u c a ti o n % of Head of Household Completed High School or Equivalent 58.7 51.6 40.7 11.9 38.9 % Unknown 0.8 0.9 13.7 53.7 21.0 C it iz e n s h ip S ta tu s o f H e a d o f H o u s e h o ld % Citizen 89.8 90.0 85.3 32.2 68.8 % Other\/Unknown 0.6 0.7 7.2 65.0 24.3 % Legal Non- Citizen 9.6 9.3 7.5 2.8 6.9 Data Source: RADEP FFY 2015 and WDTIP Notes: AU represents assistance unit. Sanctioned cases have no aided adult because the work-eligible adult is not complying with welfare-to-work program requirements and has been removed from the grant calculation (the family is aided with a child-only grant). Safety Net cases have no aided adult because all work-eligible parents in the AU have exceeded their 48-month time limit of support and the family is receiving a child-only grant. Child-Only cases have no eligible adult due to immigration status, receipt of Supplemental Security Income (SSI), or income exceeding the CalWORKs threshold (in the case of non-needy caretakers of foster children). Percentages do not add to 100 percent due to missing\/unknown values. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 7 Table 1B. Characteristics of TANF\/MOE Funded CalWORKs Cases: FFY 2015 (continued) This table provides an alternate breakout of some characteristics of the WTW categories in the previous Characteristics table ( Participants , Exempt and Sanction ). Characteristics Aided Adult (1-Parent) Aided Adult (2-Parent) % of WTW Cases 81.1 18.9 Average Benefit $518 $602 Average AU Size 2.6 3.7 E a rn in g s % with Monthly Earnings 24.2 40.6 Average Monthly Earnings of Cases w\/ Earnings $963 $1,173 Data Source: RADEP FFY 2015 and WDTIP California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 8 Characteristics of CalWORKs Cases Time on Aid is the total number of months a case has received assistance during the look-back period. It is a different calculation than the CalWORKs 48 Month Clock, as a case may receive assistance in a month that does not count toward their 48-Month Clock due to a qualifying exemption. Time on aid for WTW Cases is calculated by the aided adult on aid longest (as an adult) since the beginning of the look-back period. Time on aid for CalWORKs Non-MOE cases (Safety Net, Fleeing Felon and Long-Term Sanction) as well as the Child-Only cases is determined by the child member on aid longest since the beginning of the look-back period. Average Months on Aid is most useful for mathematical calculations (i.e., for developing budget estimates). Median Months on Aid is most useful for describing a typical case, as most of the caseload would be found near this center point. Table 1C. Time on Aid Characteristics of CalWORKs Cases Data Source: MEDS September 2016 WTW (Participants) WTW (Exempt) WTW (Sanction) Child Only Non-MOE Moved Out All Cases M o n th s o n A id S in c e 1 9 9 8 Average 28.7 43.4 11.3 79.4 84.5 64.7 Median 22 34 10 74 81 56 M o n th s o n A id i n L a s t 8 Y e a rs Average 25.0 37.5 11.2 61.7 64.2 51.1 Median 19 31 10 67 69 50 M o n th s o n A id i n L a s t 6 Y e a rs Average 25.0 33.9 11.1 49.9 52.4 42.7 Median 19 30 10 58 58 45 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 9 Figure 1B. CalWORKs Quarterly Caseload Analysis FY 2007-08 through FY 2015-16 The chart below illustrates changes in caseload categories over the last decade. In 2009, Assembly Bill X4 4 exempted parents or caretakers providing primary care to a child age 12 months through 23 months, or two or more children under the age of 6, from participating in welfare-to-work activities. As a result, the number of exempt individuals increased from 2009 through 2013. Senate Bill 1041 ended the young child exemptions as of January 1, 2013. Data Source: CA 237 CW, EBT issuance system Note: EBT issuance system data is the source for Los Angeles County caseload from October 2015 to June 2016 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 700,000 Total CW Cases Single- Parent Zero- Parent Families Safety Net Two- Parent TANF Timed- Out Cases http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG281.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 10 Table 1D. CalWORKs Quarterly Caseload Analysis: FY 2007-08 through FY 2015-16 Types of Cases Fiscal Year Total CalWORKs Cases Single-Parent Two-Parent TANF Timed- Out Cases Zero-Parent Families Safety Net F Y 0 7 -0 8 Quarter 1 456,561 187,057 32,701 28,144 163,378 45,282 Quarter 2 461,639 189,974 33,422 28,359 164,342 45,541 Quarter 3 469,307 190,434 34,929 28,150 169,467 46,327 Quarter 4 476,296 193,897 36,278 27,837 171,072 47,212 Monthly Avg. 465,951 190,341 34,332 28,123 167,065 46,091 F Y 0 8 -0 9 Quarter 1 481,078 199,691 37,348 27,803 169,096 47,139 Quarter 2 494,146 205,708 39,464 28,097 173,033 47,844 Quarter 3 514,523 211,433 42,974 27,821 183,457 48,838 Quarter 4 530,230 217,276 45,735 27,936 189,105 50,178 Monthly Avg. 504,994 208,527 41,380 27,914 178,673 48,500 F Y 0 9 -1 0 Quarter 1 537,063 222,600 48,163 30,421 187,768 48,110 Quarter 2 550,639 227,689 50,816 30,626 191,929 49,579 Quarter 3 561,243 230,280 52,548 30,823 198,748 48,844 Quarter 4 564,443 231,583 53,411 31,673 198,862 48,913 Monthly Avg. 553,347 228,038 51,234 30,886 194,327 48,861 F Y 1 0 -1 1 Quarter 1 573,710 241,413 56,028 32,701 194,050 49,519 Quarter 2 582,262 245,470 56,587 33,939 196,014 50,252 Quarter 3 593,424 247,487 58,060 34,727 202,393 50,758 Quarter 4 597,226 249,014 58,443 36,138 202,551 51,079 Monthly Avg. 586,856 245,846 57,280 34,376 198,752 50,402 F Y 1 1 -1 2 Quarter 1 583,769 238,622 55,226 25,879 193,472 70,570 Quarter 2 577,446 234,889 53,473 24,893 191,973 72,218 Quarter 3 574,910 229,740 52,677 25,367 195,419 71,707 Quarter 4 567,516 226,252 51,597 26,143 191,747 71,777 Monthly Avg. 575,910 232,376 53,243 25,570 193,153 71,568 F Y 1 2 -1 3 Quarter 1 561,772 228,533 51,033 27,186 183,741 71,279 Quarter 2 560,642 226,824 50,083 27,986 184,229 71,519 Quarter 3 562,656 221,132 49,531 28,642 190,407 72,944 Quarter 4 554,414 216,238 47,673 29,451 187,924 73,128 Monthly Avg. 559,871 223,182 49,580 28,316 186,575 72,218 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 11 Table 1D. CalWORKs Quarterly Caseload Analysis: FY 2007-08 through FY 2015-16 (continued) Types of Cases Fiscal Year Total CalWORKs Cases Single-Parent Two-Parent TANF Timed- Out Cases Zero-Parent Families Safety Net F Y 1 3 -1 4 Quarter 1 547,125 215,844 46,208 30,301 182,037 72,735 Quarter 2 546,948 217,414 46,605 31,636 177,983 73,311 Quarter 3 555,316 220,224 49,037 32,101 176,544 77,410 Quarter 4 554,076 220,055 50,041 32,658 170,279 81,045 Monthly Avg. 550,867 218,384 47,973 31,674 176,711 76,125 F Y 1 4 -1 5 Quarter 1 550,169 221,446 49,725 32,909 165,367 80,723 Quarter 2 541,354 216,023 48,254 33,212 163,674 80,192 Quarter 3 531,157 205,319 46,370 32,926 163,693 82,850 Quarter 4 517,600 194,887 45,121 31,629 159,736 86,227 Monthly Avg. 535,070 209,419 47,367 32,669 163,117 82,498 F Y 1 5 -1 6 1 Quarter 1 510,388 194,509 43,761 30,727 154,780 86,611 Quarter 2 500,303 187,756 41,855 29,992 152,609 88,091 Quarter 3 490,275 179,684 40,106 29,417 153,651 87,418 Quarter 4 474,140 169,825 38,157 29,134 148,816 88,207 Monthly Avg. 493,777 182,943 40,970 29,818 152,464 87,582 Data Sources: CA 237 CW, EBT issuance system Note: 1EBT issuance system data is the source for Los Angeles County caseload from October 2015 to June 2016. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG281.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 12 CalWORKS Applications, Approvals and Denials: FY 2015-16 There were a total of 476,581 CalWORKs applications in FY 2015-16. Tables 1E, 1F, and 1G detail by county the number of CalWORKs applications that were approved (222,612) and denied (253,969) in the 2015-16 state fiscal year and the reasons for those denials. Single- Parent families, the most common type of CalWORKs family, comprised the greatest number of applications, approvals, and denials. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 13 Table 1E. CalWORKs Annual Application Approvals by County: FY 2015-16 TYPES OF CASES TOTAL CW APPLICATIONS APPROVED SINGLE- PARENT TWO-PARENT TANF TIMED- OUT CASES ZERO- PARENT FAMILIES SAFETY NET Statewide 222,612 123,570 24,994 8,187 47,400 18,461 Alameda 5,589 3,278 497 181 1,032 601 Alpine – – – – – – Amador 164 86 23 9 17 29 Butte 1,515 852 239 50 230 144 Calaveras 231 137 29 9 32 24 Colusa 84 44 10 4 20 6 Contra Costa 3,833 2,235 331 155 749 363 Del Norte 341 183 65 16 38 39 El Dorado 624 378 101 12 81 52 Fresno 8,433 4,211 1,138 300 1,716 1,068 Glenn 203 105 32 6 48 12 Humboldt 565 334 90 18 82 41 Imperial 1,868 1,134 326 54 195 159 Inyo 95 53 13 3 7 19 Kern 9,930 5,425 1,322 422 1,985 776 Kings 1,537 815 212 51 259 200 Lake 521 302 87 18 87 27 Lassen 223 127 35 9 29 23 Los Angeles 70,113 41,003 5,717 2,582 16,956 3,855 Madera 1,508 634 167 31 547 129 Marin 337 199 23 10 85 20 Mariposa 93 53 18 2 12 8 Mendocino 677 416 72 27 96 66 Merced 3,080 1,562 396 120 716 286 Modoc 97 41 20 2 19 15 Mono 28 15 7 – 5 1 Monterey 3,299 1,129 192 62 1,773 143 Napa 309 201 24 8 65 11 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 14 Table 1E. CalWORKs Annual Application Approvals by County: FY 2015-16 (continued) TYPES OF CASES TOTAL CW APPLICATIONS APPROVED SINGLE- PARENT TWO-PARENT TANF TIMED- OUT CASES ZERO- PARENT FAMILIES SAFETY NET Nevada 273 193 38 2 28 12 Orange 7,613 4,098 813 169 2,165 368 Placer 926 538 129 22 158 79 Plumas 90 54 16 2 12 6 Riverside 13,719 7,961 1,770 430 2,408 1,150 Sacramento 12,461 6,373 2,045 493 1,739 1,811 San Benito 285 150 27 11 75 22 San Bernardino 21,178 11,775 2,754 1,034 3,366 2,249 San Diego 11,622 6,871 1,606 414 1,767 964 San Francisco 1,867 1,153 104 98 342 170 San Joaquin 6,190 3,379 856 184 1,060 711 San Luis Obispo 1,000 553 79 36 264 68 San Mateo 512 283 34 24 141 30 Santa Barbara 2,253 933 133 52 1,009 126 Santa Clara 3,686 2,048 352 117 882 287 Santa Cruz 754 399 51 28 238 38 Shasta 1,286 724 165 57 231 109 Sierra 17 13 1 – 3 – Siskiyou 367 184 86 12 52 33 Solano 2,298 1,364 264 63 361 246 Sonoma 1,182 709 83 45 284 61 Stanislaus 4,384 2,295 684 201 813 391 Sutter 802 392 126 28 172 84 Tehama 512 270 78 23 94 47 Trinity 78 44 13 1 13 7 Tulare 6,855 3,162 890 309 1,605 889 Tuolumne 308 186 48 10 44 20 Ventura 3,113 1,684 279 100 889 161 Yolo 973 508 159 32 185 89 Yuba 711 322 125 29 119 116 Data Source: CA 237 CW, Line Items 7a & 7b http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG281.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 15 Table 1F. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by County: FY 2015-16 TYPES OF CASES TOTAL CW APPLICATIONS DENIED SINGLE- PARENT TWO-PARENT TANF TIMED- OUT CASES ZERO- PARENT FAMILIES SAFETY NET Statewide 253,969 171,869 34,801 1,977 42,106 3,216 Alameda 5,308 3,349 439 66 1,287 167 Alpine 5 2 2 1 – – Amador 310 208 89 3 4 6 Butte 2,369 1,794 467 16 68 24 Calaveras 308 252 42 2 9 3 Colusa 188 146 34 2 6 – Contra Costa 5,729 3,408 538 44 1,586 153 Del Norte 312 213 60 3 16 20 El Dorado 1,773 1,537 160 7 66 3 Fresno 7,173 4,476 1,219 55 1,218 205 Glenn 265 145 71 8 38 3 Humboldt 1,510 1,095 301 5 84 25 Imperial 2,549 1,855 589 10 63 32 Inyo 90 60 16 4 9 1 Kern 16,464 14,008 1,725 82 531 118 Kings 2,223 1,947 171 13 67 25 Lake 827 573 197 3 51 3 Lassen 242 193 37 – 11 1 Los Angeles 50,423 30,227 7,217 571 12,138 270 Madera 1,886 1,304 421 9 130 22 Marin 655 541 64 5 41 4 Mariposa 138 113 21 – 3 1 Mendocino 547 457 64 5 17 4 Merced 3,717 2,813 506 34 329 35 Modoc 88 66 17 – 2 3 Mono 45 39 6 – – – Monterey 5,936 4,298 791 18 768 61 Napa 813 657 76 1 74 5 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 16 Table 1F. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by County: FY 2015-16 (continued) TYPES OF CASES TOTAL CW APPLICATIONS DENIED SINGLE- PARENT TWO-PARENT TANF TIMED- OUT CASES ZERO- PARENT FAMILIES SAFETY NET Nevada 661 498 129 3 26 5 Orange 7,481 4,376 932 43 2,059 71 Placer 1,448 899 294 4 236 15 Plumas 198 133 42 – 19 4 Riverside 24,910 19,467 3,456 139 1,638 210 Sacramento 10,581 4,471 1,377 103 4,162 468 San Benito 437 415 10 1 10 1 San Bernardino 29,966 23,159 5,030 176 1,375 226 San Diego 18,333 11,352 1,472 156 5,080 273 San Francisco 1,583 1,100 97 22 345 19 San Joaquin 7,612 6,004 1,145 50 335 78 San Luis Obispo 1,434 864 133 12 409 16 San Mateo 2,667 1,568 229 24 820 26 Santa Barbara 2,774 1,380 287 14 1,045 48 Santa Clara 4,563 2,473 562 31 1,441 56 Santa Cruz 794 382 86 2 305 19 Shasta 2,074 1,485 430 23 83 53 Sierra 4 2 2 – – – Siskiyou 473 337 114 4 16 2 Solano 2,524 1,915 208 14 337 50 Sonoma 1,107 862 81 3 154 7 Stanislaus 7,093 4,806 1,584 41 585 77 Sutter 1,161 926 191 4 27 13 Tehama 1,003 732 219 4 42 6 Trinity 110 79 26 – 5 – Tulare 4,041 2,075 446 62 1,271 187 Tuolumne 409 285 103 1 15 5 Ventura 4,305 2,671 334 46 1,222 32 Yolo 1,140 573 146 9 384 28 Yuba 1,190 804 296 19 44 27 Data Source: CA 255 CW, Line Items 2-12 http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG286.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 17 Table 1G. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by Reasons by County: FY 2015-16 Table 1G illustrates the reasons for application for aid denials in the 2015-16 state fiscal year. Of the 253,969 applications denied in the year, the most common reason (34 percent) was for failure to comply with procedural requirements (86,471); the next most common reason (24 percent) was denial for lacking either a child eligible for CalWORKs or a child deprived of support or care (61,542). REASONS FOR DENIAL TOTAL DENIALS FAILURE TO COMPLY NO ELIGIBLE CHILD\/NO DEPRIVATION FINANCIAL OTHER Statewide 253,969 86,471 61,542 45,487 60,469 Alameda 5,308 1,331 1,348 1,545 1,084 Alpine 5 3 – – 2 Amador 310 142 31 31 106 Butte 2,369 1,130 267 215 757 Calaveras 308 102 47 38 121 Colusa 188 118 6 18 46 Contra Costa 5,729 1,736 1,543 747 1,703 Del Norte 312 143 46 60 63 El Dorado 1,773 536 781 98 358 Fresno 7,173 2,150 2,386 952 1,685 Glenn 265 111 18 38 98 Humboldt 1,510 871 344 163 132 Imperial 2,549 994 169 361 1,025 Inyo 90 34 7 31 18 Kern 16,464 8,080 2,273 2,206 3,905 Kings 2,223 797 606 442 378 Lake 827 405 20 58 344 Lassen 242 101 40 50 51 Los Angeles 50,423 12,615 13,394 9,997 14,417 Madera 1,886 917 318 312 339 Marin 655 187 133 139 196 Mariposa 138 56 30 12 40 Mendocino 547 222 106 124 95 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 18 Table 1G. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by Reasons by County: FY 2015-16 (continued) REASONS FOR DENIAL TOTAL DENIALS FAILURE TO COMPLY NO ELIGIBLE CHILD\/NO DEPRIVATION FINANCIAL OTHER Merced 3,717 1,614 237 572 1,294 Modoc 88 43 13 18 14 Mono 45 23 5 3 14 Monterey 5,936 2,164 1,461 1,375 936 Napa 813 268 8 69 468 Nevada 661 262 134 108 157 Orange 7,481 1,480 1,896 1,557 2,548 Placer 1,448 416 631 60 341 Plumas 198 91 10 17 80 Riverside 24,910 11,747 4,459 4,558 4,146 Sacramento 10,581 3,247 3,318 1,944 2,072 San Benito 437 199 15 50 173 San Bernardino 29,966 12,605 7,421 6,026 3,914 San Diego 18,333 4,278 6,931 3,032 4,092 San Francisco 1,583 451 498 345 289 San Joaquin 7,612 2,596 1,798 1,488 1,730 San Luis Obispo 1,434 294 395 141 604 San Mateo 2,667 684 602 678 703 Santa Barbara 2,774 793 816 585 580 Santa Clara 4,563 1,035 933 723 1,872 Santa Cruz 794 220 261 126 187 Shasta 2,074 1,212 291 310 261 Sierra 4 1 2 – 1 Siskiyou 473 193 104 57 119 Solano 2,524 498 559 321 1,146 Sonoma 1,107 296 403 106 302 Stanislaus 7,093 2,976 1,420 1,275 1,422 Sutter 1,161 586 48 135 392 Tehama 1,003 590 26 85 302 Trinity 110 65 8 8 29 Tulare 4,041 745 1,252 1,054 990 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 19 Table 1G. CalWORKs Annual Application Denials by Reasons by County: FY 2015-16 (continued) REASONS FOR DENIAL TOTAL DENIALS FAILURE TO COMPLY NO ELIGIBLE CHILD\/NO DEPRIVATION FINANCIAL OTHER Tuolumne 409 126 19 61 203 Ventura 4,305 944 1,149 608 1,604 Yolo 1,140 346 293 189 312 Yuba 1,190 602 213 166 209 Data Source: CA 255 CW, Line Items 2-12 Notes: Failure to Comply includes but is not limited to failure to include all mandatory persons on the application form, failure to comply with fingerprint\/photo image requirements, refusal to participate in the gathering of evidence to support eligibility and refusal to participate in the face-to-face interview. No Eligible Child refers to the CalWORKs requirement that the family include a minor child who resides with a custodial parent or other adult caretaker relative of the child. No Deprivation refers to the CalWORKs requirement that a child live in a home where at least one parent is absent, deceased, or not working, or is considered disabled. Financial refers to CalWORKs requirements that applicants must have earned income below the stated earned income limits for the family size. Applicant limits for unearned income are generally $1 less than the Minimum Basic Standard of Adequate Care (MBSAC). Applicants with property valued at more than $2,250 or $3,250 (if over 60 or disabled) are ineligible. Other includes cases not approved for reasons not previously listed, including but not limited to nonresident status; the application was cancelled or withdrawn; and the client moved and\/or cannot be located. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG286.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 1 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 20 THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY BLANK. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 21 Chapter 2 Benefits, Earning Levels, and Employment This chapter provides information relating to income levels required for initial CalWORKs program eligibility and income levels and grant levels for recipients of CalWORKs. The chapter contains data describing the earnings distribution of CalWORKs cases, historical average CalWORKs grants, grant levels, income level limits for recipients, and an account of participant employment activities. Key Terms in This Chapter \uf0b7 Assistance Unit (AU) An AU is a group of related persons living in the same home who have been determined to be eligible for CalWORKs and for whom cash aid has been authorized. An AU is sometimes referred to as a CalWORKs case. An AU or case differs from a household in that a household includes all persons in the same dwelling regardless of their relationship to members of the AU, or their eligibility for CalWORKs aid. \uf0b7 CalFresh CalFresh is California’s version of the federal Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP). The CalFresh program helps to improve the health and well-being of qualified California households and individuals by providing monthly benefits that can be used to buy most foods at grocery stores to supplement their nutritional needs. \uf0b7 Child-Only Child-only cases are cases in which only the children in an AU are aided because the parents are ineligible due to immigration status, SSI recipient, or non-needy caretaker relative. \uf0b7 Earnings Earnings includes wages, salary, commissions, and self-employment earnings. Earned income comes from various payment methods such as cash, paycheck or personal check, or \”in-kind\” (such as housing that is included with employment). \uf0b7 Family Family is used interchangeably with AU (see definition above) in CalWORKs. \uf0b7 Household A household includes all persons in the same dwelling regardless of their relationship to members of the AU, or their eligibility for CalWORKs aid. \uf0b7 Maximum Aid Payment (MAP) The MAP is the maximum grant level provided for CalWORKs families. MAP levels are established by the California State Legislature and are based on family size, whether the adults in the household are able to work (exempt or non-exempt), and the geographical location of the family residence (Region 1 or Region 2). o MAP Exempt The MAP for families with adults who are unable to work because of a temporary or permanent incapacity and cases where no adult is California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 22 receiving aid (e.g., child-only cases) is higher than for those with adults who are able to work. This higher MAP amount is called the MAP exempt level. o Non-Exempt MAP The MAP for families with adults who are able to work is lower than for those with adults who are unable to work. This lower MAP amount is called the Non-Exempt MAP. \uf0b7 Maximum CalFresh Allotment (MCA) The MCA is the maximum food aid benefit level a family may receive from CalFresh. The MCA varies according to family size and income. \uf0b7 Maximum Earned Income Limit The maximum earned income level is the income threshold for CalWORKs recipient families after they become eligible. \uf0b7 Minimum Basic Standards of Adequate Care (MBSAC) The MBSAC is the income threshold to determine an applicant family’s eligibility for CalWORKs. If a family’s income falls below the MBSAC (after an initial $90 earned income disregard) for the region in which they reside, they may be eligible for CalWORKs assistance. \uf0b7 Region 1 and Region 2 California is divided into two regions for determining grant amounts, based on cost of living: o Region 1 counties (higher cost of living): Alameda, Contra Costa, Los Angeles, Marin, Monterey, Napa, Orange, San Diego, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, Sonoma, and Ventura. o Region 2 counties (lower cost of living): Alpine, Amador, Butte, Calaveras, Colusa, Del Norte, El Dorado, Fresno, Glenn, Humboldt, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Lake, Lassen, Madera, Mariposa, Mendocino, Merced, Modoc, Mono, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Riverside, Sacramento, San Benito, San Bernardino, San Joaquin, Shasta, Sierra, Siskiyou, Stanislaus, Sutter, Tehama, Trinity, Tulare, Tuolumne, Yolo, and Yuba. \uf0b7 Safety Net Safety-net cases are those in which only the children in an AU are aided due to the parent(s) being discontinued for cash aid because they reached the 48- month lifetime assistance limit. \uf0b7 Sanction Sanctioning is the process by which parent(s) are removed from CalWORKs support because at least one failed to comply with welfare-to-work program requirements without good cause, and county staff compliance efforts failed (Eligible children continue to receive funding). California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 23 Tables and Figures in This Chapter Table 2A. CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment (MAP) Levels Effective October 1, 2016 ……. 24 Table 2B. CalWORKs Caseload and Grants with CalFresh Benefits Recent History and Projections (FY 2007-08 through FY 2016-17) …………………………………………………………….. 25 Table 2C. CalWORKs Recipient Earned Income Limits: FY 2016-17 ……………………………… 26 Table 2D. Earnings Distribution for Work-Eligible Adult Cases with Earnings for FY 2015-16 27 Figure 2A. Quarterly Earnings for CalWORKs Adult Recipients: 2003-2016 …………………….. 28 Figure 2B. Proportion of Adult Recipients with Earnings: 2003-2016 ………………………………. 29 Figure 2C. Number of CalWORKs Individuals in Employment: FFYs 2008-2015 ………………. 30 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 24 MAP Levels The Maximum Aid Payment (MAP) is the maximum grant level provided for CalWORKs families. MAP levels are established by the California State Legislature and are based on family size, whether the adults in the household are able to work (exempt or non-exempt), and the geographical location of the family residence (Region 1 or Region 2). Table 2A. CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment (MAP) Levels Effective October 1, 2016 Region 11 Region 21 Assistance Unit Size Maximum Aid Payment Exempt Maximum Aid Payment Non- Exempt Assistance Unit Size Maximum Aid Payment Exempt Maximum Aid Payment Non- Exempt 1 $392 $355 1 $374 $336 2 $645 $577 2 $616 $549 3 $799 $714 3 $762 $680 4 $949 $852 4 $904 $810 5 $1,080 $968 5 $1,031 $922 6 $1,214 $1,087 6 $1,157 $1,035 7 $1,334 $1,195 7 $1,272 $1,136 8 $1,454 $1,301 8 $1,385 $1,239 9 $1,571 $1,407 9 $1,498 $1,340 10 or more $1,689 $1,511 10 or more $1,610 $1,438 Notes: For more information on CalWORKs historical MAP levels, please refer to the CDSS website at: ACL 16-64 (August 16, 2016) 1California is divided into two regions based roughly on cost of living, Region 1 (higher cost of living) and Region 2 (lower cost of living). Region 1 Counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, Los Angeles, Marin, Monterey, Napa, Orange, San Diego, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, Sonoma, and Ventura. Region 2 Counties: Alpine, Amador, Butte, Calaveras, Colusa, Del Norte, El Dorado, Fresno, Glenn, Humboldt, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Lake, Lassen, Madera, Mariposa, Mendocino, Merced, Modoc, Mono, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Riverside, Sacramento, San Benito, San Bernardino, San Joaquin, Shasta, Sierra, Siskiyou, Stanislaus, Sutter, Tehama, Trinity, Tulare, Tuolumne, Yolo, and Yuba. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/lettersnotices\/EntRes\/getinfo\/acl\/2016\/16-64.pdf California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 25 CalWORKs Caseload and Grants with CalFresh Benefits Table 2B displays the average monthly CalWORKs caseload and grant, as well as the MAP and maximum CalFresh allotment for Fiscal Years 2007-08 through 2016-17. Table 2B. CalWORKs Caseload and Grants with CalFresh Benefits Recent History and Projections (FY 2007-08 through FY 2016-17) Fiscal Year Average Monthly CalWORKs Cases Average CalWORKs Grants MAP for AU of 3 Region 11 CalFresh MCA for HH of 32 2007-08 465,951 $538 $723 $426 2008-09 504,994 $541 $723 $463 2009-10 553,347 $514 $694 $526 2010-11 586,856 $517 $694 $526 2011-12 575,910 $466 $638 $526 2012-13 559,871 $465 $638 $526 2013-14 550,867 $474 $670 $526 2014-15 535,070 $492 $670 $704 $497 2015-16 493,777 $506 $704 $511 2016-173 485,851 $514 $704 $714 $511 Notes: Acronyms used in this table: MAP = Maximum Aid Payment; AU = Assistance Unit; MCA = Maximum CalFresh Allotment; HH = household 1California’s grant levels are divided into two regions based roughly on cost of living. This chart reflects the California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) Maximum Aid Payment (MAP) for an Assistance Unit (AU) of three in Region 1 Counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, Los Angeles, Marin, Monterey, Napa, Orange, San Diego, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, Sonoma and Ventura. 2CalFresh benefit amounts are based on a Federal Fiscal Year (October-September) versus the State Fiscal Year (July-June). The FY 2016-17 CalFresh benefit amount is based on the FFY 2017 household (HH) Maximum CalFresh Allotment (MCA). 3Represents projections from the 2016-17 Appropriation. Prior years reflect actual data based on the CA 800 Expenditure Report. The CalWORKs MAP for an AU of three increased from $704 to $714 on October 1, 2016. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 26 CalWORKs Recipient Earned Income Limits This table provides the maximum earned income thresholds for a non-exempt recipient family receiving CalWORKs. If the family’s earnings are above the Maximum Earned Income limit, then the family would become ineligible for CalWORKs. These limits apply only to earned income. The limits for unearned income would vary based on the types of unearned income received by the family. The table also provides the Minimum Basic Standards for Adequate Care (MBSAC) which is used in determining applicant financial eligibility for those families that apply for CalWORKs. Applicant family’s income after applying the value of in-kind income for housing, utilities, food and clothing and less $90 for earned income must be below the MBSAC levels in order to qualify for CalWORKs. Table 2C. CalWORKs Recipient Earned Income Limits: FY 2016-17 Region 1 1 Region 21 Assistance Unit Size Applicant Family Recipient Family Applicant Family Recipient Family FY 2016-17 MBSAC2 Maximum Earned Income Limit Non-Exempt FY 2016-17 MBSAC2 Maximum Earned Income Limit Non-Exempt 1 $636 $935 $603 $897 2 $1,042 $1,379 $991 $1,323 3 $1,292 $1,653 $1,227 $1,585 4 $1,533 $1,929 $1,458 $1,845 5 $1,750 $2,161 $1,666 $2,069 6 $1,968 $2,399 $1,872 $2,295 7 $2,163 $2,615 $2,052 $2,497 8 $2,354 $2,827 $2,241 $2,703 9 $2,554 $3,039 $2,421 $2,905 10 $2,772 $3,247 $2,637 $3,101 Notes: 1California is divided into two regions based roughly on cost of living, Region 1 (higher cost of living) and Region 2 (lower cost of living). 2For applicant families, add $25 for each additional person for assistance units greater than 10. Region 1 counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, Los Angeles, Marin, Monterey, Napa, Orange, San Diego, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, Sonoma and Ventura. Region 2 counties: Alpine, Amador, Butte, Calaveras, Colusa, Del Norte, El Dorado, Fresno, Glenn, Humboldt, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Lake, Lassen, Madera, Mariposa, Mendocino, Merced, Modoc, Mono, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Riverside, Sacramento, San Benito, San Bernardino, San Joaquin, Shasta, Sierra, Siskiyou, Stanislaus, Sutter, Tehama, Trinity, Tulare, Tuolumne, Yolo and Yuba. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 27 Earnings Distribution for Work-Eligible Adult Cases with Earnings This table shows the percentage of children and adults in cases with earnings grouped in $200 increments, and the proportion of these increments in relation to all aided adult cases with earnings. This data represents work-eligible aided adult cases during the period of July 1, 2015 through June 30, 2016 and excludes Child-Only and Safety Net Cases, adults who have received a WTW Sanction or Exemption, adults who have left aid and adults with zero reported income during this period. Table 2D. Earnings Distribution for Work-Eligible Adult Cases with Earnings for FY 2015-16 Average Monthly Income Households With Earnings % of Total Cases $1 to $200 20.4% $201 to $400 12.6% $401 to $600 10.6% $601 to $800 9.5% $801 to $1,000 8.5% $1,001 to $1,200 7.4% $1,201 to $1,400 6.4% $1,401 to $1,600 5.3% $1,601 to $1,800 4.3% $1,801 to $2,000 3.2% $2,001 to $2,200 2.4% $2,201 to $2,400 1.9% $2,401 to $2,600 1.5% More than $2,600 6.0% TOTAL 100% Data Sources: October 2016 WDTIP, MEDS 2016 Quarter 3 and EDD Base Wage Data 2016 Quarter 2 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 28 Figure 2A. Quarterly Earnings for CalWORKs Adult Recipients: 2003-2016 The following charts display the latest data available for CalWORKs recipients with earnings and provide an historical look at the quarterly earnings of CalWORKs adult recipients as reported by the Employment Development Department (EDD). The chart on this page shows the trend in the median and mean value of earnings of CalWORKs adults from 2003 through June 2016. The California minimum wage has also been included in the chart for reference. The median and mean earnings of CalWORKs adults have generally increased since 2013 despite slight seasonal quarterly downturns each winter. Data Source: EDD Quarterly Wage Earnings for CalWORKs Adult Recipients http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG287.htm $1,300 $1,500 $1,700 $1,900 $2,100 $2,300 $2,500 $2,700 $2,900 $3,100 2003Q1 2004Q1 2005Q1 2006Q1 2007Q1 2008Q1 2009Q1 2010Q1 2011Q1 2012Q1 2013Q1 2014Q1 2015Q1 2016Q1 Mean Earnings Median Earnings Q u a rt e rl y E a rn in g s i n D o lla rs $6.75 $7.50 $8.00 CA Minimum Wage $9.00 $10.00 http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG287.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 29 Figure 2B. Proportion of Adult Recipients with Earnings: 2003-2016 This page illustrates changes in the percentage of CalWORKs adults with earnings between July 2003 and June 2016. In general the percentage of CalWORKs adult recipients with earnings has risen from 24 percent in the first quarter of 2013 to nearly 33 percent in the second quarter of 2016, the third-highest rate since 2007. Changes in the California minimum wage have been included for reference. Data Source: EDD Quarterly Wage Earnings for CalWORKs Adult Recipients (from MEDS),http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG287.htm 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% 35.00% 40.00% 45.00% 50.00% 2003Q1 2004Q1 2005Q1 2006Q1 2007Q1 2008Q1 2009Q1 2010Q1 2011Q1 2012Q1 2013Q1 2014Q1 2015Q1 2016Q1 Proportion of CalWORKs Adults with EDD Reported Earnings A d u lt s $6.75 $7.50 $8.00 CA Minimum Wage $9.00 $10.00 http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG287.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 2 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 30 Figure 2C. Number of CalWORKs Individuals in Employment: FFYs 2008-2015 The figure below below provides the trend in the number of CalWORKS individuals in employment activities from FFY 2008 to FFY 2015 and displays the increases achieved in each of the employment categories (Subsidized, Unsubsidized, and Self-Employment) since FFY 2013. Of note is the approximately 10,000 participant increase in Unsubsidized Employment from FFY 2013 to FFY 2015. Data Source: WTW 25 and WTW 25A 67,065 69,665 68,650 68,530 59,005 57,817 62,811 64,308 4,499 5,542 6,104 5,930 5,217 4,822 4,879 5,029 1,001 1,265 5,618 2,060 1,736 1,935 2,642 3,771 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 90,000 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 CalWORKs Individuals in Employment Activities FFY 2008- 2015 Unsubsidized employment Self-employment Subsidized Employment http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG291.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG292.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 3 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 31 Chapter 3 Fiscal Overview This chapter provides a brief financial overview of the CalWORKs program, including funding sources and the distribution of funds across various program components. Funding Sources CalWORKs is collaboratively funded by the federal government, the state General Fund (GF), and California counties. California receives federal funding for CalWORKs through an annual TANF block grant of $3.7 billion. In order to receive the federal funds, California contributes $2.9 billion annually in Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) funding. State MOE funds come from the GF, as well as contributions from California’s 58 counties. Other key sources of CalWORKs funding include the Social Services Block Grant (SSBG), also called Title XX, and non-MOE GF. Expenditures The vast majority of CalWORKs funds are provided as grants and services to California families in need. In FY 2015-16, approximately 90 percent of CalWORKs expenditures went to grants, services, child care, and mental health and substance abuse assistance programs. CalWORKs administrative and services funding is provided in an annual Single Allocation to California counties, which administer the program at the local level. TANF\/MOE funds not allocated to CalWORKs are used to fund programs such as Tribal TANF, an assistance program for Native Americans residing on tribal lands; KinGAP, a program that assists non-parental relatives in caring for children; child care programs administered by the California Department of Education (CDE); and others. Key Terms in This Chapter \uf0b7 General Fund (GF) The GF is California’s main governmental operating account. GF revenues come primarily from the state income tax, but state sales and corporate taxes also contribute to the GF. \uf0b7 Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) The MOE is a requirement that states expend a specified minimum amount of matching funds on benefits for lower-income families in order to participate in the federal TANF program. California allocates $2.9 billion annually in MOE. \uf0b7 Non-MOE General Fund CalWORKs cases that receive assistance from federal TANF, state MOE funds, or some combination, are subject to work participation requirements. Non-MOE General Funds originate in the state GF but are allocated for assistance that is not subject to the federal TANF work participation requirements. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 3 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 32 \uf0b7 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Funding The federal government allocates $16.6 billion annually for TANF. States receive a portion of this total in an annual block grant. To participate in TANF, states must expend a specified amount of dollars in MOE funds that match the TANF funds. California receives approximately $3.7 billion annually in federal TANF funding, and this is matched with roughly $2.9 billion in state-contributed MOE. \uf0b7 Title XX Title XX of the Social Security Act, also referred to as the Social Services Block Grant (SSBG), is a funding program provided to states, without a state matching requirement, to assist in supporting a wide range of services, including preventing child abuse, increasing the availability of child care, and providing community-based care for the elderly and disabled. Funds are allocated to the states on the basis of population. Tables and Figures in This Chapter Figure 3A. CalWORKs Funds for FY 2016-17 ……………………………………………………………… 33 Table 3A. CalWORKs Funding by Program Area & Fund Sources: FY 2016-17 ……………….. 34 Table 3B. Funding Reconciliation for CalWORKs: FY 2016-17 ………………………………………. 35 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 3 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 33 Fiscal Overview of the CalWORKs Program CalWORKs Funds by Program Area and Funding Source The chart and tables below, and on the following pages, display the distribution of funds within each of the CalWORKs program components (grants, administration, services, child care, and mental health and substance abuse treatment). The funding source for each of these components is also provided (TANF, GF, county funds, and Title XX funds). Figure 3A. CalWORKs Funds for FY 2016-17 Note: *Stage One only. Stable clients may receive child care in Stage Two, funded by the California Department of Education. Grants 58% Administration 9% Services 23% Child-Care* 8% Mental Health & Sub. Abuse 2% California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 3 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 34 Table 3A. CalWORKs Funding by Program Area & Fund Sources: FY 2016-17 Funding by Program Area for FY 2016-17 Appropriation (in millions) Fund Sources for FY 2016-17 Appropriation (in millions) Grants $3,109 58% TANF in CalWORKs1 $2,413 Administration $471 9% Maintenance of Effort (MOE) $2,139 Services $1,220 23% Other Funds (Non- MOE GF, Title XX) $788 Child Care $413 8% Total Funds $5,340 Mental Health & Sub. Abuse $127 2% Total Funds $5,340 100% Data Source: CDSS Notes: Acronyms used on this page: MOE (Maintenance of Effort), TANF (federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families), GF (state General Fund) 1Approximately $1.4 billion of the TANF Block Grant is spent in other related programs outside of CalWORKs that serve TANF goals. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 3 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 35 Table 3B. Funding Reconciliation for CalWORKs: FY 2016-17 FY 2016-17 Appropriation (in Millions) TANF MOE Non-MOE Title XX Total GF County GF\/County CalWORKs1 $2,413 $489 $1,650 $625 $163 $5,340 Cash Assistance Grants $3,109 Administration $471 Services $1,220 Mental Health & Substance Abuse $413 Child Care $127 CDSS Programs (Not CalWORKs) $412 $221 $16 $649 Tribal TANF $87 $80 $0 $167 WINS $0 $32 $0 $32 Other CDSS Programs2 $325 $109 $16 $450 Other State Agencies (Not CDSS) $944 $519 $0 $1,463 Community College $0 $35 $0 $35 CDE Child Care Programs $0 $472 $0 $472 Child Support Pass-Through Payment $0 $12 $0 $12 Student Aid Commission $926 $0 $0 $926 TANF Pass-Through for State Agencies $18 $0 $0 $18 Total Spent in All Programs $3,769 $1,229 $1,666 $625 $163 $7,452 COUNTY FUND SOURCES (in Millions) GF EXPENDITURES3 (in Millions) CalWORKs MOE and Non-MOE Expenditures FY 2016-17 FY 2016-17 2.5 Percent of CalWORKs Grants $70 GF in CalWORKs $625 CalWORKs MOE Subaccount $1,121 Total GF in All Programs $1,365 Realignment Family Support Subaccount $586 Child Poverty & Family Suppl. Subaccount $362 Total $2,139 Subaccounts: A portion of funding for CalWORKs grants is shifted from GF to revenues deposited into the CalWORKs MOE Subaccount, Realignment Family Support Subaccount, and Child Poverty and Family Supplemental Support Subaccount. These funds will be redistributed to counties in lieu of GF for CalWORKs expenditures. The CalWORKs MOE Subaccount funds were implemented on September 1, 2011. The Realignment Family Support Subaccount and California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 3 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 36 the Child Poverty and Family Supplemental Support Subaccount were implemented on July 1, 2013. Notes: Acronyms used on this page: MOE (Maintenance of Effort), TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families), WINS (Work Incentive Nutritional Supplement), CDE (California Department of Education), GF (State General Fund) 1Funding for CalWORKs components cannot be broken out by funding type due to overall shifts from TANF to MOE\/Non-MOE. 2Includes KinGAP, other MOE-Eligible Programs in CDSS, and state support costs for CalWORKs. 3For purposes of this table, GF in CalWORKs reflects MOE and Non-MOE GF expenditures on CalWORKs families for grants, administration, services, mental health, substance abuse, and child care. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 37 Chapter 4 Program Chronology This chapter provides a brief history of CalWORKs and its predecessors, beginning with the 1935 federal Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program and the programs that led up to the creation of CalWORKs in 1998. Since then, CalWORKs itself has undergone numerous changes as a result of new federal and state laws. Key Terms in This Chapter \uf0b7 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) Part of the federal stimulus package in response to the Great Recession, ARRA was a supplemental appropriation for job preservation and creation, energy efficiency, and science, assistance to the unemployed, and state and local fiscal stabilization. ARRA provided a work participation rate requirement, relief provisions, and funding for subsidized employment for state TANF programs. \uf0b7 Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) AFDC was established by the Social Security Act of 1935 as a grant program to enable states to provide cash welfare payments for needy children who had been deprived of parental support or care because their father or mother was absent from the home, incapacitated, deceased, or unemployed. \uf0b7 Earned Income Disregard (EID) The EID is the amount of earnings subtracted from income for determining a CalWORKs cash grant. The maximum has varied with changes in the law. In October of 2013 it was set to the first $225 in earned income and 50 percent of remaining earned income for all CalWORKs cases. \uf0b7 Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) The EITC is a tax break (in the form of a refund) for people who work full- or part-time. The EITC refund is not counted as income when computing a person or family’s CalWORKs cash grant, CalFresh allocation, or Medi-Cal benefits. \uf0b7 Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool (OCAT) The OCAT is a web-based statewide standardized appraisal tool, provides in-depth appraisal of recipient strengths, barriers to employment and overall work readiness of CalWORKs participants, leading to more effective placement in work activities and referrals to supportive services. OCAT is based on the federal Online WORK Readiness Assessment Tool (OWRA). \uf0b7 Quarterly Reporting \/Prospective Budgeting (QR\/PB) QR\/PB is a budgeting system put in place in 2003 for the CalWORKs and CalFresh programs. Recipients’ eligibility and benefits are determined for a 3-month period using prospective budgeting and income averaging rules based on information reported by recipients once in the quarter; recipients have the option to report changes that would result in increased grant\/benefits when they occur. \uf0b7 Semi-Annual Reporting (SAR) SAR requires households receiving assistance to report income on a semi-annual basis. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 38 \uf0b7 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF) TANF is a federal program that replaced AFDC and now funds CalWORKs in California. TANF is designed to help needy families achieve self-sufficiency. States receive block grants to design and operate programs that accomplish one of the four purposes of the TANF program: o Provide assistance to needy families so that children can be cared for in their own homes; o Reduce the dependency of needy parents by promoting job preparation, work, and marriage; o Prevent and reduce the incidence of out-of-wedlock pregnancies; and o Encourage the formation and maintenance of two-parent families. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 39 A Brief History of What Led to the Present Version of CalWORKs The program known as CalWORKs began with the 1935 federal Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, jointly funded and administered by the federal government and the 50 states. AFDC provided cash aid to single mothers with children who had no support from a husband as a result of his death, disability, or absence. By the 1960s, the number of AFDC cases had grown considerably, and the caseload had shifted toward female-headed households that resulted from out-of-wedlock births or divorce. Some social scientists and policymakers became concerned about a possible creation of a culture of long-term dependency and a transmission of dependency from one generation to the next. In response, a series of reforms in 1967 and 1988 offered AFDC participants financial incentives to work and imposed penalties for not working. By the 1990s, experimentation with various AFDC reforms resulted in the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA). In this act, Congress sought to reduce dependence on aid, limit out-of-wedlock childbirth, encourage the formation of stable two-parent families, and ensure that children could be cared for in their own homes or the homes of relatives. To this end, PRWORA replaced AFDC with Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), changed the funding structure of the program, limited to 60 months the amount of time that families could receive federal aid, and provided incentives for states to encourage support recipients to work. As a response to PRWORA, in 1997, California enacted the Welfare-to-Work Act, which replaced AFDC (and related state programs) with CalWORKs. As required by PRWORA, CalWORKs included a 60-month time limit and an adult-only sanction for noncompliance with the Welfare- to-Work (WTW) requirements. CalWORKs provided a state-funded Safety Net program that continued the child portion of a grant even after the adult in question reached the lifetime limit. It also simplified the monthly earned income disregard to $225 and 50 percent (i.e., for every dollar of earnings beyond the disregard, the grant declines by 50 cents). These adjustments were an effort to encourage aided recipients to work. Between 1998 and the present, CalWORKs has undergone a number of changes as a result of shifting state priorities, federal policy changes, and the Great Recession of the late 2000s. The following chronology explains briefly, year by year, how CalWORKs has changed in response to changes mandated by the U.S. Congress and the California State Legislature. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 40 1998 CalWORKs Implementation W&IC sections 11200-11526.5 The CalWORKs program, California’s version of the TANF program, was implemented. CalWORKs 60-Month Time Limit W&IC sections 11266.5, 11454, 11454.5, and 11495.1 Adults in the CalWORKs program were allowed to receive assistance for a lifetime maximum of 60 months, unless the individual was exempt or their cash aid grant was fully reimbursed by child support collection. CalWORKs Single Allocation Re-appropriation W&IC section 15204.2 This legislation authorized unspent CalWORKs funding from one year to the next for three years from FY 1997-98 through FY 1999-00. 2002 County Performance Incentives End W&IC section 10544.1 Legislation provided that counties could earn fiscal incentive payments for case exits due to employment, grant reductions due to earnings, and the diversion of applicants from enrolling in CalWORKs. Counties earned approximately $1.092 billion between January 1, 1998, and June 30, 2002. These incentives were discontinued due to budgetary constraints; approximately $400 million of unspent incentives were allocated to counties to spend after June 30, 2002. Base Budget for CalWORKs Single Allocation The CalWORKs Single Allocation base funding for FY 2001-02 and all subsequent years was established at the FY 2000-01 funding level, which was formulated through the Proposed County Administrative Budget (PCAB) process and increased\/decreased by caseload growth\/decline. 2003 Quarterly Reporting \/Prospective Budgeting (QR\/PB) W&IC sections 11265.1 and 11265.2 The monthly reporting\/retrospective budgeting system was replaced with a QR\/PB system for the CalWORKs and CalFresh programs. Under QR\/PB, recipients’ eligibility and benefits are determined for a three month period using prospective budgeting and income averaging rules based on information reported by recipients once in the quarter; recipients have the option to report changes that would result in increased grant\/benefits when they occur. 2004 Work Participation W&IC section 11325.21 The 18\/24 month time limit was eliminated and counties were required to universally engage all non-exempt adults in work activities (WTW program) within 90 days of applying for CalWORKs. Unless exempt from work requirements, adults were required to participate in at least 20 hours California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 41 per week of core activities (employment, work experience, on-the-job training, work-study, self- employment, community service, up to twelve months of vocational training, job search and job readiness assistance) and 12 hours per week of core or non-core activities (predominantly educational activities). Employment Services Augmentation W&IC section 11325.22 An additional $50 million in TANF funds was provided for Employment Services. CalWORKs Single Allocation Reappropriation W&IC section 15204.2 Unspent CalWORKs Single Allocation funds totaling $40 million were re-appropriated from FY 2003-04 for distribution and expenditure in FY 2004-05. 2005 CalWORKs Single Allocation Reappropriation W&IC section 15204.2 Unspent CalWORKs Single Allocation funds totaling $50 million were re-appropriated from FY 2004-05 for distribution and expenditure in FY 2005-06 as an offset to the reduction in CalWORKs Eligibility Administration Basic and Prospective Budgeting savings. 2006 Administration Restoration Budget Act of 2006 section 28.00 Funding was reestablished at the FY 2005-06 spending level with $140 million restored for county CalWORKs administration. 2007 Employment Services Augmentation W&IC section 10535 An additional $90 million in TANF funds was provided for Employment Services to help improve client participation levels. COLA Elimination to the CalWORKs MAP Levels W&IC section 11453 The annual COLA to the CalWORKs MAP levels was eliminated effective FY 2007-08 and thereafter. Durational Sanctions W&IC section 11327.5 Legislation removed the statutory requirement that noncompliant individuals in the CalWORKs WTW program be subject to financial sanctions of a minimum duration of three or six months for individuals in their second, third or subsequent instance of non-compliance, respectively. Instead, any sanction may end at the point the noncompliant individual performs the activity he or she previously failed or refused to perform. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 42 CalWORKs Homeless Assistance Program W&IC section11450 (f) (2) (A) (B) Legislation increased the daily rate for temporary homeless assistance, redefined homelessness criteria to include families who receive a notice to pay rent or vacate, allowed up to two months of rent in arrears to prevent homelessness and allowed a higher rent threshold to secure permanent housing. 2008 Subsidized Employment W&IC section 11322.63 Counties were provided funding outside of the CalWORKs Single Allocation to pay 50 percent of a CalWORKs WTW participant’s wage subsidy while participating in public or private sector Subsidized Employment. Participation is limited to a maximum of six months for each WTW participant, up to 50 percent of the Maximum Aid Payment for the family. Employment Services Base Veto Budget Act of 2008 section 103 The Governor vetoed $60 million of the CalWORKs Single Allocation due to the state’s budget crisis. This was reflected as a $60 million reduction to Employment Services funding. 2009 Four Percent Maximum Aid Payment Reduction W&IC Sections 11450, 11452, and 11453 All CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment levels (including exempt, non-exempt, Region 1 and Region 2) were reduced by four percent. ARRA of 2009 W&IC sections 11320.3 and 11454.5 CDSS was authorized to apply to the Emergency Contingency Fund under ARRA, a multi-year, federal economic stimulus program. Emergency Contingency Fund programs included Basic Assistance, Subsidized Employment, and Non-Recurrent Short-Term Benefits. Temporary Suspension of Subsidized Employment W&IC section 11322.64 Subsidized Employment was suspended while funds were available through the ARRA Emergency Contingency Fund. WTW Temporary Exemptions for Parents of Young Children W&IC section 11320.3 (b) (7) Parents with a child between one and two years of age or parents with two children under age six were exempted from WTW requirements to provide counties with a way to absorb a $376 million reduction in Employment Services and Child Care in the CalWORKs Single Allocation. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 43 Mental Health and Substance Abuse Funding Flexibility W&IC sections 11325.71 and 11329.5(e) Counties were allowed the flexibility to redirect funding both from and to the CalWORKs Mental Health and Substance Abuse allocations, and both from and to other CalWORKs Employment Services, for FY 2009-10 and FY 2010-11. 2010 TANF Emergency Contingency Fund Continued implementation\/expansion of CalWORKs subsidized employment programs through the TANF Emergency Contingency Fund (ECF) that was part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) economic stimulus package. 2011 Eight Percent Maximum Aid Payment Reduction W&IC sections 11450, 11452, and 11453 All CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment levels (including exempt, non-exempt, and Region One and Region Two) were reduced by eight percent. CalWORKs 48-Month Time Limit W&IC sections 11454, 11454.2, and 11454.5 The CalWORKs time limit for adults was reduced from 60 months to 48 months, counting all months on aid received in California since January 1, 1998, unless the adult has\/had a time limit exemption. Earned Income Disregard (EID) Reduction W&IC section 11451.5 The initial amount of non-exempt earned income disregarded when determining grant amounts decreased from $225 to $112. The disregard of 50 percent of any additional non-exempt earned income was maintained. Changes to the Cal-Learn Program W&IC section 11334.8 Cal-Learn intensive case management services were suspended for one year. Pregnant and parenting teens continued to receive CalWORKs assistance and services in the WTW program. Extend Mental Health and Substance Abuse Funding Flexibility W&IC sections 11325.71 and 11329.5(f) Legislation extended the flexibility to redirect funding both from and to the CalWORKs Mental Health and Substance Abuse allocations, and both from and to other CalWORKs Employment Services for FY 2011-12. Changes to Subsidized Employment W&IC section 11322.63 The state’s maximum contribution (outside of the Single Allocation) toward wage subsidies under the Subsidized Employment program was increased to 100 percent of the computed California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 44 grant for the participant’s AU in the month prior to participation in Subsidized Employment. The eligible population was expanded to include individuals in the CalWORKs Safety Net program and individuals in WTW sanction status. Counties were allowed to continue AB 98 Subsidized Employment for the duration of the placement to participants who become ineligible for CalWORKs due to their Subsidized Employment income. Extend WTW Exemptions for Young Children W&IC sections 11320.3(b) (7), 11320.3(f) (1), and 11320.3(g) The $376 million reduction in the CalWORKs Single Allocation was extended. The young children and good cause for lack of supportive service exemptions were extended through June 1, 2012. 2012 SB 1041 Overview Chapter 47, Statutes of 2012 SB 1041 lowered the minimum hourly participation requirement for single parents (from 32 hours to either 20 hours or 30 hours depending on the age of the youngest child) and provided flexibility in requirements, allowing recipients to pursue schooling and job-skills training as they move toward self-sufficiency. The earned income disregard rose from $112 to $225 (i.e., back to the level in effect prior to 2011), allowing qualifying individuals to keep more of their earnings before their cash grant gets reduced or they no longer qualify for aid. Several reporting requirements were modified to reduce burdens on recipients and county welfare offices; for example, the prior quarterly income verification system was replaced by a semi-annual reporting system. For child-only cases (exclusive of those in sanction status), income verification is now required annually rather than quarterly. The effects of the changes introduced by SB 1041 are currently being evaluated by researchers at the RAND Corporation. End of WTW Temporary Exemptions for Young Children W&IC sections 11320.3(g), 11320.3(h), and 11320.3(b)(6)(A)(iv) Legislation extended the temporary exemptions for parents of young children through the end of calendar year 2012; adults remained exempt past January 2013 until they had been re- engaged in a WTW plan. Counties were required to re-engage these previously exempted cases over a period of two years, with all cases being re-engaged by January 2015. Additionally, a new once-per-lifetime exemption was created for parents of children under two years of age. WTW 24-Month Time Clock W&IC sections 11320.8, 11322.85, and 11322.86 The eligibility requirements for work-eligible adults in the CalWORKs program was changed by providing 24 months of aid under which WTW participants must meet state-defined work requirements and an additional 24 months of aid only if WTW participants meet federally- defined work requirements. Counties have the option of extending the 24 months of eligibility based on state requirements for 20 percent of its post-24 month caseload if the adult meets California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 45 specific criteria that suggest additional months of assistance will provide significant progress toward self-sufficiency, or if the adult is facing uniquely adverse labor market conditions. WTW Hourly Participation Requirements W&IC section 11322.8 The hourly work requirements for work-eligible adults in the CalWORKs program were aligned with federal hourly work requirements, and no WTW core hours are required during the WTW 24-Month Time Clock. Single parents with no child under six have to participate in a weekly minimum of 30 hours each week; 20 hours for single parents with a child under six, and 35 hours for two-parent families. After exhausting the WTW 24-Month Time Clock, unless otherwise exempt, or having received an extension, work-eligible adults must meet federal work requirements in order to continue receiving cash aid. Annual Reporting\/Child-Only (AR\/CO) W&IC section 11265.45 The number of reporting periods for child-only cases was reduced from four (under QR\/PB) to one. Child-only cases are ones in which no adult is aided (safety net cases, undocumented citizens, non- needy caretaker relatives, recipients of SSI, etc., excluding WTW sanctioned cases). Restoration of the Cal-Learn Program W&IC sections 11334.6, 11334.8, and 11454.5 Intensive case management services for pregnant and parenting teens were restored, assuming that counties would begin to phase their programs in throughout FY 2012-13. Single Allocation Reappropriation AB 1477 (Chapter 630, Statutes of 2012) Legislation provides that $80 million of unspent TANF funds from FY 2010-11 be reverted early to augment the Single Allocation. 2013 Work Incentive Nutritional Supplement (WINS) W&IC section 15525 A monthly additional food assistance benefit was provided to CalFresh households working sufficient hours to meet TANF WPR. The W&IC section 15525 reduced the WINS benefit from $40 to $10 per household per month and changed the implementation date from October 1, 2013, to January 1, 2014. Earned Income Disregard (EID) Restoration to $225 W&IC section 11451.5 The initial disregard of $225 of non-exempt earned income was restored, rescinding the Legislature’s prior action that reduced the EID to $112, and the disregard of 50 percent of all additional earned income was maintained. Semi-Annual Reporting (SAR) W&IC sections 11265.1, 11265.2, 11265.3, and 11265.4 The QR\/PB was replaced with a SAR system, which reduces the number of required income reports made by CalWORKs recipients to twice per year for an aided adult and WTW California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 46 sanctioned cases. The SAR system imposes two additional income reporting thresholds: 55 percent of the monthly income of a family of three at the federal poverty level plus the amount of earned and unearned income last used to calculate the CalWORKs grant or the level likely to render an AU ineligible for CalWORKs benefits. Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool W&IC section 11325.2(b) Funding was provided for the development and implementation of a statewide standardized appraisal tool, known as the Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool (OCAT), which will lead to more effective placement in work activities and referral to supportive services. Expanded Subsidized Employment W&IC section 11322.63 Counties were allocated funds, in addition and independent of, the CalWORKs Single Allocation, in order to expand Subsidized Employment program opportunities in California. Family Stabilization W&IC section 11325.24 Family Stabilization provides intensive case management and services to ensure a basic level of stability within a family prior to, or concurrently with, participation in WTW activities. 2014 Vehicle Asset Limit Increase W&IC section 11155 Increases the equity value limit of a vehicle to $9,500 and adds a new exemption for a vehicle given as a gift, family transfer or donation to a client by a family member effective January 1, 2014. Exemption of Child-Only Safety Net and Drug\/Fleeing Felon Cases from Child Support Requirements W&IC sections 11251.3 and 11486.5 The safety net and felon adult CalWORKs cases are funded with non-MOE GF and are no longer required to assign their child support rights to the state as a condition of eligibility. Any receipt of child support that is reasonably anticipated would be considered unearned income and counted against the assistance payment. Counties must remove all child support related sanctions and penalties for these cases retroactively, effective back to June 1, 2014. Changes in WTW Hourly Work Participation Determination W&IC section 11322.8 The determination of hours per week a work-eligible adult must participate in work activities changed from a weekly minimum requirement to an average per week during the month. Changes to Family Stabilization Compliance W&IC section 11325.24 Family Stabilization has been amended to provide housing assistance to the families. Recipients who refuse or are unable to follow their family stabilization plans without good cause will be returned to the WTW program. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 47 CalWORKs Housing Support W&IC section 11325.24 Housing support, including rental costs, is provided to eligible CalWORKs recipients who are experiencing homelessness or housing instability that would be a barrier to self-sufficiency or child well-being. This is an optional county program. Five Percent Maximum Aid Payment Increase W&IC section 11450.025 All CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment levels (including exempt, non-exempt, Region One and Region Two) were increased by five percent effective March 1, 2014. Approved Relative Caregiver Funding Option W&IC section 11461.3 At county discretion, the amount paid to approved, relative caregivers for the in-home care of children placed with them will be equal to the basic rate paid to foster care providers. 2015 Pregnant Women W&IC section 11450 Expands eligibility for CalWORKs and Pregnancy Special Needs Payment to all pregnant women who have no other eligible children beginning in the second trimester. Previously, this population was not eligible until the beginning of the third trimester. Truancy W&IC section 11253 Eliminates the school attendance requirement and penalty to caretaker relatives when a child under the age of 16 is not regularly attending school. Counties will inform the family of how to enroll the child, age 16 or older, in a continuation school within the county and the family may be screened to determine eligibility for family stabilization services. OCAT Statewide Training and Implementation – W&IC section 11325.2(b) In 2013 funding was provided for the development and implementation of a statewide standardized appraisal tool, known as the Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool (OCAT), which will lead to more effective placement in work activities and referral to supportive services. Statewide training and implementation for OCAT was completed in 2015 and OCAT went live in all counties by October 2015. Five Percent Maximum Aid Payment Increase W&IC section 11450.025 All CalWORKs Maximum Aid Payment levels (including exempt, non-exempt, Region One and Region Two) were increased by five percent effective April 1, 2015. CalWORKs Eligibility to Include Drug Felons W&IC section 11251.3 and11486.5 CalWORKs eligibility extended to drug felons, contingent upon compliance with all terms of probation or parole, including participation in drug treatment programs effective April 1, 2015. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 48 2016 1.43 Percent MAP Increase W&IC section 11450.025 All CalWORKs MAP levels (including exempt, non-exempt, Region One and Region Two) were increased by 1.43 percent effective October 1, 2016. CalWORKs Homeless Assistance Program W&IC section 11450 Effective January 1, 2017, both temporary and permanent Homeless Assistance (HA) are available to an eligible CalWORKs assistance unit (AU) once every 12 months, with exceptions. Previously, HA was available once-in-a-lifetime, with exceptions. Maximum Family Grant (MFG) Repeal W&IC section 11450.04 In accordance with the Budget Act of 2016, cash grants will be increased to include children who were not receiving cash assistance because they were born to families who received aid for the ten months prior to the child’s birth. No child shall be denied aid because he or she was born into a family during a period in which the family was receiving aid. This applies to children currently designated as MFG, as well as future children born to the AU. Changes to Subsidized Employment W&IC section 11320.15 and 11322.64 The AB 98 Subsidized Employment Program was eliminated and the eligible population for Expanded Subsidized Employment was expanded to include individuals in the CalWORKs Safety Net program. Participation in Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act of 2014 Activities W&IC section 11322.63 A CalWORKs recipient in a Workforce Innovation Opportunity Act career pathway program is deemed to meet the CalWORKs hourly participation requirements under specified conditions. Temporary Assistance Program W&IC section 11320.32 This program was made inoperative in FY 2015-16. This was a voluntary program for current and future CalWORKs recipients who met exemption criteria for work participation activities. This program was passed into law in 2008, though implementation was never achieved due to repeated delays. Simplified CalWORKs Application Process and Form for Non-Needy Caretaker Relative With Relative Foster Child Placed In The Home W&IC section 11253.2 In accordance with the AB 403, the CalWORKs program has developed a simplified process to apply for CalWORKs benefits for a foster child when the foster child has been placed with a relative who is not requesting public assistance cash aid for themselves. The caretaker relative will use a simplified form that asks for information regarding income and resources only about the child. tel:11450.04 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 49 Some of the CalWORKs program rules have also been waived to simplify the process since these foster parents must already undergo background screening and are not subject to the Welfare to Work rules when not requesting aid for themselves. CalWORKs Grieving Parent\/Caretaker Provisions W&IC sections 11321 and 11450.05 In accordance with AB 433 a new section was added and a section amended to the Welfare and Institutions Code when a child in the CalWORKs assistance unit (AU) is reported as deceased. When a child in the AU becomes deceased the AU’s grant amount will not decrease in the month or the following month, and the parent(s)\/caretaker(s) are excused from required welfare to work activities. They will also not be subject to sanctions for failure to participate. Overpayments will not apply for the grant not decreasing. Counties will be required to assist the family in identifying services the family may be eligible for such as, nutrition assistance, housing support and locating mental health services, if needed, or requested. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 4 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 50 THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY BLANK. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 51 Chapter 5 Welfare-to-Work (WTW) Participation This chapter describes CalWORKs welfare-to-work participation. It begins with a table detailing the differences between the two categories of CalWORKs requirements and the federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) requirements. The chapter then chronicles California’s work participation rate (WPR) trends over various time periods. CalWORKs provides cash assistance to families in need and offers work supports and incentives to help adults gain and maintain employment and to assist families to become self- sufficient. As a condition of receiving CalWORKs assistance, adults must participate in welfare- to-work activities for a minimum number of hours, unless they qualify for an exemption from welfare-to-work participation. California receives an annual federal TANF block grant of $3.7 billion to help fund CalWORKs and a number of other safety net programs. As a condition of receiving the federal funding, CalWORKs is measured by the federal WPR, the primary metric used by the federal Administration for Children and Families (ACF) to quantify the performance of state TANF programs. States that receive TANF funding are required to meet WPR requirements of 50 percent of all families and 90 percent of two- parent families in each federal fiscal year. The WPR is calculated by dividing the number of TANF cases with Work Eligible Individuals (WEIs) meeting federal participation requirements by the total number of TANF cases with WEIs subject to those requirements. Failure to meet federal WPR requirements may result in a federal fiscal penalty for each year of failure. CalWORKs hourly welfare-to-work participation requirements are aligned with, but not identical to, the federal work participation requirements for TANF cases. Required work participation hours and allowable activities for each adult are based on the number of adults in an Assistance Unit (AU), the age of the children in the AU, and if the Welfare-to-Work 24-Month Time Clock has been exhausted. A table is provided in this chapter that details differences between the three different time clocks. CalWORKs adults are subject to two main categories of welfare-to-work requirements: \uf0b7 CalWORKs minimum standards These requirements allow for a cumulative 24 months of increased flexibility out of the total 48 months of aid, and the aid can be extended under certain conditions. Individuals participating in accordance with these requirements are using the Welfare-to-Work 24-Month Time Clock; and \uf0b7 CalWORKs federal standards These standards are closely aligned, but not identical to, federal TANF requirements. CalWORKs recipients are subject to these standards after they have exhausted their 24-month time clock. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 52 California has been in WPR non-compliance since 2007, and financial penalties have been preliminarily assessed by the federal government for failure to achieve the required WPR in those years. Federal regulations allow for a number of penalty mitigation options, and California is in the process of exercising those options. One of the options afforded to states to mitigate a federal fiscal penalty for WPR non-compliance is the submittal of a Corrective Compliance Plan (CCP). California has submitted seven CCPs for the penalties assessed for WPR noncompliance from 2008 through 2014. Chapter Five details the current status of these penalties and California’s WPR compliance efforts. This chapter ends with details concerning California’s TANF work participation rates over selected time periods. Key Terms in This Chapter \uf0b7 24-Month Time Clock (24MTC) Adult CalWORKs participants are required to engage in welfare-to-work activities during their potentially maximum grant period of 48 months. During the first 24 months of aid receipt there are more activity options. These activities include work, education, and training and mental health, substance abuse, and\/or domestic abuse services. \uf0b7 The WTW 24MTC stops when a participant is in appraisal, job search, assessment, or development of a new WTW plan; is meeting the required federal participation hours; is participating in Cal- Learn; is exempt; or is being sanctioned. \uf0b7 Administration for Children and Families (ACF) The ACF is the federal organization that oversees TANF programs. The ACF is a division of the Department of Health & Human Services. The ACF promotes the economic and social well-being of families, children, individuals, and communities with partnerships, funding, guidance, training, and technical assistance. \uf0b7 Corrective Compliance Plan (CCP) – A CCP is one of the approaches provided for states to reduce or eliminate a federal fiscal penalty for WPR noncompliance. As stipulated in 45 CFR 262.6, a CCP must include: o A complete analysis of why the State did not meet requirements; o A detailed description of how the State will correct or discontinue the violation; o The time period in which the violation will be corrected or discontinued; o The milestones, including interim processes and outcome goals, the State will achieve to assure compliance; and o A certification by the Governor that the State is committed to correcting or discontinuing the violation in accordance with the plan. \uf0b7 Enrollee This refers to an individual who has, after becoming eligible for CalWORKs, received a notice that he or she is required to participate in welfare-to-work. \uf0b7 Exempt Case This refers to cases with an individual who is exempt from participation in welfare-to-work, due to meeting a qualifying criterion. \uf0b7 Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) The period, starting on October 1 of one year and ending on September 30 of the next year, on which the federal government bases fiscal and data reporting requirements. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 53 it ends; for example, FFY 2013 begins on October 1, 2012, and ends on September 30, 2013. \uf0b7 Good Cause An individual in good cause status is excused from welfare-to-work participation when it has been determined that there is a condition or circumstance that temporarily prevents, or significantly impairs, the individual’s ability to be regularly employed, or to participate in welfare-to-work activities. Good Cause status is defined in the California Department of Social Services (CDSS) Manual of Policies and Procedures (MPP) 42-713. \uf0b7 Non-Compliant This refers to an individual who has been sent a notice of non- compliance with welfare-to-work participation requirements but has not yet returned to participation, or been sanctioned. \uf0b7 Safety Net Cases in which only the children in an AU are aided because the parent(s) are discontinued for cash aid due to their reaching the 48-month lifetime assistance limit. \uf0b7 Sanctioned Cases This refers to cases with an individual who has been removed from aid due to non-compliance with welfare-to-work participation requirements. \uf0b7 Unduplicated Cases This is data included in the Welfare-to-Work 25 and 25A (WTW 25 and 25A) data report, that accounts for individuals participating in WTW activities and does not duplicate counts for individuals participating in more than one reported activity. \uf0b7 Work-Eligible Individual (WEI) an adult (or minor child head-of-household) receiving assistance under TANF or a separate State program or a non-recipient parent living with a child receiving such assistance unless the parent is: o A minor parent and not the head-of-household; o A non-citizen who is ineligible to receive assistance due to his or her immigration status; or o At State option on a case-by-case basis, a recipient of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits or Aid to the Aged, Blind or Disabled in the Territories. The term also excludes: o A parent providing care for a disabled family member living in the home, provided that there is medical documentation to support the need for the parent to remain in the home to care for the disabled family member; o At State option on a case-by-case basis, a parent who is a recipient of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) benefits; and o An individual in a family receiving MOE-funded assistance under an approved Tribal TANF program, unless the State includes the Tribal family in calculating work participation rates, as permitted under CFR 45 261.25. https:\/\/www.law.cornell.edu\/cfr\/text\/45\/261.25 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 54 Tables and Figures in This Chapter Table 5A. CalWORKs WTW Activities and Hourly Requirements ……………………………………. 56 Figure 5A. Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population FY 2007-08 through FY 2015-16 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 58 Table 5B. Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population FY 2007-08 through FY 2015-16 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 59 Table 5C. CalWORKs Welfare-to-Work Education Activities …………………………………………. 61 Table 5D. Number of Community College Degrees, Certificates, and Awards CalWORKs Recipients Received: 2009-2016 ……………………………………………………………………………….. 62 Table 5E. Average Monthly Percent of Exemptions Granted to WTW Adults: FFYs 2007-2015 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63 Table 5F. Welfare-to-Work (WTW) 24-Month Time Clock Exemptions\/Good Cause ………….. 65 Table 5G. Participation in Work or Work-Related Activities (TANF cases only): FFYs 2008- 2015 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 68 Table 5H. Summary of WPR Assessed Penalties and Compliance Status……………………….. 69 Table 5I. California’s TANF Work Participation Rate (WPR) History: FFYs 1997-2016 ………. 71 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 55 CalWORKs WTW Activities and Hourly Requirements Table 5A. Description CalWORKs adults are required to participate in WTW activities as a condition of aid, unless exempt, until the maximum 48 months for CalWORKs assistance is reached. Once the 48-month time limit is reached for the adult, aid can continue for an eligible child or children until they reach age 18. Prior Law – CalWORKs participation requirements before January 1, 2013: Under previous law, there were weekly minimum participation requirements of 20 core and 32 total hours per week for single parents, and 20 core and 35 total hours per week for parents in two-parent families. Some non-core activities, such as job skills training, education directly related to employment, and barrier removal activities, could be ‘blended’ with core activities and counted toward the core requirement. Clients could participate in vocational education as a core activity for a lifetime maximum of 12 months. Senate Bill 1041 – CalWORKs participation requirements starting January 1, 2013: During adults’ 48 Months on Aid For 24 Months – CalWORKs recipients are able to participate in any of the full array of CalWORKs WTW activities they need, consistent with an assessment, to become self- sufficient with no core hourly requirement. The 24 months are cumulative and may be used at any time during adults’ maximum 48 months of CalWORKs assistance. During the 24 months, clients must meet new CalWORKs minimum weekly hourly participation requirements. The new law reduced the hourly requirement from 32 to 30 hours per week for single parents and to 20 hours per week for single parents with a child under six. After 24 Months – Unless otherwise exempt or having received an extension, CalWORKs recipients must meet CalWORKs federal standards, based on federal work requirements, in order to continue receiving aid. CalWORKs recipients can only participate in federally countable activities and must meet a weekly core and overall hourly requirement consistent with federal requirements. CalWORKs federal standards allow for an additional 12 months of vocational education to be countable as a core activity. This provides up to three years of predominantly education- focused activities during the 48 months of aid. Participation requirements remain at 30 or 20 hours per week for single parents; however, 20 hours must be in core activities. The core hourly requirement for two-parent families increased to 30 from 20 with the new law, with the overall 35-hour requirement maintained. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 56 Table 5A. CalWORKs WTW Activities and Hourly Requirements Adults’ 48 Months on Aid Prior Law For 24 Months After 24 Months Hourly Participation Requirements (monthly average hours per week\/core hours required) \uf0b7 Single parent with child under 6 32\/20 core 20\/0 core 20\/20 core \uf0b7 Single-parent families with children ages 6 and over 32\/20 core 30\/0 core 30\/20 core \uf0b7 Two-parent families 35\/20 core 35\/0 core 35\/30 core WTW Activities \uf0b7 Employment Activities1 \uf0b7 Work experience \uf0b7 Community service \uf0b7 On-the-job training (OJT) \uf0b7 Employment Activities \uf0b7 Vocational education (12 month lifetime limit) \uf0b7 Job search \uf0b7 Job readiness activities \uf0b7 Work experience \uf0b7 Community service \uf0b7 Job skills training \uf0b7 Adult basic education \uf0b7 Secondary school \uf0b7 Barrier removal activities \uf0b7 Employment activities \uf0b7 Work experience \uf0b7 Community service \uf0b7 OJT Core Activities Non-Core Activities Blendable Activities2 \uf0b7 Job skills training \uf0b7 Adult basic education \uf0b7 Satisfactory attendance in a Secondary school \uf0b7 Barrier removal activities3 \uf0b7 Job skills training \uf0b7 Adult basic education \uf0b7 Satisfactory attendance in a secondary school Time-Limited Core Activities4 \uf0b7 Vocational education (12 month lifetime limit) NA \uf0b7 Barrier removal activities \uf0b7 Job search \uf0b7 Job readiness assistance \uf0b7 Vocational education (12 month lifetime limit) Employment Services \uf0b7 Child care \uf0b7 Supportive services \uf0fc \uf0fc \uf0fc \uf0fc \uf0fc \uf0fc Notes: 1Employment activities include unsubsidized and subsidized employment, work study, supported work and transitional employment, and grant-based on-the-job training. 2 These non-core activities were blendable activities that could be counted toward the core hourly requirement. 3 Barrier removal activities include mental health, substance abuse, and domestic violence services intended to remove barriers to welfare-to-work participation. 4 Job search, job readiness, and barrier removal activities are limited to four consecutive weeks, not to exceed six weeks in a 12- month period. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 57 Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-To-Work Population The Welfare-to-Work 25 and 25A (WTW 25 & 25A) reports provide data about the welfare-to- work population from each of the 58 California counties. The categorical delineations that comprise the WTW 25 & 25A reflect the welfare-to-work status of the cases and their eligibility to receive cash assistance. The categories are defined as: \uf0b7 Employment Services Total The sum of the Sanction, Non-Compliance, Good Cause, and Unduplicated populations. These populations are separated because it is assumed that Exempt or Safety Net individuals are included in the unduplicated count because these cases are participating in WTW; \uf0b7 Unduplicated Individual (Undup.) This is a count on the WTW 25 & 25A that represents individuals participating in WTW activities and does not duplicate counts for individuals participating in more than one reported activity. \uf0b7 Exempt This is an individual who is exempt from participation in welfare-to-work, due to meeting a qualifying criterion; \uf0b7 Sanctioned This is an individual who has been removed from aid due to non- compliance with welfare-to-work participation requirements; \uf0b7 Non-Compliant (Non-Compl.) This refers to an individual who has been sent a notice of non-compliance with welfare-to-work participation requirements but has not yet returned to participation, or been sanctioned; \uf0b7 Good Cause An individual in good cause status is excused from welfare-to-work participation when it has been determined that there is a condition or circumstance that temporarily prevents, or significantly impairs, the individual’s ability to be regularly employed or to participate in welfare-to-work activities; and \uf0b7 Safety Net This is a count of individuals receiving services post 48-month time limit at county discretion. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 58 Figure 5A. Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population FY 2007-08 through FY 2015-16 Data Source: WTW 25 and WTW 25A Notes: Total does not include Exempt or Safety Net. Data from WTW 25 and 25A is not currently updated for FY 2015-16 quarters 2, 3 and 4. 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 Q 1 Q 2 Q 3 Q 4 Q 1 Q 2 Q 3 Q 4 Q 1 Q 2 Q 3 Q 4 Q 1 Q 2 Q 3 Q 4 Q 1 Q 2 Q 3 Q 4 Q 1 Q 2 Q 3 Q 4 Q 1 Q 2 Q 3 Q 4 Q 1 Q 2 Q 3 Q 4 Q 1 FY 07- 08 FY 07- 08 FY 08- 09 FY 08- 09 FY 09- 10 FY 09- 10 FY 10- 11 FY 10- 11 FY 11- 12 FY 11- 12 FY 12- 13 FY 12- 13 FY 13- 14 FY 13- 14 FY 14- 15 FY 14- 15 FY 15- 16 N u m b e r o f C a s e s Total Unduplicated Exempt Sanctions Non Compliance Good Cause Safety Net http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG291.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG292.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 59 Table 5B. Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population FY 2007-08 through FY 2015-16 Welfare-to-Work Cases Fiscal Year Exempt Safety Net Sanctions Non- Compliance Good Cause Unduplicated Total1 F Y 0 7 -0 8 Quarter 1 50,065 3,968 40,115 24,978 10,361 114,814 190,268 Quarter 2 51,679 5,116 38,788 23,910 10,760 117,370 190,827 Quarter 3 53,210 5,372 39,035 25,394 11,232 121,831 197,492 Quarter 4 56,355 5,539 41,246 25,502 11,519 125,947 204,214 FY Average 52,827 4,999 39,796 24,946 10,968 119,991 195,700 F Y 0 8 -0 9 Quarter 1 56,799 5,490 39,449 25,646 11,864 129,279 206,238 Quarter 2 57,195 5,566 39,695 27,700 12,056 134,341 213,792 Quarter 3 58,805 5,680 41,945 30,699 13,932 140,965 227,541 Quarter 4 61,623 5,522 45,254 30,601 14,858 147,885 238,598 FY Average 58,605 5,565 41,586 28,662 13,177 138,117 221,542 F Y 0 9 -1 0 Quarter 1 62,891 5,391 47,813 30,718 15,988 147,749 242,267 Quarter 2 81,812 5,218 47,454 27,149 16,495 146,078 237,176 Quarter 3 106,013 5,196 45,258 24,949 14,265 142,265 226,738 Quarter 4 114,125 5,133 45,205 23,822 13,056 137,678 219,761 FY Average 91,210 5,235 46,432 26,660 14,951 143,443 231,486 F Y 1 0 -1 1 Quarter 1 122,308 5,298 47,146 23,815 13,067 137,013 221,041 Quarter 2 125,364 5,287 46,669 24,910 13,379 138,633 223,591 Quarter 3 132,187 5,273 47,839 26,113 14,632 141,305 229,888 Quarter 4 137,645 5,453 50,154 27,334 14,600 144,187 236,275 FY Average 129,376 5,328 47,952 25,543 13,920 140,284 227,699 F Y 1 1 -1 2 Quarter 1 132,952 7,608 45,972 25,439 13,499 125,735 210,645 Quarter 2 133,614 7,517 45,861 25,055 12,200 122,435 205,551 Quarter 3 132,701 7,372 47,294 25,209 11,825 120,183 204,511 Quarter 4 132,363 7,471 48,523 25,037 12,212 119,222 204,994 FY Average 132,907 7,492 46,913 25,185 12,434 121,894 206,425 F Y 1 2 -1 3 Quarter 1 132,551 8,850 49,529 25,485 14,122 117,367 206,504 Quarter 2 132,463 8,968 50,192 24,973 12,392 117,047 204,604 Quarter 3 120,994 8,913 50,687 25,232 12,586 116,053 204,558 Quarter 4 115,900 9,232 51,139 26,040 13,238 115,764 206,181 FY Average 125,477 8,991 50,387 25,433 13,085 116,558 205,462 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 60 Table 5B. Quarterly Analysis of the Welfare-to-Work Population FY 2007-08 through FY 2015-16 (continued) Welfare-to-Work Cases Fiscal Year Exempt Safety Net Sanctions Non- Compliance Good Cause Unduplicated Total1 F Y 1 3 -1 4 Quarter 1 107,973 9,034 51,750 24,866 14,191 113,737 204,544 Quarter 2 100,680 6,659 52,895 26,741 13,407 116,328 209,371 Quarter 3 96,460 2,885 57,377 27,590 14,799 119,759 219,525 Quarter 4 92,166 2,914 61,529 27,768 15,841 123,453 228,591 FY Average 99,320 5,373 55,888 26,741 14,560 118,319 215,508 F Y 1 4 -1 5 Quarter 1 87,546 3,154 62,563 27,683 17,110 123,575 230,930 Quarter 2 84,534 3,275 59,607 28,203 16,534 123,105 227,448 Quarter 3 82,526 2,691 59,580 28,456 15,948 119,261 223,245 Quarter 4 82,848 2,835 58,781 29,130 16,822 120,272 225,005 FY Average 84,364 2,989 60,133 28,368 16,604 121,553 226,657 F Y 1 5 -1 6 2 Quarter 1 79,836 2,991 59,397 28,125 16,993 120,367 224,881 Quarter 2 N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A Quarter 3 N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A Quarter 4 N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A FY Average N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A Data Sources: WTW 25 and WTW 25A Notes: 1Does not include Exempt or Safety Net. 2Data from WTW 25 and 25A is not currently updated for FY 2015-16 quarters 2, 3 and 4. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG291.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG292.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 61 Table 5C. CalWORKs Welfare-to-Work Education Activities CalWORKs provides temporary cash assistance to meet basic needs of families, while also providing education, employment and training programs to assist the family’s move toward self- sufficiency. To comply with program requirements, an adult in a one-parent assistance unit must participate, on a monthly basis, in an average number of activity hours per week based on the composition of the assistance unit. Education as a welfare-to-work activity is an option to welfare-to-work program participants in many forms. To assist in these activities, participants are provided with reimbursement for required and related expenses, such as books and lab fees. Included below are descriptions of various welfare-to-work education activities which are available to program participants. Activity Description Adult Basic Education Instruction in reading, writing, arithmetic, high school proficiency, or general educational development certificate instruction, and English- as-a-second- language. Job Skills Training Directly Related to Employment Training or education for job skills required by an employer to provide an individual with the ability to obtain employment or to advance or adapt to the changing demands of the workplace. Vocational Education and Training College and community college education, adult education, regional occupational centers, and regional occupational programs. Satisfactory Progress in Secondary School\/Certificate Program Achieving satisfactory progress in secondary school or in a course of study leading to a certificate of general educational development. Education Directly Related to Employment Any education or training which is directly related to employment of the participant. Work Experience Training under the close supervision of the activity provider, that helps provide basic job skills, enhance existing job skills, or provide a needed community service that leads to employment. Community Service Training that is temporary and transitional, performed in the public or private nonprofit sector under the close supervision of the activity provider, and provides basic job skills that can lead to employment while meeting a community need. On-The-Job Training Training that is given to a paid participant while the participant is engaged in productive work. The employer is subsidized to offset training costs. This activity may also include paid classroom instruction as required by the participant’s employer. Grant-Based On-The-Job Training This activity includes a funding mechanism in which the recipient’s cash grant, or a portion thereof, or the grant savings resulting from employment, is diverted to the employer as a wage subsidy to offset the wages to the participant, so long as the total amount diverted does not exceed the family’s maximum aid payment. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 62 Education and Training The WTW 24MTC provides expanded opportunities for engagement of CalWORKs recipients in education and training leading to academic degrees and certificates. January 2017 data from the California Community Colleges Chancellor’s Office indicate: \uf0b7 A 44 percent increase in the total number of degrees and certificates awarded to CalWORKs recipients in the 2015-16 academic year compared with the 2011-12 academic year, the last full academic year prior to SB 1041 implementation. \uf0b7 47 percent more total Associate degrees earned by CalWORKs recipients in the 2015- 16 academic year compared with the 2011-12 academic year, the last full academic year prior to SB 1041 implementation. \uf0b7 A 64 percent increase in Associate of Science degrees, and a 39 percent increase in Associate of Arts degrees earned by CalWORKs recipients in the 2015-16 academic year compared with the 2011-12 academic year, the last full academic year prior to SB 1041 implementation. Table 5D. Number of Community College Degrees, Certificates, and Awards CalWORKs Recipients Received: 2009-2016 Type of Degree\/Certificate 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 Associate of Arts Degree 1,600 1,751 2,041 2,084 2,178 2,232 2,428 Associate of Science Degree 780 900 980 1,127 1,232 1,355 1,477 Certificate 60+ units 66 42 52 30 34 46 29 Certificate 30-59 units 615 705 786 1,019 950 1,024 1,195 Certificate 18-29 units 560 568 646 672 761 732 628 Certificate 6-17 units 561 642 552 515 573 641 547 Certificate <6 units 81 85 58 114 56 56 54 Non-credit awards 127 165 297 293 402 470 654 Total 4,390 4,858 5,412 5,854 6,186 6,556 7,012 Data Source: California Community Colleges Chancellor's Office (January 2017) Note: One individual may have received more than one degree, certificate or award in a given year. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 63 Table 5E. Average Monthly Percent of Exemptions Granted to WTW Adults: FFYs 2007-2015 Some people are unable to participate in welfare-to-work (WTW) activities. They may receive an exemption from required participation in WTW and remain on cash aid. This table displays the average monthly percent of exemptions, by type, granted to WTW adults from Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2007 to FFY 2015. FFY 2007 FFY 2008 FFY 2009 FFY 2010 FFY 2011 FFY 2012 FFY 2013 FFY 2014 FFY 2015 Percent of WTW Adults with one of the following Exemptions 25.8% 27.3% 26.1% 46.9% 58.7% 64.7% 58.2% 42.4% 32.0% Reason for Exemption FFY 2007 FFY 2008 FFY 2009 FFY 2010 FFY 2011 FFY 2012 FFY 2013 FFY 2014 FFY 2015 Provide Care for Young Children1 N\/A N\/A 9.3% 39.6% 39.9% 39.4% 32.2% 8.1% 0.1% Child 0-23 Months of Age2 N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A N\/A 4.9% 25.6% 33.3% 1st and 2nd Exemption for Child3 34.0% 32.8% 26.2% 13.0% 12.9% 13.5% 14.7% 17.5% 18.8% Disabled 29.0% 27.0% 30.3% 16.6% 15.7% 15.7% 17.4% 21.5% 25.2% Caring for Ill or Incapacitated4 9.8% 9.4% 14.4% 20.0% 21.4% 20.8% 19.6% 17.6% 13.7% Cal-Learn, Under 16 Years Old, or Child Attending School 9.9% 10.2% 9.9% 5.3% 5.1% 5.2% 4.6% 4.3% 3.9% Pregnant and Cannot Work 14.0% 17.7% 6.3% 1.6% 1.6% 1.6% 1.9% 2.4% 2.5% 60 Years of Age or Older 2.3% 2.1% 2.7% 2.0% 1.3% 0.9% 1.5% 1.3% 1.5% Non-Parent Caretaker Providing Care 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 1.3% 1.6% 2.5% 2.4% 0.9% 0.4% Indian Country or Full Time VISTA Volunteer 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.0% Total5 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Data Sources:WTW 25\/25A and WDTIP November 2016 Notes: 1Short-term young child exemption available to a parent or caretaker relative who has primary responsibility for providing care to one child who is 12 months through 23 months of age or at least two children who are under six years of age. This exemption was being phased out as cases were re-engaged for WTW or re-evaluated for other qualifying exemptions. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG291.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG292.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 64 2New young child exemption created by SB 1041 for a parent or caretaker relative who has primary responsibility for providing care to one child from birth through 23 months of age. 3These exemptions are available to the parent or other caretaker relative of a child under six months of age and under three months of age, respectively. 4Due to a delay in automation, CalWIN used the caring for ill or incapacitated exemption code as a proxy for the \"Provide Care to Young Children\" exemption. Therefore, the ill or incapacitated exemption code is overstated in FY 2009 and FY 2010. 5The total includes duplicate adults, as an adult may receive more than one type of exemption. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 65 Table 5F. Welfare-to-Work (WTW) 24-Month Time Clock Exemptions\/Good Cause The table below provides information regarding WTW 24-Month Time Clock exemptions and good cause for not participating, and shows what affect each has on the CalWORKs 48-Month Time Limit. Exemption Description WTW 24-Month Time Clock Exemption? CalWORKs 48- Month Time Limit Exemption? Under 16 Years of Age Client is under 16 years of age. Yes N\/A1 Child Attending School Client is 16, 17, or 18 years of age and is attending a school in grade twelve or below, or vocational, or technical school on a full-time basis. Yes N\/A1 Cal-Learn Non-Head of Household Client is receiving aid in their parent's assistance unit, and is eligible for, participating in, or exempt from the Cal-Learn program. Yes Yes Cal-Learn Head of Household Client is receiving aid in his or her own assistance unit, and is eligible for, participating, or exempt from the Cal-Learn program. Yes Yes 60 Years of Age or Older Client who reaches age 60 or older. Yes Yes Client Disability Client has medical verification of a physical and\/or mental disability expected to last at least 30 days and it significantly impairs the individual's ability to be employed or participate in WTW activities.2 Yes Yes Needy Non-Parent Caretaker Relative Client is a Non-Parent caretaker relative who has primary responsibility for caring for a child who is either a dependent, ward of the court, receiving Kin-GAP benefits or at risk for placement in foster care. These caretaking responsibilities must impair his\/her ability to be employed or to participate in WTW activities. Yes Yes Caring for Ill or Incapacitated Member of Household Client is caring for an ill or incapacitated person residing in the home, has medical verification that the illness or incapacity is expected to last at least 30 days, and caretaking responsibility impairs the clients ability to be regularly employed or to participate in WTW activities. Yes Yes Pregnant and Cannot Work or Participate in WTW Activities Client is a woman who is pregnant with medical verification that the pregnancy impairs her ability to be regularly employed or participate in WTW activities, or the county determines that participation will not readily lead to employment or that a training activity is not appropriate. Yes No California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 66 Table 5F. Welfare-to-Work (WTW) 24-Month Time Clock Exemptions\/Good Cause (continued) Exemption Description WTW 24-Month Time Clock Exemption? CalWORKs 48- Month Time Limit Exemption? Child 0-23 Months of Age Client has primary responsibility for personally providing care to a child from birth to 23 months, inclusive. This exemption shall be available in addition to any other child related exemption outlined below. An individual may be exempt only once in a lifetime under this exemption. Yes Yes Exemption for Child Six Months of Age or Younger Client is caring for a child six months of age or younger. County may lower age to 12 weeks, or extend the age to one year depending on availability of child care and\/or job opportunities. An individual may be exempt only once in a lifetime under this exemption. Yes No Subsequent Exemption for Child 12 Weeks of Age or Younger Subsequent Exemption: Client is caring for a child 12 weeks of age or younger. County may extend the age to six months depending on availability of child care and job opportunities. This exemption is available for parents who have previously received the exemption for care of a child six months of age or younger. Yes No VISTA Volunteer Client is a full-time volunteer in the Volunteers in Services to America (VISTA) Program Yes No Domestic Abuse Client is a past or present victim of domestic abuse. Yes Yes Good Cause Client has good cause for not participating in WTW. Yes No Notes: 1The CalWORKs 48-Month Time Limit does not apply to this population. 2This may include pregnancy if the Client Disability criteria are found to apply. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 67 Participation in Work or Work-Related Activities to Comply with the TANF Work Participation Rate Policy The following table illustrates the participation level of CalWORKs clients in federally required work or work-like activities. Federal regulations require all work-eligible adults and minor heads of households receiving TANF assistance to participate in federally allowable welfare-to-work activities for a specified number of hours per week. Required hours of participation are a minimum average of 20, 30, or 35 hours per week in the month, depending on the number of Work-Eligible Individuals and the age(s) of the aided child or children in the home. Participating cases are meeting the average hourly participation requirements. Cases with some participation, but less than the required average number of hours per week are characterized as Partially Participating. Cases with no participation are the Not participating population, which includes adults with a WTW sanction, exemption from WTW, or good cause for non-participation. For the purposes of calculating the federal work participation rate, only those cases fully meeting participation requirements are counted. No credit is given for partial participation. The trends in participation of CalWORKs cases with individuals required to participate in federally required welfare-to-work activities from FFY 2008 to FFY 2015 are detailed below. The data illustrate a general trend that paralleled the recent recession, with an increase in total caseload and all participation categories that peaked in FFY 2011 (or in FFY 2012, for the not participating group) and then began a general decline. From FFY 2008 to FFY 2015 the percentage of CalWORKs cases fully meeting the federally required participation level increased (by 11 percentage points), while the percentage of those CalWORKs cases partially meeting the required participation level declined slightly (a three percentage point decline) and the percentage of those CalWORKs cases with individuals required to participate, but not participating, declined (by seven percentage points). In absolute terms, the total number of CalWORKs cases with individuals required to participate in federally required welfare-to-work activities decreased from FFY 2008 to FFY 2015 by 16,009, from 279,288 to 263,279. The number of CalWORKs cases with individuals required to participate in work or work related activities fully meeting the required participation level increased by 24,656, from 70,334 in FFY 2008 to 94,990 in FFY 2015. The number of those cases partially participating declined by 12,413, from 47,298 in FFY 2008 to 34,885 in FFY 2015, and the number of those cases not participating decreased by 28,252 during the period from 161,656 to 133,404. As noted in chapter 1, safety net and fleeing felon cases were moved out in 2014 and 2015. This move out accounts for some of the changes shown in Table 5G. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 68 Table 5G. Participation in Work or Work-Related Activities (TANF cases only): FFYs 2008-2015 Participation Level FFY 2008 FFY 2009 FFY 2010 FFY 2011 FFY 2012 FFY 2013 FFY 2014 FFY 2015 Participating 70,334 86,487 89,155 102,514 99,026 89,083 93,877 94,990 Partially Participating 47,298 58,944 52,675 61,658 53,797 54,018 43,706 34,885 Not Participating 161,656 179,813 192,345 205,734 205,791 200,132 178,794 133,404 Total Required to Participate 279,288 325,244 334,175 369,906 358,614 343,233 316,377 263,279 Data Source: Administration for Children and Families (ACF) and RADEP Notes: The share of cases participating does not match Table 5I, California's TANF Work Participation Rate, because this table does not include WINS cases, which are displayed in Table 6C. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 69 Work Participation Rate Compliance \uf0b7 A state participating in the federal TANF program must meet an overall WPR equal to 50 percent of all families. There is a separate 90 percent WPR requirement for two-parent families. Families with a federally defined 'work-eligible individual' are included in the overall WPR; families with two or more work-eligible individuals are subject to the two-parent WPR calculation. \uf0b7 Failure to achieve the WPR requirements results in a penalty equal to an initial five percent reduction of the federal TANF block grant ($3.7 billion). For each successive year of non-compliance, the penalty increases by up to two percent to a maximum of 21 percent. \uf0b7 Although California was originally assessed total potential penalties of approximately $1.8 billion, successful corrective compliance plans (CCPs) have already eliminated $0.6 billion of this exposure, and are likely to eliminate a further $1.1 billion. An exposure of approximately $139 million, related to two-parent penalties, remains. Table 5H. Summary of WPR Assessed Penalties and Compliance Status Table 5H provides a summary of California's current WPR penalty status, including the penalty year (FFY), assessed penalty amount, the rates failed, the target compliance year, and the estimated revised remaining penalty amount after accounting for actual and likely CCP completion. A state that fails to meet the required WPR in a given year may reduce or eliminate a federal noncompliance penalty by achieving compliance in a future target year specified in a CCP (see section below). As explained above, states are required to meet two distinct WPRs, an overall rate (50%), and a separate WPR for two-parent families (90%). Table 5H illustrates which of the rate(s) the state failed in the respective year. California WPR Penalty Status Rates Failed FFY Assessed Penalty (in millions) Overall Two-Parent Target Compliance Year Estimated Revised Penalty Exposure2 2008 $47.7 X 2015 $0.0 2009 $113.6 X 2015 $0.0 2010 $179.7 X 2015 $0.0 2011 $246.1 X 2016 $0.0 2012 $312.0 X X 2016 $17.5 2013 $377.9 X X 2016 $23.1 2014 $443.8 X X 2017 $31.1 2015 $92.7 X 20181 $67.0 Total $1,813.4 $138.7 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 70 Note: 1A Corrective Compliance Plan (CCP) for the FFY 2015 two-parent penalty has not been submitted to ACF, 2018 is the earliest possible compliance year. 2Compliance with the overall rate in FFY 2015 has been officially confirmed, compliance for the overall rate in FFY 2016 is preliminarily confirmed, and compliance for the overall rate in FFY 2017 has not been determined but is assumed in this calculation. Status of Corrective Compliance Plans California has submitted seven separate CCPs to the federal Administration for Children and Families (ACF) to reduce or eliminate federal penalties for WPR noncompliance. If the state achieves WPR compliance in the target compliance year, penalties associated with that CCP are cleared. \uf0b7 The first three CCPs were submitted to and accepted by ACF in 2014 to respond to penalties assessed for WPR noncompliance in Federal Fiscal Years (FFYs) 2008 through 2010. These three CCPs stipulate FFY 2015 as the target compliance year to reduce or eliminate these penalties. California achieved overall WPR compliance in FFY 2015, which eliminated these penalties totaling approximately $341 million. \uf0b7 The fourth and fifth CCPs were submitted to and accepted by ACF in 2015 to respond to penalties assessed for noncompliance in FFYs 2011 and 2012. These CCPs named FFY 2016 as the target compliance year, however, the FFY 2011 penalty of $246 million was eliminated early, due to the state achieving compliance with the overall WPR in 2015. The FFY 2012 penalty of $312 million is contingent on compliance in FFY 2016. \uf0b7 The sixth CCP was submitted to and accepted by ACF in 2016 to respond to the $378 million penalty for WPR noncompliance in FFY 2013. This CCP also sets FFY 2016 as the target compliance year. \uf0b7 The seventh CCP was submitted to and accepted by ACF in 2016 to respond to the approximately $444 million penalty for WPR noncompliance for FFY 2014. This CCP establishes FFY 2017 as the target compliance year. \uf0b7 Preliminary data indicate California will achieve compliance for the overall WPR in FFY 2016, which, if accurate, would reduce or eliminate the noncompliance penalties for FFYs 2012 and 2013 of $690 million. \uf0b7 Due primarily to the expiration of Caseload Reduction Credits for the two-parent WPR, California has failed the 90 percent two-parent WPR requirement beginning in FFY 2012 and this trend is projected to continue into the near future. Estimated adjusted penalties related to the two-parent rate are shown in Table 5H. \uf0b7 The state has been assessed a penalty of approximately $93 million for failure to achieve the two-parent WPR in FFY 2015. The state submitted a dispute of this penalty amount in January 2017. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 71 Table 5I. California's TANF Work Participation Rate (WPR) History: FFYs 1997-2016 Table 5I displays California's 59.4 percent preliminary WPR for FFY 2016 and also provides a historical look at California's WPR from FFY 1997 through FFY 2016 (WPRs for 2016 are preliminary). FFYs 1997 2006 (Pre-Deficit Reduction Act) All Families WPR FFY 1997 1998 1999 20001 20011 20021 20031 20041 20051 20061 Required Rate 25.0% 30.0% 35.0% 40.0% 45.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% Caseload Reduction Credit 5.5% 12.2% 26.5% 32.1% 39.0% 43.3% 44.2% 46.1% 45.5% 44.9% State Adjusted Required WPR 19.5% 17.8% 8.5% 7.9% 6.0% 6.7% 5.8% 3.9% 4.5% 5.1% California's WPR 29.7% 36.6% 42.2% 27.5% 25.9% 27.3% 24.0% 23.1% 25.9% 22.2% Two-Parent WPR FFY 1997 1998 1999 20001 20011 20021 20031 20041 20051 20061 Required Rate 75.0% 75.0% 90.0% NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Caseload Reduction Credit 34.2% 42.3% 53.1% State Adjusted Required WPR 40.8% 32.7% 36.9% California's WPR 42.3% 36.2% 54.3% California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 5 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 72 Table 5I. California's TANF Work Participation Rate (WPR) History: FFYs 1997-2016 (continued) FFYs 1997 2016 (Post-Deficit Reduction Act) All Families WPR FFY 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 20153 20164 Required Rate 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% Caseload Reduction Credit 17.7% 21.0% 21.0%2 21.0%2 21.0%2 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% State Adjusted Required WPR 32.3% 29.0% 29.0% 29.0% 29.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% California's WPR 22.3% 25.1% 26.8% 26.2% 27.8% 27.2% 25.1% 29.8% 55.7% 59.4% Two-Parent WPR FFY 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 20153 20164 Required Rate 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% Caseload Reduction Credit 90.0% 90.0% 90.0%2 90.0%2 90.0%2 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% State Adjusted Required WPR 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% California's WPR 31.7% 26.5% 28.6% 35.6% 33.9% 30.8% 30.9% 25.5% 61.4% 68.6% Data Source: Quality Control Information System 5 (Q5i) (from 1997 through 2006) and RADEP (from 2007 to present) Notes: 1From FFY 2000 - FFY 2006, California moved two-parent cases to Separate State Program Maintenance of Effort (SSP-MOE) funding, which removed them from the WPR calculation requirements. No two-parent participation rates were published by the federal Administration for Children & Families (ACF). Starting in 2007, California again started calculating WPR for its two-parent case type, as per requirements of the federal Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. This act required that SSP-MOE funded programs be subject to TANF WPR requirements. 2Due to the American Recovery and Investment Act of 2009 (ARRA), states can receive the Caseload Reduction Credit (CRC) from either 2007 or 2008, whichever is most beneficial to the state, for WPR calculation from 2008 to 2011. For California, the caseload reduction credit for 2008 provides the most benefit to the state's WPR. 3Elimination of move-out groups from the reportable CalWORKs population and implementation of the WINS program in 2014 explains most of the increase in the WPR from 2014 to 2015. 4Preliminary WPRs as of December 2016, pending final determination by ACF. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 73 Chapter 6 Recent Program Changes and Outcomes This chapter describes the most significant recent changes in the CalWORKs program. Specifically, it provides updates on the impact of many of these recent program changes, including the number of completed OCAT interviews and the resulting recommendations for services, an increase in county participation in Expanded Subsidized Employment programs, and a 24-Month Time Clock caseload update, among others. CalWORKs underwent a number of modifications as a result of shifting state priorities and budget reductions during the Great Recession, an economic downturn that resulted in increased unemployment and a higher CalWORKs caseload. Between 2009 and 2012, California, like other states, made difficult choices in its TANF program to cope with economic realities, including reduced funding for supportive services and child care. Beginning in 2012, CalWORKs experienced a significant alteration including the creation and implementation of new programs to assist counties with appraisal and assessment of recipient needs, additional services addressing family stabilization and homelessness, and expansion of subsidized employment opportunities. Many of the recent program changes can be understood as evolving from Senate Bill (SB)1041 (Chapter 47, Statutes of 2012) and Assembly Bill (AB) 74 (Chapter 21, Statutes of 2013). These changes were geared toward engaging CalWORKs clients earlier and more extensively and eliminating some of the most prevalent obstacles to long-term self-sufficiency. SB 1041 changes also included aligning welfare-to-work participation with federal requirements and providing more emphasis on flexibility with respect to allowable activities for a cumulative 24 months of welfare-to-work participation. Tables and Figures in This Chapter Figure 6A. WTW 24-Month Time Clock Update (SB 1041): FY 2016-17 ................................ 76 Table 6A. CalWORKs Family Stabilization Status Report: FY 2015-16 .................................. 79 Figure 6B. Subsidized Employment Caseload: 2013-2016 ..................................................... 80 Table 6B. Welfare-To-Work Annual Earnings by County: One Year After Exit, FFY 2014 ..... 82 Table 6C. WINS Issuances: FFYs 2015-2016 ........................................................................ 84 Table 6D. OCAT Appraisals by Month: FY 2015-16 ............................................................... 85 Table 6E. OCAT Tool Structure and Recommendations......................................................... 86 Table 6F. Cal-Learn Average Monthly Participation and Outcomes: FY 2012-13 through FY 2015-16 ................................................................................................................................... 89 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 74 Welfare-to-Work 24-Month Time Clock and Post-24-Month Time Clock Overview Senate Bill 1041 (Chapter 47, Statutes of 2012) established the Welfare-to-Work 24-Month Time Clock (WTW 24MTC), and implementation was scheduled for January 1, 2013. The first cohort of CalWORKs recipients could have reached the end of the WTW 24MTC in January 2015. The WTW 24-Month Time Clock is a prospective 24-month time limit for non-exempt able- bodied adults to receive a wide array of services and supports to enter and remaining the workforce. After the WTW 24MTC expires, clients are expected to meet federal work participation requirements. Other key elements: \uf0b7 More opportunities for education or barrier removal; \uf0b7 The clock stops for a multitude of reasons, including when a client has good cause for not participating; \uf0b7 Recognizing that some adults will not find employment within 24 months, counties will provide 20 percent of the caseload with additional time to complete educational goals or find a job; \uf0b7 Prior to the end of the 24 months, clients receive a series of notices and appointments to develop a new WTW plan designed to meet federal standards; and \uf0b7 Clients who do not receive an extension or are unable to meet federal requirements face the possibility of losing the adult portion of the family's grant. Current data indicates that the vast majority of CalWORKs recipients subject to the WTW 24MTC have months remaining on their clocks. However, it appears that the number of CalWORKs recipients who will have months tick and\/or exhaust their WTW 24MTC will increase in the next 12 months. Update \uf0b7 As shown in Figure 6A. on the following page, a monthly average of 1,460 cases in FY 2016-17 and 4,120 cases in FY 2017-18 will reach the end of their WTW 24-MTC. \uf0b7 After accounting for cases with clock stoppers and the flow of those that will have months un-ticked from their clock (lagged by 3 months), a monthly average of 1,040 cases in FY 2016-17 and 3,230 cases in FY 2017-18 are expected to utilize all 24 months. \uf0b7 Of the cases that utilize their entire WTW 24-MTC, 20 percent will receive an extension and 36 percent will begin meeting work requirements. The remaining 44 percent will enter the noncompliance process and have an adult(s) removed from aid. It is California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 75 anticipated that 430 average monthly cases will be removed from aid in FY 2016-17 and 740 will be removed from aid in FY 2017-18. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 76 Figure 6A. WTW 24-Month Time Clock Update (SB 1041): FY 2016-17 Preliminary WTW 24-Month Time Clock Impact Estimate Caseload Flow Chart for FY 2016-17 . Cases at the End of the 24-MTC in applicable FY 1 Average Monthly Cases: FY 2016-17: 1,460 FY 2017-18: 4,120 Cases with a Clock Stopper 2 Cases that Continue Through 24- MTC Cases With Time Un- ticked Cycle Back Through Cases That Will Have Months Un-ticked From 24- MTC 3 On average 3 months will be un-ticked Cases with Adult(s) Removed From Aid Average Monthly Cases: FY 2016-17: 430 FY 2017-18: 740 Meet Participation Requirements After Four Months of Grant Reduction 6 Remaining cases Meet Participation Requirements or Leave CalWORKs Assistance after 10 months 7 Cases That Receive an Extension 5 Cases That Begin Meeting Work Requirements 4 Cases that Will Utilize All 24-Months Average Monthly Cases: FY 2016-17: 1,040 FY 2017-18: 3,230 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 77 Caseload displayed represents cases as opposed to adults. The FY 2016-17 and FY 2017-18 caseloads represent the average monthly cumulative caseload in the applicable FY. Data Sources: July 2016 24-MTC data from the September 2016 WDTIP, MEDS Quarter 3 2016, and FFY 2015 RADEP Notes: 1Cases at the end of their WTW 24-MTC are reduced by the overall CalWORKs caseload projection, adjusted to account for cases that will reach the end of their 48-month time clock prior to receiving a grant reduction. 2Based on WDTIP data, 7 percent of cases at the end of their 24-MTC are meeting work participation requirements and 10 percent have an exemption. The 24-MTC stops for these cases. 3It is assumed that 32 percent of cases at the end of their 24-MTC will have months un-ticked and on average 3 months will be un- ticked. This assumption is based on following cohorts of CalWORKs clients in WDTIP from January 2016 to July 2016. 4Based on FFY 2015 work participation data, 36 percent of cases that utilize their WTW clock are expected to begin meeting federal participation requirements. 5Twenty percent of cases that utilize their entire 24-MTC are expected to receive an extension. 6Assumes that 10 percent of the cases that receive a grant reduction will begin meeting participation requirements and have their grant restored after four months of a grant reduction. 7After ten months of a grant reduction, it is assumes that cases will either leave CalWORKs assistance or begin meeting participation requirements and have their grant restored after then months of a grant reduction. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 78 Family Stabilization (FS) Program Family Stabilization Program Overview \uf0b7 To increase recipient success during the flexible WTW 24-MTC period. The Family Stabilization (FS) program is designed to provide a basic level of stability for families in crisis including but not limited to: o Intensive case management; and o Barrier removal services. \uf0b7 Recipients have a Stabilization Plan with no minimum hourly participation requirements, and up to six months of WTW 24MTC stopping is available (if good cause is determined). Budget Information \uf0b7 $10.8 million allocated for FY 2013-14; \uf0b7 $29.7 million allocated for FY 2014-15; \uf0b7 $29.8 million allocated for FY 2015-16; and \uf0b7 $37.6 million appropriated for FY 2016-17. Implementation \uf0b7 Counties submitted FS plans to the CDSS outlining what their FS program will include. Counties were given flexibility to determine the services that are provided and individual program components in order to best meet the needs of each county and the recipients the county serves; and \uf0b7 All county FS plans are posted on the CDSS website at: http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/cdssweb\/PG94.htm. Program Data \uf0b7 2,833 FS cases were open in June 2016; \uf0b7 3,982 individuals received domestic abuse services, mental health services, substance abuse services, and\/or other services in June 2016; and \uf0b7 903 cases received homeless support\/services in June 2016. Outcomes and Promising Practices \uf0b7 A county survey taken in August 2015 showed that: o 34 counties caseworkers meet with FS recipients weekly; o 37 counties report spending at least three or more hours a month with FS recipients; o 44 counties report that the average length of time in FS is between three and six months; and o 45 counties report that in general recipients are able to remedy their crisis through FS services. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/cdssweb\/PG94.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 79 Table 6A. CalWORKs Family Stabilization Status Report: FY 2015-16 CalWORKs Family Stabilization (FS) Status Report1 Fiscal Year 2015-16 (July 2015 vs. June 2016 comparison) July 2015 June 2016 Participation 2,307 2,833 Open FS cases. 1,246 1,443 FS cases active in FS only. 240 295 FS cases that transitioned to a WTW plan. 821 1,095 FS cases that participated concurrently in WTW activities. 770 763 FS cases that received good cause. Services 2,148 2,560 Total adults who received services. 854 1,422 Total children who received services. 509 584 Domestic Abuse 1,256 1,488 Mental Health 218 397 Substance Abuse 1,405 1,919 Other 2 Housing Support\/Services 726 903 Total Homeless services provided. 4,114 5,291 Total FS services provided. Notes: 1Data retrieved from the FSP 14. Cases and individuals captured based on the monthly totals from July 2015 and June 2016. Service totals are not an unduplicated count. The numbers in the chart above have been updated to reflect the most current data. 2Examples of additional types of Other FS services provided by individual counties. Anger Management Collaboration with child welfare Disability or skill assessments\/testing Clothing allowances for children Family Crisis Counseling Financial Planning Financial Training Classes Legal Services Life skills workshops Literacy Mentoring Nutrition education Next Skills Training Parenting Classes Expanded supportive services Vocational assistance California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 80 Expanded Subsidized Employment (ESE) Program Overview The ESE program fully or partially subsidizes the wages of CalWORKs recipients for six months to a year. While in an ESE placement the CalWORKs recipient obtains specific skills and experiences relevant for employment in a particular field, with the goal of obtaining permanent unsubsidized employment with the participating employer. County Welfare Departments (CWDs) partner with employers, nonprofits, and local public agencies to match recipients with jobs. The Assembly Bill (AB) 98 Subsidized Employment Program became inoperative effective July 1, 2016. The CWDs will be able to operate subsidized employment programs through Single Allocation funds or ESE. Effective July 2016, CWDs were instructed to report all subsidized employment data to the monthly ESE data report regardless of whether the participant began under the AB 98 or ESE program. Figure 6B. Subsidized Employment Caseload: 2013-2016 Data Source: Participant data is based on monthly county transmissions. Notes: *July September 2014 data includes estimations to account for ESE data not reported from Los Angeles County for that period. **AB98 program was discontinued and participants were consolidated into ESE reporting effective July 2016. - 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 P a rt ic ip a n ts Figure 6B. Statewide Subsidized Employment Monthly Participant Caseload: 2013-2016 Combined Total Subsidized Employment (AB98) Expanded Subsidized Employment (ESE) California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 81 ESE Program Highlights As of December 2016, 51 counties are participating. All counties are eligible to receive funding to expand current or develop new subsidized employment programs. \uf0b7 The majority of the ESE placements earn between $9.00 and $13.00 per hour. \uf0b7 The participants typically work an average of 30 hours per week. Yearly total of CalWORKs recipients that entered subsidized employment represented by an unduplicated count in the month they were first reported in the ESE program. This number is higher than those in Figure 6B on the previous page since participants enter and exit the program at various times. \uf0b7 Fiscal Year 2013-14 .1,771 new participants. \uf0b7 Fiscal Year 2014-15 .7,798 new participants. \uf0b7 Fiscal Year 2015-16 .8,265 new participants. For Fiscal Year 2015-16 there were 2,168 new participants entering into AB 98. With the elimination of AB 98 it is anticipated those participants will be captured in the ESE participants total for Fiscal Year 2016-17. There is an average total monthly participation count in both the AB 98 and ESE Program of over 4,700 participants. The following are earnings of CalWORKs recipients before and after the subsidy.1 This is based on a cohort of 1,689 ESE participants who entered ESE in July, August or September of 2015 and had employer reported income in the following quarters: Before-ESE Median Quarterly Income (April June 2015) ........$1,497 During ESE Median Quarterly Income (October December 2015) .$3,307 During ESE Median Quarterly Income (January March 2016) $3,448 Post-ESE Median Quarterly Income (April June 2016) .......$3,834 Note: 1Quarterly earnings may not include earnings for each month in the quarter. This is particularly true for the quarter before entering subsidized employment. Data source: Employment Development Department. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 82 Post-Aid Earnings This table shows the adult median earnings by county one year after their exit from CalWORKs, including the total number of adults who exited the program in FFY 2014. Table 6B. Welfare-To-Work Annual Earnings by County: One Year After Exit, FFY 2014 County Median Earnings Exits Statewide $15,328 63,265 Alameda $17,275 2,240 Alpine $9,903 2 Amador $12,388 63 Butte $13,199 439 Calaveras $14,241 96 Colusa $12,047 34 Contra Costa $17,832 1,380 Del Norte $16,124 70 El Dorado $12,787 209 Fresno $14,631 2,808 Glenn $13,970 55 Humboldt $11,765 205 Imperial $11,352 647 Inyo $7,970 26 Kern $12,063 2,204 Kings $13,661 405 Lake $11,655 138 Lassen $16,548 80 Los Angeles $16,499 14,459 Madera $13,363 339 Marin $17,195 109 Mariposa $13,145 30 Mendocino $13,573 203 Merced $13,896 988 Modoc $11,460 19 Mono $14,020 8 Monterey $14,777 725 Napa $15,337 109 Nevada $13,894 149 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 83 Table 6B. Welfare-To-Work Annual Earnings by County: One Year After Exit, FFY 2014 (continued) County Median Earnings Exits from WTW Orange $17,158 2,281 Placer $17,380 358 Plumas $9,226 42 Riverside $14,568 4,797 Sacramento $16,592 3,915 San Benito $12,049 141 San Bernardino $14,567 6,318 San Diego $14,801 3,936 San Francisco $18,334 604 San Joaquin $14,577 2,137 San Luis Obispo $15,721 315 San Mateo $16,713 320 Santa Barbara $15,823 532 Santa Clara $16,991 1,660 Santa Cruz $16,603 251 Shasta $13,097 478 Sierra $14,246 7 Siskiyou $11,568 129 Solano $17,399 905 Sonoma $15,702 412 Stanislaus $13,709 1,668 Sutter $12,952 241 Tehama $14,815 208 Trinity $12,516 27 Tulare $15,373 1,793 Tuolumne $12,497 145 Ventura $15,883 859 Yolo $13,711 323 Yuba $11,854 224 Data Sources: MEDS 2015 Quarter 4, EDD Base Wage Database 2015 Quarter 3, WDTIP February 2016 Notes 1. Welfare-To-Work(WTW) Exit Population: Aided adults leaving CalWORKS during FFY 2014, having at least 3 months of prior WTW participation. Leavers exited for at least 1 year without returning to CalWORKS. 2. Exits Counted: Adults with at least $50 in reported EDD earnings after exit. Adults missing EDD wages, Safety Net, and Sanctioned adults excluded. There were 35,278 adults missing EDD wages, and 9,792 Safety Net adults excluded from the WTW exit population. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 84 Work Incentive Nutritional Supplement (WINS) \uf0b7 The WINS program provides a monthly ten dollar ($10) additional food supplement benefit for CalFresh households that are meeting TANF WPR requirements. WINS cases are receiving CalFresh but are not on CalWORKs; and \uf0b7 This food benefit is considered a form of TANF assistance, which means these working CalFresh\/WINS cases are included in the state's TANF WPR calculation; however, TANF rules, such as time limits, do not apply to WINS cases. Table 6C. WINS Issuances: FFYs 2015-2016 Total WINS Cases Includes Both CF and CFAP WINS Issuances from EBT: FFYs 2015-2016 Month Total For The Month Jul-15 184,404 Aug-15 187,284 Sep-15 200,433 Oct-15 199,675 Nov-15 201,243 Dec-15 197,547 Jan-16 195,649 Feb-16 192,454 Mar-16 179,250 Apr-16 188,302 May-16 185,312 Jun-16 186,417 Jul-16 185,049 Aug-16 186,032 Sep-16 188,281 Data source: Office of Systems Integration (OSI) California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 85 Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool (OCAT) OCAT Overview \uf0b7 Standardized statewide welfare-to-work appraisal tool. OCAT is based on the publicly available Online Work Readiness Assessment Tool (OWRA) utilized by the federal Administration for Children and Families. \uf0b7 Provides in-depth appraisals of recipient strengths and barriers to employment and self- sufficiency. \uf0b7 Online CalWORKs OCAT appraisals are projected to take an hour to an hour and a half. This timeframe depends on the amount of barriers the recipient discloses during the interview. \uf0b7 Use of OCAT to conduct appraisals will lead to greater opportunities for CalWORKs recipients by identifying strengths and barriers immediately upon his or her entry into the welfare-to-work program. Implementation Between July 1, 2015 and June 30, 2016, 73,444 appraisals had been completed with recommendations for supportive services. Of that total, 54,273 clients appraised were not working at the time of appraisal, while 10,130 were enrolled in an education program. Most recommendations were for mental health services. \uf0b7 Mental health service recommendations: .36,442 \uf0b7 Substance abuse services recommendations: ..5,967 \uf0b7 Domestic abuse services recommendations: ..18,401 Source: December 2016 OCAT program data. Table 6D. OCAT Appraisals by Month: FY 2015-16 Month Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun # of OCAT Appraisals 1,316 2,977 5,208 6,494 6,420 7,408 6,949 6,562 6,999 10,017 6,345 6,823 Data Source: OCAT Helpdesk Technical Assistance Reports California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 86 Table 6E. OCAT Tool Structure and Recommendations Tool Structure and Recommendations OCAT begins with a refresher of the recipient's demographic information and proceeds through a questionnaire that generates a set of recommendations based on the recipient's answers to questions (Table 6E). OCAT Section Information Collected & Recommendations Produced Demographics Collects basic information on the recipient. This section's recommendations include: \uf0d8 Financial assistance\/education Employment Collects information on the recipient's job history, skills, and work readiness. This section's recommendations include: \uf0d8 Assessment for education and\/or job search\/readiness activities depending on recipient's employment history \uf0d8 Legal services for recipients who have legal barriers to employment, including family stabilization Education Collects information on the recipient's schooling, and additional training he or she may have received. Also contains California's learning needs screening. This section's recommendations include: \uf0d8 High school or General Education (GED) programs \uf0d8 Evaluating for a Self-Initiated Program \uf0d8 Learning Disability Evaluation and learning needs health related concerns Housing Collects information on recipient's current housing situation and examines whether the recipient has housing difficulties. This section's recommendations include: \uf0d8 Homelessness, housing stability, and Housing Support Program assistance if applicable to the county. \uf0d8 Family Stabilization services Transportation Collects information about the recipient's current transportation methods, and whether they would present a barrier to participation. This section's recommendations include: \uf0d8 Providing supportive services for transportation needs General Health Briefly examines whether a recipient has concerns about his or her own health or health of a family member that would present a barrier to participation. This section's recommendations include: \uf0d8 Evaluation for potential exemptions (disability, caring for an ill or incapacitated household member, etc.) California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 87 Table 6E. OCAT Tool Structure and Recommendations (continued) OCAT Section Information Collected & Recommendations Produced Emotional and Mental Health Collects information about a recipient's emotional and mental wellbeing. This section's recommendations include: \uf0d8 Evaluation for mental health services, including Family Stabilization Related job readiness activities Substance Use Collects information about a recipient's substance use. This section's recommendations include: \uf0d8 Evaluation for substance abuse services, including Family Stabilization Related job readiness activities Domestic Abuse & Safety Collects information about whether a recipient is a past or present victim of domestic abuse, human trafficking, and other related safety concerns. This section's recommendations include: \uf0d8 Evaluation for domestic abuse services and program waivers \uf0d8 Referrals to family counseling, appropriate mental health services, and Family Stabilization Evaluation for trafficking\/crime victims' assistance Pregnancy Collects information on whether the recipient or a household member is pregnant. This section's recommendations include: Evaluation for pregnancy related exemption Childcare and Parenting Collects information on whether additional child care support and\/or services are needed by the recipient in order to participate. This section's recommendations include: \uf0d8 Child care supportive services \uf0d8 Child support order modification services Evaluation for exemption based on providing care for an ill or incapacitated household member (child) Relationships Collects information on whether the recipient's current or past relationships may pose a barrier to participation. This section's recommendations include: Relationship counseling and\/or family stabilization services California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 88 The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) Background \uf0b7 WIOA replaced the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 effective July 1, 2015; \uf0b7 TANF programs are mandatory partners with America's Job Centers of CaliforniaSM (AJCCs; (formerly One-Stops); \uf0b7 Prioritizes service to populations with barriers to employment, including public assistance recipients; and \uf0b7 Emphasizes career pathways with no sequence of services, primarily utilizing: o education, o credentials, o work-based training, o barrier removal, and o supportive services. WIOA State Plan Effective July 1, 2016 \uf0b7 Describes core WIOA programs and partnerships with CalWORKs and Community Colleges; and \uf0b7 Discusses co-location of CalWORKs services in AJCCs. Approved Career Pathways \uf0b7 Deemed to meet the hourly requirements for CalWORKs Minimum Standards; and \uf0b7 Approved by CWDs in partnership with Local Workforce Development Boards. Cost Sharing Memorandums of Understanding \uf0b7 Developed by Local Workforce Development Boards and CalWORKs programs; \uf0b7 Establish funding for infrastructure and career services; and \uf0b7 June 30, 2017: Deadline for submittal to California Workforce Development Board. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 89 Cal-Learn Program Cal-Learn was established in 1993 as a mandatory statewide program for pregnant and parenting teens in families participating in CalWORKs. The Cal-Learn program provides the resources to help teens graduate from high school or its equivalent, become independent, and form healthy families. Cal-Learn uses a combination of intensive case management, financial incentives, and supportive services\u2014including child care, transportation and ancillary expenses, such as books, school supplies--to address the unique educational, health and other social service needs of CalWORKs pregnant and parenting teens. Table 6E covers four years, from fiscal year (FY) 2012-13 to FY 2015-16 and displays a decline in the Cal-Learn caseload during that timeframe. This decline corresponds with the historic decline in both teen pregnancy and teen child-bearing. Table 6F. Cal-Learn Average Monthly Participation and Outcomes: FY 2012-13 through FY 2015-16 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 Total Monthly Participants 9,272 7,735 6,411 5,198 Satisfactory Progress Bonuses 389 400 329 242 Graduation Bonuses 130 107 88 78 Sanctions 306 164 190 172 Exemptions, Deferrals, and Good Cause1 72 38 37 25 Repeat Pregnancies\/ Subsequent Births2 643 48 28 16 Data Source: STAT 45 monthly reports Notes: Data for FY 2012-13 through 2014-15 is revised from the CalWORKs Annual Summary, January 2016. 1Good Cause data collected beginning in July 2011 through March 2013. 2Repeat Pregnancies category and definition changed to Subsequent Births in June 2014. 3Data collected for FY 2012-13 Repeat Pregnancies includes April through June 2013 only. Key Cal-Learn Outcomes: \uf0b7 Graduation bonuses remained consistent as a percent of the caseload over the four-year period; \uf0b7 Sanctions in FY 2013-14 were the lowest in four years at 2.1 percent, but have steadily increased to 3.3 percent by FY 2015-16; and \uf0b7 Repeat Pregnancies\/Subsequent Births continue to decline and are at the lowest point in FY 2015-16, both in number and as a percent of the caseload. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG290.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 6 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 90 THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY BLANK. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 91 Chapter 7 Supportive Services This chapter displays the spectrum of supportive services CalWORKs families receive in addition to their cash aid, including food benefits via the CalFresh program and Medi-Cal coverage, and how these benefits are altered as families' earnings increase. Additionally, this chapter presents information about the number and type of supportive services provided to participants in the welfare-to-work program. Key Terms in This Chapter \uf0b7 Ancillary Expenses Participants may be eligible to receive ancillary expenses. This can include the cost of books, tools, clothing, fees, or other necessary costs specifically required for the job or training as assigned in the welfare-to-work plan. \uf0b7 Behavioral Health Services Services provided to CalWORKs clients in need include treatment for mental health, substance abuse, and domestic violence. \uf0b7 Child Care Access to quality child care is essential to the success of CalWORKs. Individuals enrolled in the welfare-to-work program are eligible to receive child care services. The CalWORKs Child Care Program is administered in three stages: Stage One is administered by the county welfare departments; Stages Two and Three are administered by Alternative Payment Program agencies under contract with the California Department of Education (CDE). \uf0b7 Transportation Services Transportation services for welfare-to-Work participants are often provided through payment by the county for public transportation or mileage reimbursement. Some counties provide alternative transportation services such as transportation vouchers, vehicle repair programs, commuter programs, and the purchase of motor vehicles or bicycles. Tables and Figures in This Chapter Table 7A. Average Number of Individuals Receiving Supportive Services July September 2015 All (Other) Families ......................................................................................................... 93 Table 7B. Average Number of Individuals Receiving Supportive Services July September 2015 Two-Parent Families ...................................................................................................... 95 Table 7C. Age, Provider Setting, and Time in Care for Stage One Children: FY 2015-16 .... 98 Table 7D. CalWORKs Stage One Child Care: FY 2006-07 through FY 2014-15 ................... 99 Figure 7A. Children in CalWORKs Stages One, Two, and Three Child Care Programs: 2006- 2015 ...................................................................................................................................... 101 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 92 Table 7E. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation July September 2015 All (Other) Families ..................................................................................................................... 103 Table 7F. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation July September 2015 Two-Parent Families ............................................................................................................. 105 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 93 Table 7A. Average Number of Individuals Receiving Supportive Services July September 2015 All (Other) Families The table below shows the average number of individuals receiving CalWORKs supportive services in each county for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2015-16. Child Care Transportation Ancillary Svcs. Statewide 24,475 49,068 11,296 Alameda 1,247 1,747 260 Alpine 0 1 0 Amador 21 15 9 Butte 175 129 24 Calaveras 21 47 4 Colusa 2 2 0 Contra Costa 270 617 145 Del Norte 31 73 58 El Dorado 50 36 12 Fresno 940 1,579 463 Glenn 17 14 19 Humboldt 63 158 39 Imperial 228 423 44 Inyo 15 1 0 Kern 889 958 310 Kings 163 269 80 Lake 23 15 21 Lassen 22 0 0 Los Angeles 7,274 15,144 3,734 Madera 71 51 22 Marin 92 107 6 Mariposa 10 19 4 Mendocino 50 48 51 Merced 193 338 113 Modoc 2 6 2 Mono 1 0 2 Monterey 245 490 128 Napa 31 41 16 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 94 Table 7A. Average Number of Individuals Receiving Supportive Services (continued) Child Care Transportation Ancillary Svcs. Nevada 28 66 24 Orange 871 1,238 322 Placer 204 226 56 Plumas 9 1 0 Riverside 2,184 3,891 1,109 Sacramento 498 2,897 260 San Benito 44 26 21 San Bernardino 3,195 8,296 1,397 San Diego 1,565 3,498 702 San Francisco 476 482 88 San Joaquin 457 810 292 San Luis Obispo 120 66 114 San Mateo 124 109 24 Santa Barbara 145 136 104 Santa Clara 371 1,298 162 Santa Cruz 271 301 64 Shasta 132 138 70 Sierra 6 6 1 Siskiyou 28 27 22 Solano 253 353 88 Sonoma 145 365 102 Stanislaus 267 692 220 Sutter 96 97 31 Tehama 39 51 23 Trinity 3 9 8 Tulare 67 1,034 286 Tuolumne 8 26 3 Ventura 479 211 47 Yolo 156 111 36 Yuba 88 279 54 Data sources: Welfare to Work Monthly Activity Report (WTW 25) and Child Care Monthly Report (CW 115) for the months of July, August and September 2015 (averaged). http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG291.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG288.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 95 Table 7B. Average Number of Individuals Receiving Supportive Services July September 2015 Two-Parent Families The table below shows the average number of individuals receiving CalWORKs supportive services in each county for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2015-16. Child Care Transportation Ancillary Svcs. Statewide 1,720 16,994 3,854 Alameda 55 351 44 Alpine 0 0 0 Amador 2 7 4 Butte 28 61 19 Calaveras 2 23 4 Colusa 0 0 0 Contra Costa 0 114 25 Del Norte 6 14 23 El Dorado 2 7 6 Fresno 69 818 246 Glenn 3 10 4 Humboldt 7 70 17 Imperial 20 114 18 Inyo 3 0 0 Kern 31 309 111 Kings 26 108 27 Lake 2 6 10 Lassen 3 0 0 Los Angeles 356 3,560 969 Madera 8 21 8 Marin 5 15 4 Mariposa 0 12 2 Mendocino 4 14 20 Merced 26 154 54 Modoc 0 6 1 Mono 0 0 0 Monterey 14 148 43 Napa 1 7 3 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 96 Table 7B. Average Number of Individuals Receiving Supportive Services (continued) Child Care Transportation Ancillary Svcs. Nevada 4 18 7 Orange 54 362 89 Placer 11 63 10 Plumas 0 0 0 Riverside 141 1,555 399 Sacramento 93 1,785 221 San Benito 4 9 6 San Bernardino 192 3,302 522 San Diego 230 1,841 346 San Francisco 29 83 18 San Joaquin 38 249 99 San Luis Obispo 2 8 10 San Mateo 6 21 4 Santa Barbara 15 34 33 Santa Clara 21 334 40 Santa Cruz 20 59 13 Shasta 13 55 25 Sierra 1 1 0 Siskiyou 4 19 17 Solano 16 82 29 Sonoma 5 61 20 Stanislaus 20 339 95 Sutter 14 61 21 Tehama 7 25 14 Trinity 1 7 11 Tulare 5 377 86 Tuolumne 0 14 3 Ventura 53 38 9 Yolo 34 50 18 Yuba 14 193 27 Data sources: WTW 25A and CW 115A for the months of July, August and September 2015 (averaged) http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG292.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG289.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 97 Child Care Resources for CalWORKs Participants To ensure an adequate supply of child care resources to CalWORKs recipients and those transitioning off welfare to work, AB 1542 eliminated seven former welfare-related child care programs and consolidated them into a three-stage CalWORKs child care program. The purpose of this program is to help a family transition smoothly from the immediate, short-term child care needed as a parent starts work or work activities to the stable, long-term child care necessary for the family to leave and remain off aid. The CalWORKs Child Care Program is administered in three stages. Stage One is administered by the California Department of Social Services through the county welfare departments (CWDs), and it provides child care subsidies until the CWD determines the family is stable. Stages Two and Three are administered by the California Department of Education (CDE) through contracts with Alternative Payment Program (APP) agencies. \uf0b7 Stage One begins with a family's entry into the CalWORKs program. Clients leave Stage One after six months or when their situation is stable, and when there is a slot available in Stage Two or Three; \uf0b7 Stage Two begins after six months or after a recipient's work or work activity has stabilized, or when the family is transitioning off of aid. Clients may continue to receive child care in Stage Two up to two years after they are no longer eligible for aid; and \uf0b7 Stage Three begins when a funded space is available and when the client has acquired the 24 months of child care, after transitioning off of aid (for former CalWORKs recipients). If the persons are receiving CalWORKs cash aid and are in one of the following situations, they could be eligible for child care benefits: 1. They are working; 2. They are attending a county welfare department-approved education or training program; 3. They are teens participating in Cal-Learn; 4. They choose to refuse a cash aid payment and accept diversion services; or 5. They have been receiving cash assistance and have transitioned off but need child care to retain employment. Participants are required to verify employment, child care costs, and hours and dates of employment or educational\/training activities. There are certain age limits for children under 12. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 98 Characteristics of Stage One Child Care Cases The following table shows the ages of children, child care settings, and time spent in care (full or part time) for children in Stage One Child Care. Stage One begins with a family's entry into the CalWORKs program. Clients leave Stage One after six months or when their situation is stable, and when there is a slot available in Stage Two or Three. Table 7C. Age, Provider Setting, and Time in Care for Stage One Children: FY 2015-16 % of Children in Stage One Age of Child 0-24 Months 16% 2-5 Years 49% 6 Years and Older 35% Child Care Setting License-Exempt 45% Child Care Centers 30% Family Child Care Homes 25% Time in Care1 Full Time 61% Part Time 39% Data Source: Age of Child and Child Care Setting characteristics based on FY 2015-16 CW 115\/115A reports. The CalWORKs Information Network (CalWIN) data includes only seven of their eighteen counties. Note: 1Time in Care characteristics reflect the Calendar Year January 2014 through December 2014 Statewide Automated Welfare System (SAWS) Consortia data. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 99 Table 7D. CalWORKs Stage One Child Care: FY 2006-07 through FY 2014-15 The following table shows trends in Stage One Child Care participation from FY 2006-07 to FY 2014-15. Children in Licensed Care1 Children in Licensed- Exempt Care Children in Aided Families Children in Safety Net Families Children in No Longer Aided Families Total Children Total Families Stage 1 Budgeting Utiliz. Rate2 Stage 1&2 Budgeting Utiliz. Rate2 F Y 0 6 -0 7 Quarter 1 22,333 33,950 43,250 2,827 9,189 55,265 30,729 22% 33% Quarter 2 23,035 32,892 43,054 2,405 9,557 55,017 30,810 22% 32% Quarter 3 22,200 30,702 39,827 2,267 10,057 52,151 29,344 20% 31% Quarter 4 22,524 31,567 41,078 2,345 9,849 53,272 30,026 20% 30% Monthly Avg. 22,523 32,278 41,802 2,461 9,663 53,926 30,227 21% 31% F Y 0 7 -0 8 Quarter 1 22,649 33,612 42,710 2,213 10,505 55,428 30,639 21% 29% Quarter 2 23,727 35,107 45,025 2,118 10,779 57,922 32,484 22% 29% Quarter 3 23,796 34,587 43,932 2,128 11,460 57,520 32,244 20% 28% Quarter 4 26,995 37,165 47,096 2,371 13,805 63,273 35,423 21% 28% Monthly Avg. 24,292 35,118 44,691 2,208 11,637 58,536 32,697 21% 29% F Y 0 8 -0 9 Quarter 1 26,918 37,179 47,409 2,329 13,501 63,239 34,983 20% 26% Quarter 2 26,226 36,585 48,489 1,981 11,453 61,924 35,056 21% 26% Quarter 3 23,731 34,375 46,094 1,749 9,491 57,334 32,590 19% 24% Quarter 4 23,375 34,821 47,807 1,513 8,132 57,452 33,001 19% 24% Monthly Avg. 25,063 35,740 47,450 1,893 10,644 59,987 33,908 20% 25% F Y 0 9 -1 0 Quarter 1 21,381 33,715 45,684 1,294 7,409 54,387 30,754 18% 24% Quarter 2 20,828 33,558 45,457 1,077 7,079 53,612 30,957 18% 24% Quarter 3 18,113 29,678 39,621 880 6,646 47,146 27,605 16% 23% Quarter 4 18,866 29,951 40,369 797 7,003 48,169 28,742 18% 24% Monthly Avg. 19,797 31,725 42,783 1,012 7,034 50,829 29,515 17% 24% F Y 1 0 -1 1 Quarter 1 17,799 28,581 37,484 766 7,182 45,433 26,846 16% 23% Quarter 2 17,275 26,927 37,218 675 5,689 43,582 26,297 16% 23% Quarter 3 17,157 24,918 36,097 582 4,871 41,550 25,198 16% 22% Quarter 4 18,515 26,855 39,306 541 4,905 44,752 27,530 17% 23% Monthly Avg. 17,687 26,820 37,526 641 5,662 43,829 26,468 16% 23% California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 100 Table 7D. CalWORKs Stage One Child Care: FY 2006-07 through FY 2014-15 (continued) Children in Licensed Care1 Children in Licensed- Exempt Care Children in Aided Families Children in Safety Net Families Children in No Longer Aided Families Total Children Total Families Stage 1 Budgeting Utiliz. Rate2 Stage 1&2 Budgeting Utiliz. Rate2 F Y 1 1 -1 2 Quarter 1 17,212 24,221 33,913 990 5,803 40,707 24,707 17% 24% Quarter 2 17,162 22,561 32,992 617 5,525 39,134 24,482 17% 25% Quarter 3 16,286 19,374 29,447 371 5,431 35,249 22,123 15% 23% Quarter 4 17,161 19,539 30,494 323 5,448 36,264 23,016 16% 24% Monthly Avg. 16,955 21,424 31,711 575 5,552 37,838 23,582 16% 24% F Y 1 2 -1 3 Quarter 1 16,470 18,247 28,965 280 5,055 34,300 21,211 15% 23% Quarter 2 17,355 18,922 30,464 284 5,080 35,828 22,445 16% 24% Quarter 3 16,470 18,247 28,965 280 5,055 34,300 20,906 15% 23% Quarter 4 17,701 18,374 30,459 248 4,983 35,690 22,279 16% 24% Monthly Avg. 16,999 18,448 29,713 273 5,044 35,030 21,710 16% 23% F Y 1 3 -1 4 Quarter 1 16,933 18,309 29,420 233 5,093 34,746 20,871 16% 23% Quarter 2 17,880 19,182 31,538 215 4,856 36,609 22,287 17% 24% Quarter 3 17,163 17,604 29,833 241 4,318 34,391 20,905 15% 22% Quarter 4 18,987 18,889 32,623 229 4,593 37,444 22,734 16% 23% Monthly Avg. 17,741 18,496 30,853 229 4,715 35,798 21,699 16% 23% F Y 1 4 -1 5 3 Quarter 1 18,589 18,961 32,158 219 4,778 37,155 21,715 15% 23% Quarter 2 19,733 19,234 32,995 252 5,280 38,527 23,054 16% 23% Quarter 3 18,717 18,036 30,700 252 5,434 36,386 21,674 15% 23% Quarter 4 19,806 18,273 31,970 257 5,463 37,690 22,518 16% 23% Monthly Avg. 19,211 18,626 31,956 245 5,239 37,440 22,240 16% 23% Data Sources: CDSS CW 115\/115A Monthly Reports, CDSS WTW 25 and WTW 25A Monthly Reports, and California Department of Education 801A Archived Data. See CDSS website for links to monthly reports: http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/ Notes: 1The sum of \"Children in Licensed Care\" and \"Children in Licensed-Exempt Care\" will not equal \"Total Children\" because children can be served by more than one provider. 2The \"Budgeting Utilization Rate\" is a representation of the CalWORKs caseload and is not specific to the portion of the population with age-eligible children. This rate compares the number of CalWORKs aided families receiving Stage One or Stage Two subsidized care to the number of Unduplicated Adults on the WTW 25\/25A report to provide a rough estimate of how many WTW families are using Stage One or Stage Two care. 3Data from WTW 25 and WTW 25A is not currently updated. In comparison to the Budgeting Utilization rate, the utilization rate for Stage One and Two families with age-eligible children was 30 percent in FY 2014-15. This is not adjusted for cases that do not need care, for example, school-aged children who do not need care due to school schedule or two-parent families in which the one parent is participating while the second parent is expected to provide care. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG276.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG291.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG292.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/ California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 101 Figure 7A. Children in CalWORKs Stages One, Two, and Three Child Care Programs: 2006-2015 10,000 35,000 60,000 85,000 110,000 135,000 160,000 185,000 210,000 235,000 Children in CalWORKs Stages 1, 2, and 3 Child Care Programs Total - Stages 1, 2 and 3 Combined Stage 2 Stage 1 Stage 3 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 102 Data Sources: Stage 1 - CDSS CW 115\/115A Monthly Reports (actual data revised to produce missing variables). Stage 2 & 3 - California Department of Education Quarterly Reports, http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/ http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/ California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 103 Table 7E. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation July September 2015 All (Other) Families The following table shows the average number of individuals referred to and receiving CalWORKs services in each of the following categories WTW 25 Mental Health Treatment Substance Abuse Treatment Domestic Abuse Treatment Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Statewide 3,964 5,459 1,119 1,245 2,827 3,145 Alameda 62 140 0 79 173 249 Alpine 0 1 0 0 0 0 Amador 4 2 0 0 0 0 Butte 18 40 9 7 6 3 Calaveras 0 4 1 6 0 1 Colusa 0 0 0 0 0 0 Contra Costa 143 52 34 9 839 30 Del Norte 442 1 297 0 256 0 El Dorado 7 11 8 7 0 0 Fresno 46 126 46 91 14 26 Glenn 11 21 2 1 1 7 Humboldt 65 62 14 14 7 5 Imperial 13 84 2 5 13 7 Inyo 0 1 0 0 0 0 Kern 178 118 27 27 22 13 Kings 107 75 7 8 4 6 Lake 16 18 7 7 3 2 Lassen 0 0 0 0 0 0 Los Angeles 987 2,585 186 315 1,175 2,435 Madera 23 4 8 0 2 0 Marin 27 33 7 7 4 4 Mariposa 1 1 0 0 1 1 Mendocino 14 4 6 10 9 3 Merced 62 70 11 12 1 0 Modoc 0 0 0 0 0 1 Mono 2 2 0 1 0 0 Monterey 123 97 9 12 11 6 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 104 Table 7E. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation (continued) WTW 25 Mental Health Treatment Substance Abuse Treatment Domestic Abuse Treatment Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Napa 8 6 5 3 3 1 Nevada 0 0 0 0 1 1 Orange 321 339 0 20 55 88 Placer 19 34 11 14 4 7 Plumas 1 0 0 0 0 0 Riverside 149 149 26 15 6 8 Sacramento 11 37 1 16 4 8 San Benito 0 0 0 0 0 0 San Bernardino 106 71 24 19 42 33 San Diego 178 141 130 132 19 8 San Francisco 18 47 1 2 0 0 San Joaquin 25 5 1 3 0 0 San Luis Obispo 9 11 7 3 4 7 San Mateo 5 4 1 2 1 1 Santa Barbara 12 14 2 1 0 0 Santa Clara 91 246 36 148 0 44 Santa Cruz 30 34 11 16 0 4 Shasta 65 61 11 6 2 2 Sierra 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siskiyou 7 5 0 0 0 1 Solano 24 49 1 6 6 8 Sonoma 49 68 21 40 5 5 Stanislaus 110 51 87 53 77 32 Sutter 11 33 4 20 0 5 Tehama 35 35 14 10 22 15 Trinity 4 4 1 2 4 3 Tulare 148 328 10 49 20 56 Tuolumne 6 1 1 1 0 2 Ventura 74 56 18 22 4 4 Yolo 26 38 2 15 0 0 Yuba 71 40 12 9 7 3 Data Source: Quarterly CalWORKs Report July September 2015 Note: 1. Referrals and average participants are summed because an individual will only be reported once for an evaluation referral, but can participate over several months. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG298.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 105 Table 7F. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation July September 2015 Two-Parent Families The following table shows the average number of individuals referred to and receiving CalWORKs services in each of the following categories. WTW 25A Mental Health Treatment Substance Abuse Treatment Domestic Abuse Treatment Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Statewide 970 873 383 251 374 115 Alameda 8 19 0 11 24 34 Alpine 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amador 1 2 1 2 0 0 Butte 6 14 1 0 1 0 Calaveras 2 3 0 2 0 0 Colusa 0 0 0 0 0 0 Contra Costa 37 9 8 2 217 0 Del Norte 234 0 183 0 51 0 El Dorado 0 0 2 1 0 0 Fresno 6 31 11 25 0 2 Glenn 3 8 0 0 0 0 Humboldt 12 13 0 1 1 1 Imperial 1 41 0 4 0 2 Inyo 0 0 0 0 0 0 Kern 48 30 6 4 2 1 Kings 22 10 1 1 3 1 Lake 2 3 4 2 0 1 Lassen 0 0 0 0 0 0 Los Angeles 89 227 14 24 36 49 Madera 7 2 3 0 2 1 Marin 1 5 0 0 0 0 Mariposa 0 2 0 1 0 0 Mendocino 1 0 0 1 2 0 Merced 29 25 10 8 1 1 Modoc 3 0 0 0 0 0 Mono 0 0 0 0 0 0 Monterey 14 10 6 4 2 1 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 7 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 106 Table 7F. Behavioral Health Services Referrals and Participation (continued) WTW 25A Mental Health Treatment Substance Abuse Treatment Domestic Abuse Treatment Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Total No. of Individuals that Received a Referral for an Evaluation in the Quarter. Average No. of Individuals participating in Services per Month. Napa 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nevada 0 0 0 0 0 0 Orange 107 113 0 7 1 1 Placer 0 8 0 3 0 0 Plumas 0 0 0 0 0 0 Riverside 23 25 6 5 1 0 Sacramento 8 7 0 0 0 1 San Benito 0 0 0 0 0 0 San Bernardino 36 21 12 9 4 1 San Diego 29 21 18 16 2 0 San Francisco 0 1 0 0 0 0 San Joaquin 6 2 0 0 2 0 San Luis Obispo 3 2 1 1 0 0 San Mateo 1 1 0 0 0 0 Santa Barbara 1 1 0 0 0 0 Santa Clara 30 81 13 49 0 1 Santa Cruz 5 4 4 6 0 0 Shasta 28 20 2 4 0 0 Sierra 0 0 0 1 0 0 Siskiyou 3 5 2 0 0 0 Solano 9 8 0 2 0 0 Sonoma 6 8 2 5 0 1 Stanislaus 34 16 42 18 13 5 Sutter 1 7 1 8 0 0 Tehama 14 8 6 4 4 1 Trinity 3 2 1 1 0 0 Tulare 62 38 5 6 2 7 Tuolumne 3 0 0 1 1 0 Ventura 9 2 4 3 1 3 Yolo 4 3 2 4 0 0 Yuba 19 15 12 5 1 0 Data source: Quarterly CalWORKs Report July September 2015 Note: 1. We sum referrals and average participants because an individual will only be reported once for an evaluation referral, but an individual can participate over several months. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG298.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 107 Chapter 8 Poverty Measures and Poverty Rates One of the main goals of CalWORKs is to reduce child poverty. Knowing how poverty is defined and measured is essential to understanding the program's design and impact. This chapter surveys the context for the CalWORKs program from a poverty perspective, including the following topics: \uf0b7 The level of poverty in California and the U.S.; \uf0b7 How the official poverty measure (OPM) and supplemental poverty measure (SPM) are calculated; \uf0b7 Why the SPM finds a higher poverty level in California than the OPM; \uf0b7 A comparison of the share of poor children that is served by the TANF program in California and in the United States as a whole; and \uf0b7 How the total value of benefits from safety net programs compares to the poverty level for CalWORKs families with different levels of earnings. Data about CalWORKs and poverty show that California provides assistance to many more of its poor children than does the nation as a whole: more than 55 percent, compared to just 16 percent for the entire nation.1 Key Terms in This Chapter Official Poverty Measure (OPM) The most common poverty measure, the OPM was developed by the Social Security Administration in the 1960s.2 A simple tool based on a family's food budget, the OPM helps policymakers and the public understand the economic status of various segments of the population and study changes in economic well-being over time. It is widely used as a benchmark to determine eligibility for various government welfare programs. If a family's total income falls below the relevant poverty threshold (which varies by family size and composition but not by geographic region), the family as well as all family members are considered to be in poverty. The income in OPM includes cash income (before tax), and excludes noncash in-kind transfers such as food stamps and housing subsidies. Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) More recently, the SPM has been proposed as a better way to learn about who is poor. The SPM accounts for income from certain government 1 U.S. Census Bureau; Administration for Children and Families (ACF). 2 Gordon M. Fisher, The Development and History of the Poverty Thresholds (Social Security Administration, 1992). Retrieved from https:\/\/www.ssa.gov\/history\/fisheronpoverty.html. https:\/\/www.ssa.gov\/history\/fisheronpoverty.html California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 108 benefits (such as food stamps), tax credits, and for necessary expenses such as taxes, medical out-of-pocket costs, child care, and shelter expenses that are not in the official poverty measure. The threshold is adjusted by family size, composition, geographic region, and housing status (whether a family is renting, owns with a mortgage, or owns without a mortgage). Tables and Figures in This Chapter Table 8A. Official Poverty Rate and California's Ranking: 2011-2015 .................................. 109 Table 8B. Comparison of the Official and Supplemental Poverty Measures ......................... 110 Table 8C. Comparison of the OPM and SPM in California and the U.S.: 2010-2012 to 2013-15 .............................................................................................................................................. 111 Figure 8A. Children in TANF as a Percentage of Children in Poverty: California and the U.S., 2002 - 2015 ........................................................................................................................... 112 Table 8D. Child Poverty Rates and Share of Poor Children in TANF, California and the U.S.: 2002 to 2015 ......................................................................................................................... 113 Table 8E. Monthly Benefit Values for a CalWORKs Family of Three in Region One: One Aided Adult and Two Aided Children ..................................................................................... 116 Figure 8B. Monthly Resources Available to a Family of Three (One Adult and Two Children) .............................................................................................................................................. 117 Figure 8C. CalWORKs Benefit and Resource Model 2016: Cases with No Earnings and with Median Earnings ................................................................................................................... 118 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 109 California's Poverty Rate and National Ranking According to the Official Poverty Measure (OPM), 13.9 percent of all Californians and 19.5 percent of California's children lived in poverty in 2015 (Table 8A). The corresponding figures for the U.S. as a whole were 13.5 percent and 19.7 percent, respectively. California's poverty rates have dropped by approximately three percentage point since 2011, partly as a result of an improving economy. The State ranks 18th in the nation for overall poverty rate and 20th for child poverty. Table 8A. Official Poverty Rate and California's Ranking: 2011-2015 OPM Poverty Rate and California's Ranking Year 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Overall Poverty Rate 16.9% (10th highest) 15.9% (16th highest) 14.9% (18th highest) 15.8% (17th highest) 13.9% (18th highest) Child Poverty Rate 24.3% (11th highest) 22.5% (19th highest) 20.3% (18th highest) 22.9% (17th highest) 19.5% (20th highest) Source: Bernadette D. Proctor, Jessica L. Semega, and Melissa A. Kollar, Income and Poverty in the United States, Current Population Reports P602-252 (U.S. Census Bureau, September 2016). Data are from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement. 2015 data retrieved from http:\/\/census.gov\/data\/tables\/time-series\/demo\/income-poverty\/cps-pov\/pov-46.html Measuring Poverty with the OPM and SPM The OPM and SPM are fundamentally different ways of understanding poverty (Table 8B). The OPM assumes that food costs consume one-third of a family's budget and defines poverty levels in relation to food prices, adjusted annually for inflation; the SPM considers the cost of basic needs for families (food, clothing, shelter, and utilities) and use the value between the bottom and middle thirds of the all families as its threshold. Major Differences between the OPM and SPM Who is counted? The OPM defines a family as individuals related by birth, marriage, or adoption. In contrast, the broader definition of the SPM resource unit includes individuals related by birth, marriage or adoption, as well as cohabitating partners and foster children. As a result, the number of people whose poverty status can be determined is larger for the SPM than for the OPM. What is income ? The OPM counts pre-tax cash income. The SPM considers post-tax cash income (including tax credits) plus any in-kind benefits such as nutritional assistance and then subtracts several categories of expenses from income. How are poverty lines adjusted over time and between groups? The OPM adjusts for inflation using the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for All Goods and calculates poverty lines by http:\/\/census.gov\/data\/tables\/time-series\/demo\/income-poverty\/cps-pov\/pov-46.html California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 110 family size and age of family members. The SPM is revised to reflect rising levels and standards of living (for example, for variation in family\/individual expenses\/costs, with adjustment for geographic differences in prices across the states\/geographic areas). Do housing costs matter? Housing costs are not considered in calculating the OPM, but are in the SPM. Table 8B. Comparison of the Official and Supplemental Poverty Measures Component OPM SPM Units of Analysis (1) Families and (2) unrelated individuals (1) Families\/cohabiting partners\/foster children and (2) unrelated individuals Income Pre-tax cash income and cash transfers (e.g., unemployment compensation, child support) After-tax cash income plus certain in- kind transfers, less certain expenses Expenses N\/A Subtracts medical, child care and work-related expenses (including transportation) from income Calculating the Poverty Line Three times the economy food plan of the 1960s, updated annually for inflation The mean of the 30th to 36th percentile of expenditures on food, clothing, shelter and utilities (FCSU) of consumer units with two children, multiplied by 1.2 to account for other \"key\" spending Adjustments for Family Size and Composition Family size, composition and age of householder Broader definition of family that includes unmarried partners, foster children, and unrelated children under 15; family size and composition Adjustments for Housing Costs N\/A Geographic adjustment for housing costs Updating Poverty Thresholds CPI Five-year moving average of expenditures for FCSU Source: Based on Trudi Renwick and Liana Fox, The Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2015, Current Population Reports P60-254 (U.S. Census Bureau, September 2015). http:\/\/www.census.gov\/content\/census\/en\/library\/publications\/2016\/demo\/p60-258.html California Poverty Rates Based on the OPM and the SPM In September 2016, the U.S. Census Bureau released two sets of poverty data: rates using the OPM and rates using the SPM. Poverty in California was much higher as measured by the SPM than by the OPM: In 2013-15, for example, California's poverty rate was 20.6 percent according to the SPM and 15.0 percent using the OPM (Table 8C). For the U.S. as a whole, poverty rates were 0.6 percentage points higher using the SPM. http:\/\/www.census.gov\/content\/census\/en\/library\/publications\/2016\/demo\/p60-258.html California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 111 Table 8C. Comparison of the OPM and SPM in California and the U.S.: 2010-2012 to 2013-15 Official Poverty Measure Supplemental Poverty Measure 2010-2012 2011-2013 2013-2015 2010-2012 2011-2013 2013-2015 California 16.5% 16.0% 15.0% 23.8% 23.4% 20.6% United States 15.1% 14.9% 14.5% 16.0% 15.9% 15.1% Data Source: Based on Trudi Renwick and Liana Fox, The Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2015, Current Population Reports P60- 254 (U.S. Census Bureau, September 2015). http:\/\/www.census.gov\/content\/census\/en\/library\/publications\/2016\/demo\/p60- 258.html Note: Questions for income and health insurance coverage in the Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement (CPS ASEC) were changed starting in 2013, and the U.S. Census Bureau did not publish state-level three-year SPM estimates for 2012-14. Why is the SPM Higher than the OPM in California? Local Housing Costs: Unlike the OPM, the SPM accounts for regional variation in the cost of living. For the period 2013 to 2015, California was one of the ten states with the highest housing costs in the U.S. The SPM was higher than the OPM in all ten of those states.3 Given the relationship between housing costs and the SPM-OPM differential, it may not be surprising that the SPM is higher than the OPM in California. 3 Hawaii, New Jersey, Maryland, California, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hampshire, New York, Alaska, and Virginia (U.S. Census Bureau, The Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2015; 2015American Community Survey 1-year Estimates of Median Monthly Housing Costs, Table B25105). http:\/\/www.census.gov\/content\/census\/en\/library\/publications\/2016\/demo\/p60-258.html http:\/\/www.census.gov\/content\/census\/en\/library\/publications\/2016\/demo\/p60-258.html California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 112 Figure 8A. Children in TANF as a Percentage of Children in Poverty: California and the U.S., 2002 - 2015 The share of California's children in poverty who receive TANF benefits has historically been much higher than the share in other states and the nation. In 2015, while the national percent of poor children receiving TANF was only 15.9 percent, California served 56.0 percent of its poor children more than three and a half times the national share. CalWORKs policies that strengthen support for children include providing aid to age 18 and continuing to provide aid when a parent's portion of aid is ended because of non- compliance with program rules. Data Sources: CA 237 CW, U.S. Census Bureau and Administration for Children and Families (ACF).. 57.0% 55.8% 54.6% 54.2% 53.7% 54.0% 49.6% 52.0% 49.1% 49.4% 52.1% 57.1% 50.1% 56.0% 33.9% 31.6% 30.4% 29.1% 26.9% 23.4% 21.7% 21.3% 20.9% 21.1% 20.5% 20.8% 19.0% 15.9% 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Nation and California TANF Children As Percent of Children in Poverty California Nation http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG281.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 113 Table 8D. Child Poverty Rates and Share of Poor Children in TANF, California and the U.S.: 2002 to 2015 California U.S. Years Children on CalWORKs2 CA Children in Poverty CA Percent Children in Poverty CA Percent Poor Children in CalWORKs U.S. Children in TANF and SSP MOE U.S. Children in Poverty (1,000s) U.S. Percent Children in Poverty U.S. Percent Poor Children in TANF 2002 1,015,889 1,783,000 18.7% 57.0% 4,118,797 12,133 16.7% 33.9% 2003 980,664 1,757,000 18.7% 55.8% 4,062,665 12,866 17.6% 31.6% 2004 985,444 1,804,000 19.0% 54.6% 3,969,376 13,041 17.8% 30.4% 2005 964,567 1,781,000 18.6% 54.2% 3,758,077 12,896 17.6% 29.1% 2006 926,104 1,724,000 18.1% 53.7% 3,455,961 12,827 17.4% 26.9% 2007 905,148 1,677,000 17.9% 54.0% 3,119,519 13,324 18.0% 23.4% 2008 942,006 1,898,000 20.2% 49.6% 3,056,690 14,068 19.0% 21.7% 2009 1,030,033 1,981,000 21.0% 52.0% 3,294,392 15,451 20.7% 21.3% 2010 1,091,546 2,225,000 23.4% 49.1% 3,432,780 16,401 22.0% 20.9% 2011 1,116,997 2,260,000 24.3% 49.4% 3,409,383 16,134 21.9% 21.1% 2012 1,075,476 2,065,000 22.5% 52.1% 3,298,369 16,073 21.8% 20.5% 2013 1,052,104 1,843,000 20.3% 57.1% 3,049,590 14,659 21.8% 20.8% 2014 1,048,214 2,093,000 22.9% 50.1% 2,949,590 15,540 21.1% 19.0% 2015 996,8821 1,780,000 19.5% 56.0% 2,302,337 14,509 19.7% 15.9% Data Sources: CA CW 237, U.S. Census Bureau, and Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Note: 12015 value is the monthly average from January to September. 2The data source for California children on TANF was updated from ACF to CA 237 CW for this version of the CalWORKs Annual Summary. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG281.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 114 CalWORKs Benefit and Resource Model 2016 Background CalWORKs cash assistance is one of many program benefits that provide comprehensive support to families in need. When looking at the resources available to cash assistance families, it is important to recognize that many CalWORKs families also receive benefits from the following programs: \uf0b7 CalFresh; \uf0b7 Medi-Cal; \uf0b7 CalWORKs Child Care; \uf0b7 Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); and \uf0b7 Child Tax Credit. The CalWORKs Benefit and Resource Model provides a snapshot of several of these benefits as a family's earnings gradually increase. CalWORKs grants vary by household size. The benefit model displays the interaction between monthly benefits and resources available to CalWORKs families with their earning levels for a family of three with one aided adult and two aided children.4 Earned income changes the benefit amounts of these programs and the total resources available for the family. The updated 2016 model adds three utility subsidy programs Low Income Heat and Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), California Alternate Rates for Energy (CARE), and LifeLine for telecommunication and wireless service assistance - programs that benefit many CalWORKs recipients. The model displays the poverty threshold under both the OPM and the SPM. Medi- Cal benefits and child care are not included as resources, as those two components are reflected as expenses instead of income in the SPM framework.5 The new Figure 8C displays information regarding the share of CalWORKs recipients who have no earnings and the share with earnings for at least one month in 2015, along with total monthly resources for those groups (assuming median monthly earnings for all recipients with any earnings in 2015). The Women, Infants and Children (WIC) health and nutrition program subsidy is not included because only approximately one-third of CalWORKs recipients receive this benefit.6 Housing subsidies are excluded because few CalWORKs families receive them (approximately 8.5 percent for FFY 2015 based on RADEP). 4 In July 2016, there were a total of 186,698 CalWORKs cases with one aided adult; 48,147, or 25.7 percent, had one aided adult and two aided children. (Data source: MEDS 2016 October.) 5 Based on the latest report by California Department of Health Care Services (May 2016), the average monthly costs of Medi-Cal for CalWORKs recipients is $218\/person. The average child care costs is $715.72\/month per child for FY 2016 -17, based on CDSS January 2017 Governor's Budget. 6 California Department of Public Health; Women, Infants & Children Program; Data Analysis, Research & Evaluation Section; accessed September 10, 2015. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 115 As noted above, the model reflects benefits and resources available to aided adults and children. Cases that include ineligible adults or children due to citizenship status would receive less. Data Sources This model was developed using the following data: \uf0b7 The CalWORKs grant is based on the non-exempt maximum aid payment for a family of three in high-cost counties (Region 1) as of October 1, 2016. The CalWORKs Earned Income Disregard (EID) policy allows families to exclude the first $225 of their income from the cash grant calculation, as well as 50 percent of all income above $225. \uf0b7 The CalFresh benefit is based on the maximum monthly allotments for Federal Fiscal Year 2017 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service. \uf0b7 The EITC and Child Tax Credits are displayed as monthly amounts, based on 2016 tax year information. However, most families that are eligible for the EITC and Child Tax Credits receive them as a lump-sum tax refund. \uf0b7 For a family with two children, the state EITC is 85 percent of the federal EITC up to earnings of $7,081 per year (approximately $590 per month). The state EITC begins to phase out at that point, while the federal EITC continues to phase in to earnings of $13,930 per year (approximately $1,161 per month). \uf0b7 The monthly National School Lunch Program benefit for one child is derived by dividing total price paid for 2014-15 school-year by 12, based on data from the California Department of Education and the Public Policy Institute of California.7 That number is multiplied by two (the number of children in the model's family type) and then by 71 percent, the estimated share of children in CalWORKs families who are school-age (MEDS October 2016). \uf0b7 The utility subsidy includes three programs: LIHEAP, CARE, and LifeLine. LIHEAP subsidy is calculated based on Program Year 2014 fact sheet; CARE subsidy is calculated by applying discount rates to median electricity and gas expense, based on the American Community Survey 2015 1-year estimate; LifeLine subsidy is based on the sum of state discount and federal discount. \uf0b7 Net earnings are after deductions for Social Security, Medicare and federal and state income tax. \uf0b7 The OPM threshold is from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines for 2016. The SPM threshold is CDSS' calculation of the average threshold for California families of three with two children, using 2015 SPM research files from the U.S. Census Bureau. 7 Sarah Bohn, et al., The California Poverty Measure: A New Look at the Social Safety Net (Public Policy Institute of California, October 2013); http:\/\/www.ppic.org\/content\/pubs\/other\/1013SBR_appendix.pdf. http:\/\/www.ppic.org\/content\/pubs\/other\/1013SBR_appendix.pdf California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 116 Table 8E. Monthly Benefit Values for a CalWORKs Family of Three in Region One: One Aided Adult and Two Aided Children $0 $200 $400 $600 $800 $1,000 $1,200 $1,400 $1,600 $1,800 Net Earnings After Taxes $0 $185 $369 $554 $739 $924 $1,108 $1,293 $1,478 $1,662 CalWORKs Grant $714 $714 $627 $527 $427 $327 $227 $127 $27 $0 CalFresh Benefit $499 $436 $403 $376 $349 $322 $295 $268 $241 $181 School Lunch $37 $37 $37 $37 $37 $37 $37 $37 $37 $37 Utility Subsidy $67 $67 $67 $67 $67 $67 $67 $67 $67 $67 Child Tax Credit $0 $0 $23 $53 $83 $113 $143 $167 $167 $165 Federal Earned Income Tax Credit $0 $81 $161 $241 $321 $401 $464 $464 $447 $404 State Earned Income Tax Credit $0 $69 $137 $191 $123 $55 $0 $0 $0 $0 Total Resources to the Family $1,317 $1,589 $1,824 $2,046 $2,145 $2,245 $2,341 $2,423 $2,463 $2,518 Official poverty measure (OPM) $1,680 $1,680 $1,680 $1,680 $1,680 $1,680 $1,680 $1,680 $1,680 $1,680 Supplemental poverty measure (SPM) $2,132 $2,132 $2,132 $2,132 $2,132 $2,132 $2,132 $2,132 $2,132 $2,132 Incremental Increases of Total Resources N\/A $271 $235 $222 $100 $100 $97 $82 $40 $54 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 117 Figure 8B. Monthly Resources Available to a Family of Three (One Adult and Two Children) $1,317 $1,589 $1,824 $2,046 $2,145 $2,245 $2,341 $2,423 $2,463 $2,518 Supplemental poverty measure (SPM), $2,132 Official poverty measure (OPM), $1,680 $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 $3,000 $0 $200 $400 $600 $800 $1,000 $1,200 $1,400 $1,600 $1,800 Earnings before tax Monthly Resources Available to a Family of Three (One Adult and Two Children) State Earned Income Tax Credit Federal Earned Income Tax Credit Child Tax Credit Utility Subsidy School Lunch CalFresh Benefit CalWORKs Grant Net Earnings After Taxes California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 8 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 118 Figure 8C. CalWORKs Benefit and Resource Model 2016: Cases with No Earnings and with Median Earnings $714 $499 $37 $67 $1,317 OPM, $1,680 SPM, $2,132 $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 $0 Monthly Resources Available to Families with No Earnings No Earnings 50.3% With Earnings (Med. monthly earnings $532) 49.7% Share of Cases with and with No Earnings in 2015 - One Aided Adult and Two Aided Children Source: MEDS and EDD base wage data of the second quarter of 2016. Of cases with one aided adult, 25.8% are of this family type as of July 2016. $491 $561 $385 $37 $67 $42 $213 $181 OPM, $1,680 SPM, $2,132 0 0.5 1 $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 $532 Monthly Resources Available to Families with Median Earnings $181$213$42$37$385$561$491 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 $532 State Earned Income Tax Credit Federal Earned Income Tax Credit Child Tax Credit Utility Subsidy School Lunch CalFresh Benefit CalWORKs Grant Net Earnings After Taxes\/3 OPM SPM California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 119 Chapter 9 Research Funds and Program Oversight The general purpose of CalWORKs program oversight is to review, monitor, and supervise the implementation of public policy. The CDSS prioritizes efficient and effective program oversight to strengthen the CalWORKs program through better county operations and service delivery, with the ultimate goal of increasing successful outcomes for CalWORKs families. This chapter explains how the CDSS uses Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) funds to assess the effectiveness of the CalWORKs program. Also described in this chapter are steps taken by CDSS to oversee and supervise counties in their implementation of recent changes to the CalWORKs program\u2014notably, the changes enacted by Senate Bill (SB) 1041 (Chapter 47, Statutes of 2012) and Assembly Bill (AB) 74 (Chapter 21, Statutes of 2013). Taken together, these two pieces of legislation represent the most significant policy transformation of the state's welfare program since the 1990s, including new flexibility built into the program, expanded services for recipients, and a new, in\u2010depth tool for evaluating family needs. Tables and Figures in This Chapter Table 9A. Allocation of TANF Research Funds Research Project Names and Budgets by Year, FY 2009-10 through FY 2018-19 ................................................................................. 120 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 120 TANF Research Funds This section provides information about the use of federal TANF research funds. Table 9A displays ten years of actual and estimated expenditures by project. Projects using funding in FY 2007-08 or later are described in more detail on the following pages. Table 9A. Allocation of TANF Research Funds Research Project Names and Budgets by Year, FY 2009-10 through FY 2018-19 Research Project FY 2009-10 FY 2010-11 FY 2011-12 FY 2012-13 FY 2013-14 FY 2014-15 FY 2015-163 FY 2016-174 FY 2017-184 FY 2018-194 Total Women's Health Survey $106,000 $106,000 UC Berkeley Library $46,704 $46,704 UC Davis Research Projects 1 $606,056 $1,112,515 $667,991 $464,491 $629,789 $0 $3,480,842 Spanish Language LD Screening $397,898 $473,871 $800,040 $984,139 $813,573 $3,469,521 CalWORKs Annual Summary $49,196 $49,196 UCB Performance Indicators $41,315 $41,315 $41,315 $41,315 $41,315 $43,488 $44,950 $44,950 $44,950 $44,950 $429,863 EDD Data Contract $15,371 $15,371 $15,371 $15,371 $15,371 $29,539 $29,539 $29,539 $42,066 $42,066 $249,604 CalWORKs Technical Academy $320,000 $320,000 SB 1041 Statewide Evaluation 2 $995,593 $1,999,795 $2,997,902 $2,496,416 $498,662 $8,988,368 DHCS Data Contract $6,600 $5,160 $5,160 $7,000 $7,000 $30,920 Child Care Characteristics $666,666 $1,000,000 $333,334 $2,000,000 Total $1,533,344 $1,643,072 $1,524,717 $1,505,316 $2,495,641 $2,128,618 $3,077,551 $3,242,731 $1,592,678 $427,350 $19,171,018 Notes: 1Does not include UC Davis projects listed separately below. 2The RAND annual budget figures are those of the original contract executed June 30, 2015 and do not reflect reallocation of funding among years or project expansions that may occur. 3Estimated budgets are subject to change. 4UCD contract was not renewed, and funding has been removed from FY 15-16 through FY 18-19. Please see the CalWORKs Annual Summary release of January 2016 for previous projections. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 121 TANF Research Funds: Details of Research Projects Women's Health Survey Time Period: FYs 2007-08 through 2009-10 Total Cost: $312,600 The CDSS provided questions for the Department of Health Care Services (DHCS) Women's Health Survey. After the survey was conducted, the results were provided to CDSS. Current Status: Completed. UC Berkeley Library Time Period: FY 2007-08 through FY 2009-10 Total Cost: $130,204 This contract was an agreement in which the UC Berkeley Library provided literature reviews and article retrieval for CDSS research requests. Current Status: Completed. UC Davis: Research Projects Overview This multi-purpose research contract supports short- and long-term projects to inform CDSS programming. Over the period FY 2009-10 through FY 2013-14, more than 90 percent of expenditures from this funding were directed to the Spanish Language Learning Disabilities (LD) Screening Tool Project, which is described below. Another UCD project, the UC Davis Confidentiality 2009 Report, is also listed. Funding for the multi-purpose contract is also used for discrete ad hoc data analysis projects, literature reviews, and consulting services to support program needs; deliverables include a draft Request for Proposals (RFP) for the Senate Bill (SB) 1041 Evaluation Study and a report to guide the RFP for the Child Care Characteristics Study. Time Period: FY 2009-10 through FY 2014-2015 Total Cost: $3,480,842 Information about three major UC Davis research projects is provided below. Current Status: Completed. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 122 UC Davis: Spanish Language LD Screening Tool Project Time Period: FY 2009-10 through FY 2013-14 Total Cost: $3,469,521 A collaborative effort between CDSS and the University of California, Davis, Center for Public Policy Research (CPPR), this project involves the development of a short, valid measure ( screen ) for Spanish-speaking adult applicants for Welfare to Work (WTW) to determine those at risk for learning disabilities. Low-income adults whose primary language is Spanish were invited to participate through various community-based organizations and agencies. Participants were administered two standardized achievement measures and the screening tools. Certified professionals (clinical psychologists and educational psychologists) provided diagnoses of whether participants had a learning disability; these diagnoses were used to assess the accuracy of the pilot screening measures. Recommendations regarding the screens were provided based on these findings. Current Status: Completed. UC Davis: CalWORKs Annual Summary Time Period: FY 2014-15 Total Cost: $49,196 In this project, UC Davis provided technical assistance in compiling program information and data for a new CalWORKs summary. The first iteration of the document was posted to the CDSS website and provides information to policymakers, researchers, and the public. Current Status: Completed. UC Berkeley: California Child Welfare Indicators Project (CCWIP) Time Period: FY 2009-10 through FY 2018-2019 Total Allocation: $429,863 The Center for Social Services Research (CSSR) at UC Berkeley receives and processes quarterly Child Welfare Services\/Case Management System data on California youth in foster care and produces statewide and county-specific tables and reports regarding maltreatment allegations, caseload, and performance outcomes. These reports are used by CalWORKs staff to formulate future welfare caseload projections. The project is housed in the School of Social Welfare and provides policymakers, child welfare workers, researchers, and the public with direct access to customizable information on California's entire child welfare system. Additional funding for this project is provided by the Stuart Foundation. CCWIP website: http:\/\/cssr.berkeley.edu\/ucb_childwelfare\/. http:\/\/cssr.berkeley.edu\/ucb_childwelfare\/ California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 123 Current Status: The CDSS will continue to provide data to CSSR for the foreseeable future. Employment Development Department (EDD) Time Period: FY 2009-10 through FY 2018-19 Total Allocation : $249,604 The EDD provides base wage employment data to CDSS under this contract and data for reports and analysis of the effect of programs and pilots. Current Status: The EDD will continue to provide data to CDSS for the foreseeable future. CalWORKs Technical Academy Time Period: FY 2009-10 Total Cost: $320,000 Funds were used to pay for a regional forum to present new strategies to help TANF participants obtain jobs. Current Status: Completed. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 124 SB 1041 Statewide Evaluation Time Period: FY 2013-14 through FY 2017-18 Total Allocation: $8,988,368 SB 1041 requires CDSS to contract with an independent, research-based institution for an evaluation of changes to the Welfare to Work requirements and produce a written report to be provided to the Legislature. The Research and Development (RAND) Corporation was selected through a competitive bidding process to conduct the evaluation. The FY 2013-14 budget funds will be shifted to FY 2014-15 to reflect the actual project start date. Six counties are participating: Sacramento, Fresno, Riverside, Los Angeles, Alameda, and Stanislaus. Study Design and Progress The evaluation attempts to isolate the effects of SB 1041 on county welfare staff, operations, and CalWORKs recipients by collecting and examining data on five important components. Due to the complexity for surveying each California county, some portions of the study will concentrate on six focal counties that are representative of the state as a whole in terms of demographic and socio-graphic makeup, CalWORKs caseload, urban\/rural mix, and other important factors. The focal counties are Sacramento, Alameda, Stanislaus, Fresno, Riverside and Los Angeles. \uf0b7 A Process Study \/ County Welfare Operations Impact Study: how the SB 1041 changes were implemented; county staff levels and distribution, resources, supportive services payments, and provision and timing of WTW activities to clients. o State-Level Interviews Second round completed o All-County Welfare Directors Survey completed o Focal County Key Staff Interviews Second wave completed Focal County CalWORKs recipient focus groups Second wave completed \uf0b7 Recipient Status Study \/Recipient Tracking Study: a point-in-time snapshot of the activities and services clients receive and an analysis of clients over time, while on and after leaving aid. o Underway - Data collection and analysis from the CDSS, Employment Development Department and other internal administrative sources is ongoing. \uf0b7 Recipient Impact Study: the number of families participating, completion of WTW activities, treatment of barriers, employment status and earnings, and child well-being. o Underway The CalSES, a three year longitudinal survey of a multi-cohort sample of CalWORKs recipients (N=1,500) with an embedded in-home child supplement sample of 1,000 of the sample families. o Underway Longitudinal analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) data will be incorporated to make comparisons between CalWORKs families and similar families in the rest of the country. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 125 Current Status: The year two annual report was released in November 2016. The report includes findings from interviews, surveys, recipient and staff focus groups and administrative data analysis. The report is available at the RAND Corporation website at http:\/\/www.rand.org\/pubs\/research_reports\/RR1348.html. Department of Health Care Services (DHCS) Time Period: FY 2014-15 through FY 2017-18 Total Allocation: $30,920 The DHCS provides CDSS with monthly Medi-Cal Eligibility Data System (MEDS) extract files. These files are used by CDSS to generate federal reports, analyze program issues, and track participation by recipients in the CalWORKs and CalFresh programs. Current Status: The DHCS will continue to provide data to CDSS for the foreseeable future. Child Care Characteristics Survey Research Project Time Period: FYs 2016-17 through 2018-19 Total Allocation: $2,000,000 The California Department of Social Services (CDSS) Child Care Programs Bureau awarded to Child Trends, Inc. a contract on a competitive basis to study the characteristics of families, children, and providers of subsidized child care in California. The study will be a fact-finding data collection effort. The data will inform decision makers on child care and development programs to identify service gaps for program development, make strategic funding decisions, and improve program effectiveness for needy families. Current status: A contract with CDSS and Child Trends was executed on November 1, 2016. http:\/\/www.rand.org\/pubs\/research_reports\/RR1348.html California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 9 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 126 Program Oversight The CDSS believes that timely oversight and ongoing monitoring will help ensure that families receive the maximum benefit of the new flexibility built into the program, and that technical assistance is being provided to counties to achieve the ultimate goal of the program: increasing successful outcomes for CalWORKs families. Current efforts include: New reporting \uf0b7 Contracted Evaluation with RAND Corporation o SB 1041 Evaluation of Reforms; o An independent evaluation of the impact of SB 1041, including changes to the client time clock and work requirements conducted by the RAND Corporation, in partnership with the American Institutes for Research; and o Annual progress reports will be provided. o Covers the full range of adult and child impacts of CalWORKs reforms o Year One Report: http:\/\/www.rand.org\/pubs\/research_reports\/RR919.html o Year Two Report: http:\/\/www.rand.org\/pubs\/research_reports\/RR1348.html County Monitoring \uf0b7 SB 1041 Field Monitoring Visits o One\u2010day county visits that include data collection, county worker interviews, case file reviews, and local welfare advocate input; o Some county visits completed by conference call; and o All 58 county visits have been completed. \uf0a7 45 reports online: http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/cdssweb\/PG95.htm \uf0b7 County Peer Review o Sharing of promising and best practices between and among counties; o Peer review teams visit counties to conduct informational interviews and focus groups, review policies and procedures, and review client case files; o Eight peer review visits were completed to date; and o Summary reports: http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/calworks\/PG2108.htm \uf0b7 Eligibility Case File Reviews o One\u2010day county visits that include a review of major eligibility factors: citizenship, residency, income, resource limitations, family composition, the Welfare-to-Work 24-Month Time Clock, and grant levels. A Summary of Findings will be forwarded to the county upon completion of the review; o Seven new counties will be reviewed in 2017, beginning early spring; and o More detailed information: http:\/\/www.dss.cahwnet.gov\/lettersnotices\/PG980.htm http:\/\/www.rand.org\/pubs\/research_reports\/RR919.html http:\/\/www.rand.org\/pubs\/research_reports\/RR1348.html http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/cdssweb\/PG95.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/calworks\/PG2108.htm http:\/\/www.dss.cahwnet.gov\/lettersnotices\/PG980.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 10 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 127 Chapter 10 Homeless Assistance and Housing Support Homelessness is a pervasive, multifaceted problem that can be a barrier to self-sufficiency. It affects the health and economic opportunities of families throughout the nation. Research shows housing instability and homelessness contribute to children experiencing higher rates of mental, emotional and behavioral impairments and interferes with learning and the ability to develop social relationships. Recognizing that housing is a critical component of self- sufficiency, in 2014 the California Legislature created a new Rapid Rehousing program, the CalWORKs Housing Support Program, to address homelessness and housing instability for CalWORKs recipients. The program is designed to assist and stabilize families as they move into permanent housing and work toward self-sufficiency while also improving overall child well- being. Chapter Ten highlights these efforts in brief. Key Terms in This Chapter Permanent Homeless Assistance This provides payments to secure or maintain housing, including a security deposit and last month's rent, or up to two months of rent arrearages. Temporary Homeless Assistance This provides payments for temporary shelter for up to 16 consecutive calendar days. Tables and Figures in This Chapter Table 10A. Application Approvals and Shelter Expenditures: FY 2015-16 ........................... 128 California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 10 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 128 CalWORKs Homeless Assistance Program The CalWORKs Homeless Assistance (HA) Program was established to help CalWORKs families meet the reasonable costs of securing housing. HA includes temporary HA, which helps families pay the costs of temporary shelter, and permanent HA, which helps families secure housing or prevent eviction. Homeless CalWORKs families may receive either temporary or permanent HA, or both. As of January 1, 2017, HA is available once every 12 months, while in prior years, HA was a once-in-a-lifetime benefit. Temporary Homeless Assistance Temporary HA provides a payment of $65 per day for a family of four and an additional $15 for the fifth and each additional family member, not to exceed $125 per day. Temporary HA is provided for up to 16 consecutive calendar days. While receiving temporary HA, the family must provide proof that they are actively searching for permanent housing. Following the 16- day period, even if the AU did not receive all 16 days, the temporary shelter benefit is considered exhausted. Permanent Homeless Assistance Permanent HA helps families secure housing by providing security deposit costs, including last month's rent, or helps families maintain housing by providing up to two months of rent arrearages. A permanent HA payment may not exceed two times the total rent amount and the monthly rent cannot exceed 80 percent of the total monthly household income. Exceptions If the family meets the criteria for an exception, a family may receive a second HA payment within a 12-month period. Exceptions to HA include cases of domestic violence, medically verified physical or mental illness (excluding substance abuse), or a fire or other natural catastrophe beyond the family's control. Cases based on an exception are limited to one payment of temporary, permanent, or both in a 12-month period. Table 10A. Application Approvals and Shelter Expenditures: FY 2015- 16 Type of Homeless Assistance Number of Families Approved FY 15-16 Net Shelter Expenditures Temporary 30,554 $24,209,188 Permanent 4,414 $5,991,913 TOTAL 34,968 $30,201,101 Data Source: CA 237 CW http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG281.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 10 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 129 CalWORKs Housing Support Program (HSP) Program Overview \uf0b7 In 2014, Senate Bill (SB) 855 created the CalWORKs Housing Support Program (HSP) to assist homeless CalWORKs recipients secure permanent housing and reach self-sufficiency; \uf0b7 In FY 2014-15, $20 million was allocated for the program; the allocation increased to $35 million in FY 15-16 and to $47 million in FY 16-17; and \uf0b7 HSP assists homeless CalWORKs families in quickly obtaining permanent housing and provides wrap-around supports to families to foster housing retention. Implementation \uf0b7 In FY 14-15, twenty counties participated in HSP; the program expanded to 44 counties in FY 15-16 and to 49 counties in FY 16-17; \uf0b7 County plans follow nationally recognized housing models, including those established in the federal Department of Housing and Urban Development's Homeless Prevention and Rapid Re-Housing Program (HPRP); and \uf0b7 Rapid Re-Housing and targeted homelessness prevention programs have been implemented nationwide as cost effective strategies to help families exit or avoid homelessness and retain permanent housing. Assistance and Services Provided to Clients \uf0b7 Counties were given the flexibility to design their own program, based on the needs of the community. County HSP plans differ in eligibility requirements, services offered, and the duration of a family's eligibility; \uf0b7 Housing subsidies may range from a few months to several months, depending on the individual needs of the family; and \uf0b7 In following core components of a Rapid Re-Housing program, HSP offers financial assistance and several wrap-around supportive services, including: Financial Assistance o Rental assistance o Security deposits o Utility payments o Moving costs o Motel and hotel vouchers Housing Stabilization & Relocation o Landlord recruitment o Case management o Housing outreach and placement o Legal services o Credit repair California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Chapter 10 January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 130 Program Outcomes for FY 14-15 and FY 15-16 (combined): \uf0b7 A total of 12,449 families have been approved for HSP and have received or are currently receiving services such as temporary housing, assistance with locating permanent housing along with intensive case management; and \uf0b7 A total of 4,935 families have been permanently housed. CalWORKs Housing Support Program Webpage: http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/calworks\/PG3658.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/calworks\/PG3658.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 131 Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and Acronyms 24MTC (24-Month Time Clock, CalWORKs): Adult CalWORKs participants are required to engage in welfare-to-work activities during their potentially maximum grant period of 48 months. During the first 24 months of aid receipt there are more activity options. These activities include work, education, training, and mental health, substance abuse, and\/or domestic abuse services. The WTW 24-Month Time Clock stops when a participant is in appraisal, job search, assessment, or development of a new WTW plan; is meeting the required number of participation hours in certain activities; is participating in Cal- Learn; is exempt; or is being sanctioned. 48MTC (48-Month Time Clock, CalWORKs): CalWORKs adults are eligible to receive cash aid for a lifetime maximum of 48 countable months. This 48-month time limit applies to aid received under CalWORKs and other state programs funded by the federal TANF Program since January 1, 1998. The time limit may be extended beyond 48 months if the adult fails to find employment or qualifies for a clock-stopping exemption while on aid. The 48-month time limit does not apply to children or non-minor dependents. 60MTC (60-Month Time Clock, TANF): Families with an adult who has received federally funded assistance for a total of 60 months are not eligible for additional cash assistance under the federal TANF program. However, a state can make an exception to the time limit for up to 20 percent of its caseload. States may also extend assistance beyond the 60-month time limit using other specified funds, such as state TANF MOE funds. ACF (the Administration for Children & Families): The ACF is the federal organization that oversees TANF programs. The ACF is a division of the Department of Health & Human Services. The ACF promotes the economic and social well-being of families, children, individuals and communities with partnerships, funding, guidance, training and technical assistance. AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children): Established by the Social Security Act of 1935 as a grant program to enable states to provide cash welfare payments for needy children who had been deprived of parental support or care because their father or mother was absent from the home, incapacitated, deceased, or unemployed. It was replaced by PRWORA in 1996. Ancillary Expenses: CalWORKs participants may be eligible to receive ancillary expenses, which can include the cost of books, tools, clothing, fees, or other necessary costs specifically required for the job or training as assigned in the welfare-to-work plan. ARRA (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009): Part of the federal stimulus package in response to the Great Recession, ARRA was a supplemental appropriation for job preservation and creation, energy efficiency and science, assistance to the unemployed, and California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 132 state and local fiscal stabilization. ARRA provided a work participation rate requirement, relief provisions, and funding for subsidized employment for state TANF programs. AU (Assistance Unit): An AU is a group of related persons living in the same home who have been determined to be eligible for CalWORKs and for whom cash aid has been authorized. An AU is sometimes referred to as a CalWORKs case. An AU or case differs from a household in that a household includes all persons in the same dwelling regardless of their relationship to members of the AU, or their eligibility for CalWORKs aid. Behavioral Health Services: Services provided to CalWORKs clients in need include treatment for mental health, substance abuse, and domestic violence. CalFresh: CalFresh is California's version of the federal Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP). The CalFresh program helps to improve the health and well-being of qualified California households and individuals by providing monthly electronic benefits (similar to a bank debit card) that can be used to buy most foods at markets and grocery stores to supplement their nutritional needs. Cal-Learn: Part of the CalWORKs program that requires CalWORKs custodial teen parents (up to the age of 19) to attend an educational program that will lead to a high school diploma or its equivalent. CalWORKs: California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids, the state welfare-to-work program that provides income support and access to health coverage on a temporary basis. CalWORKs was formerly Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). CCP (Corrective Compliance Plan): A CCP is one of the approaches provided for states to reduce or eliminate a federal fiscal penalty for WPR noncompliance. CDSS: California Department of Social Services, which is responsible for the CalWORKs program. CFAP (California Food Assistance Program): A state-funded CalFresh program for legal permanent non-citizens residing in the U.S., and determined to be ineligible for federal food stamp benefits solely due to their immigration status. Child Care: Access to quality child care is essential to the success of CalWORKs. Individuals enrolled in the welfare-to-work program are eligible to receive child care services. The CalWORKs Child Care Program is administered in three stages: Stage One is administered by the county welfare departments; Stages Two and Three are administered by Alternative Payment Program agencies under contract with the California Department of Education (CDE). Child-Only: Cases in which only the children in an AU are aided due to the exclusion or ineligibility for cash aid of the AU parent(s). CTC (Child Tax Credit): A federal tax credit designed to help families offset the cost of raising children. Under current law, the credit is worth up to $1,000 per child under age 17 at the end of California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 133 a tax year, and it is subtracted from the amount of income tax owed by a family. If the credit exceeds the amount of taxes the family owes, a percentage of the remaining credit is given back to the family in a refund check. (A family must have at least $3,000 in earned income to claim any portion of the credit.) Earnings: Earnings include wages, salary, commissions, and self-employment earnings. It is earned income whether the payment is cash, paycheck, personal check, or \"in-kind\" (such as housing that is included with employment). EID (Earned Income Disregard): The amount of earnings that is subtracted from income for determining a CalWORKs cash grant. The maximum has varied with changes in the law. In October 2013 it was set to the first $225 in earned income and50 percent of remaining earned income for all CalWORKs cases. EITC (Earned Income Tax Credit): A tax break (in the form of a refund) for people who work full-time or part-time. The EITC refund is not counted as income when computing a person's or family's CalWORKs cash grant, CalFresh allocation, or Medi-Cal benefits. Enrollee: Enrollee refers to an individual who has, after becoming eligible for CalWORKs, received a notice that he or she is required to participate in welfare to work. ES (Employment Services): Assistance with obtaining employment. ESE (Expanded Subsidized Employment): A program that creates job opportunities for CalWORKs participants; provides connections to the labor force; builds and improves skills; and involves counties forming partnerships with private employers and non-profits\/public agencies and either partially or fully funding wages. (ESE plans are explained on the CDSS website at: http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/calworks\/PG3412.htm.) Exemption: An exemption excuses a CalWORKs participant from Welfare to Work requirements. Many exemptions do not use up the 48-month allowable period on aid. A participant may be exempt because of a disability that will last 30 days or more and significantly impairs Welfare to Work performance; pregnancy; care of an infant or young child; lack of CalWORKs funds for support services needed to allow work participation; serving as a full-time Volunteers In Service To America (VISTA) volunteer; domestic violence; providing foster care; being under 16 or over 60 years old, or 18 or under and attending school; living on tribal land; and having poor access to services and training opportunities. FS (Family Stabilization): The FS program provides intensive case management and services that may be in addition to those provided by the county's Welfare to Work program to clients who are experiencing an identified situation or crisis. The program assists clients transition to Welfare to Work 24 Month Time Clock activities that are best aligned with their continued success in the CalWORKs program, including education\/training, work study, subsidized employment, or less intensive barrier removal activities. FY: Fiscal year; in California, July 1 through the following June 30. http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/calworks\/PG3412.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 134 FFY (Federal Fiscal Year): The period, starting on October 1 of one year and ending on September 30 of the next year, on which the federal government bases fiscal and data reporting requirements. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, FFY 2013 begins on October 1, 2012, and ends on September 30, 2013. GF (General Fund): The GF is California's main governmental operating account. GF revenues come primarily from the state income tax, but state sales and corporate taxes also contribute to the GF. Good Cause: An individual in good cause status is excused from welfare-to-work participation when it has been determined that there is a condition or circumstance that temporarily prevents, or significantly impairs, the individual's ability to be regularly employed or to participate in welfare to work activities. Great Recession: Common name for the economic downturn beginning in 2007-2008 and continuing into 2009-2010; referred to by the International Monetary Fund as the worst recession since World War II. California's unemployment rate reached 12.4 percent in 2010 (22.1 percent counting people who were working part-time and wished to be more fully employed). Household: A household includes all persons in the same dwelling regardless of their relationship to members of the AU or their eligibility for CalWORKs aid. HSP (Housing Support Program): Assists homeless CalWORKs families or those threatened with eviction to obtain and retain housing. Kin-GAP (Kinship Guardianship Assistance Payment Program): Establishes financial assistance for relative caregivers of a child under age 19 who are granted legal guardianship by the dependency court, allowing termination of dependency court jurisdiction. MAP (Maximum Aid Payment): The MAP is the maximum grant level provided for CalWORKs families. MAP levels are established by the California State Legislature and are based on family size, the status of the family (exempt or non-exempt), and the geographical location of the family residence (Region 1 or Region 2). MCA (Maximum Cal-Fresh Allotment): The MCA is the maximum benefit level of food aid a family may receive from CalFresh. MCA varies according to family size and income. Maximum Earned Income Limit: If a family's earnings are above the Maximum Earned Income limit, the family will not receive any CalWORKs grant. The limit is based on Region (1 or 2) and AU size. Medi-Cal: A free or low-cost form of health coverage for children and adults with limited income and resources. (This is California's version of the federal Medicaid program.) California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 135 MEDS (Medi-Cal Eligibility Data System): The MEDS is a statewide database containing client eligibility information for processing Medi-Cal, CalFresh, and CalWORKs administrative records. MBSAC (Minimum Basic Standards of Adequate Care): The MBSAC is the income threshold to determine applicant family's eligibility for CalWORKs. If a family's income falls below the MBSAC (after an initial $90 earned income disregard) for the region in which they reside, they may be eligible for CalWORKs assistance. MOE (Maintenance of Effort): The MOE is a requirement that states expend a specified minimum amount of matching funds on benefits for lower income families in order to participate in the federal TANF program. California allocates $2.9 billion annually in MOE. Non-Compliant (Individuals): This refers to an individual who has been sent a notice of non- compliance with welfare-to-work participation requirements but has not yet returned to participation, or been sanctioned. Non-Compliant (States): States that fail to meet the federal work participation rates are subject to a penalty of up to 5 percent of the state's block grant. The penalty increases by 2 percentage points each consecutive year of noncompliance, up to a maximum of 21 percent of the block grant. Depending on the degree of noncompliance\u2014for example, how close the state came to meeting the participation requirement\u2014the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services may reduce or waive the penalty. As an additional incentive to meet the federal requirements, states that are in compliance are subject to a lower maintenance-of-effort (MOE) spending requirement (75 percent instead of 80 percent of their FFY 1994 welfare-related spending). In California, this means that if the state meets the participation rates, it has the option of reducing spending by $182 million each year. Non-MOE General Fund: CalWORKs cases that receive assistance from federal TANF, state MOE funds, or some combination, are subject to work participation requirements. Non-MOE General Funds originate in the state GF but are allocated for assistance that is not subject to the federal TANF work participation requirements. OCAT (Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool): The Online CalWORKs Appraisal Tool is a statewide standardized appraisal tool which provides in-depth appraisal of recipient strengths and barriers to employment and self-sufficiency, leading to more effective placement in work activities and referrals to supportive services. OCAT is based on the federal Online WORK Readiness Assessment Tool (OWRA). OPM (Official Poverty Measure): The OPM was developed in the 1960s based on a family's food budget and currently it is widely used as a benchmark to determine eligibility for various government welfare programs. If the total income for a family falls below the relevant poverty threshold (which varies by family size and composition but not by geographic region), then the family as well as all family members are considered in poverty. The income in OPM includes cash income (before tax) and excludes noncash in-kind transfers such as food stamps and housing subsidies. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 136 Permanent Homeless Assistance: This provides payments to secure or maintain housing, including a security deposit and last month's rent, or up to two months of rent arrearages. PRWORA (federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996): In this act, Congress sought to reduce dependence on aid, limit out-of-wedlock childbirth, encourage the formation of stable two-parent families, and ensure that children could be cared for in their own homes or the homes of relatives. PRWORA replaced AFDC with Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF), changed the funding structure of the program, limited to 60months the amount of time that families could receive federal aid, and provided incentives for states to encourage support recipients to work. QR\/PB (Quarterly Reporting \/Prospective Budgeting): A budgeting system put in place in 2003 for the CalWORKs and CalFresh programs. Recipients' eligibility and benefits are determined for a 3-month period using prospective budgeting and income averaging rules based on information reported by recipients once in the quarter; recipients have the option to report changes that would result in increased grant\/benefits when they occur. RADEP (Research and Development Enterprise Project): RADEP is a web-based data collection tool used by county and state staff to collect federal TANF disaggregated data. The data is used by the federal Department of Health and Human Services to calculate the State's federal work participation rates. Region 1 and Region 2: The state of California is divided into two sets of counties, with Region 1 containing counties that generally have a higher cost of living than the counties in Region 2. Safety Net: Cases in which only the children in an AU are aided due to the parent(s) being discontinued for cash aid because they reached their 48-month lifetime assistance limit. Sanction: The process by which adult(s) are removed from CalWORKs support because at least one failed to comply with WTW program requirements without good cause, and county staff compliance efforts failed. Eligible children in an AU continue to receive funding. SAR (Semi-Annual Reporting): SAR requires households receiving CalWORKs assistance to report income on a semi-annual basis. SIP (Self-Initiated Program): Applies to a CalWORKs recipient who was enrolled in school and performing satisfactorily before app lying for cash aid. SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program): A federal program that is referred to as CalFresh in California. SPM (Supplemental Poverty Measure): The SPM extends the official poverty measure by taking account of some government benefits (such as food stamps) and necessary expenses such as taxes, medical out-of-pocket, child care, and shelter expenses that are not in the official California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 137 poverty measure. The threshold is adjusted by family size, composition, geographic region, and housing status (renting, owner with mortgage, and owner without mortgage). SSDI (Social Security Disability Insurance): Tied to the Social Security retirement program, SSDI is for workers who become disabled before retirement age and who have worked and paid Social Security taxes for many years. SSI (Supplemental Security Income): A U.S. government program that provides stipends to low-income people who are either aged (65 or older), blind, or disabled. TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families): This is a federal program that replaced AFDC and now funds CalWORKs. TANF is designed to help needy families achieve self- sufficiency. Temporary Homeless Assistance: This provides payments for temporary shelter for up to 16 consecutive calendar days. Time on Aid: The total number of months a case has received assistance during the look- back period, calculated by the person on aid longest in the case since the beginning of the look-back period (e.g., in the last six or eight years). Title XX: Title XX of the Social Security Act, also referred to as the Social Services Block Grant (SSBG), is a funding program provided to states, without a state matching requirement, to assist in supporting a wide range of services, including preventing child abuse, increasing the availability of child care, and providing community-based care for the elderly and disabled. Funds are allocated to the states on the basis of population. Transportation Services: Transportation services for welfare-to-work participants are often provided through payment by the county for public transportation or mileage reimbursement. Some counties provide alternative transportation services such as transportation vouchers, vehicle repair programs, commuter programs, and the purchase of motor vehicles or bicycles. Tribal TANF: Assists the Indian Tribes of California by providing the funding, tools, and resources necessary for each Tribe or Consortium to administer its own Tribal TANF Program. Unduplicated Count: A count of WTW participants that eliminates duplication in cases in which a person is involved in more than one approved activity. WDTIP: The Welfare Data Tracking Implementation Project, a statewide welfare time-on-aid tracking and reporting system that is accessible to county welfare eligibility workers through MEDS. WDTIP eliminates the need for counties to manually contact other counties outside their respective consortia system and\/or other states to obtain information relative to the TANF 60- month and CalWORKs 48-month time limits for time- on-aid by providing eligibility workers an automated tool with which they can obtain up-to-date information for CalWORKs applicants and recipients. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix A January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 138 WEI (Work-Eligible Individual): The federal designation for individuals required to participate in federal TANF work activities for a specified minimum number of hours. A work-eligible individual is an adult or minor head-of-household receiving TANF assistance, or a non-recipient parent living with a child receiving such assistance. WINS (Work Incentive Nutritional Supplement): A $10 per month supplemental food benefit program for working families who are receiving CalFresh benefits but not receiving CalWORKs or TANF benefits. WIOA (STET Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act of 2014): Intended to help job seekers access employment, education, training, and support services to succeed in the labor market and to match employers with the skilled workers they need to compete in the global economy. WIOA supersedes the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 and amends the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act, the Wagner-Peyser Act, and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The Act took effect July 1, 2015, the first full program year after enactment. WPR (Work Participation Rate): The rate at which adult CalWORKs recipients are meeting welfare-to-work participation requirements. When this rate is not 50 percent or higher for single- parent families and 90 percent for two-parent families, the State may be penalized by the federal government. WTW (Welfare to Work): WTW activities are a condition for adults to receive CalWORKs aid. The activities include unsubsidized and subsidized employment, work experience, on-the-job training, a grant based on-the-job training, work study, self-employment, community service, adult basic education, job skills training, vocational education, job search\/job readiness assistance, mental health counseling, substance abuse treatment, domestic abuse services, and other activities necessary to assist recipients in obtaining employment. WTW Participants: AU type that includes Single-Parent and Two-Parent households with an aided adult who is NOT exempt from work activities and NOT sanctioned. California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix B January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 139 Appendix B: List of Data Sources Used Administration for Children and Families (ACF) - Office of Family Assistance http:\/\/www.acf.hhs.gov\/programs\/ofa\/programs\/tanf\/data-reports The ACF is a division of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and provides a variety of data reports including TANF caseload data, expenditure data, and work participation rate data. CA 237 CW CalWORKs Cash Grant Caseload Movement Report http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG281.htm The monthly CA 237 CW report contains statistical information on CalWORKs caseload movement for Two-Parent Families, Zero Parent Families, All Other Families, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Timed-Out Cases, and Safety Net\/Drug or Fleeing Felon Cases (SN\/DFF). This report includes data on the number of applications requested or restored, cases added, cases exiting, and cases transferred from other counties during the month. California Department of Education 801A Archived Data http:\/\/www.cde.ca.gov\/sp\/cd\/ci\/cdd801ainfo.asp The CDD-801A report is a list of all families and children that received Early Education and Support Division (EESD)-subsidized services for a specified month. It is submitted monthly by every agency that contracts with EESD to provide subsidized child care and development services. The CDD-801A reports are also used to draw a sample of approximately 250 cases per month on which more detailed information is gathered through a separate report, the CDD- 801B. CalWORKs Quarterly Report http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG298.htm The Quarterly CalWORKs Report is an information tool to monitor the progress of the CalWORKs Program and provide periodic snapshots of the data for some key program components. The first quarterly report was completed for FY 2014-15 and covers July through September 2014. CW 115\/115A Child Care Monthly Report CalWORKs Families http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG288.htm - CW 115 http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG289.htm - CW 115A This report contains the number of CalWORKs families and children approved\/authorized\/certified to receive Stage One Child Care during the report month. This report also includes data on the number of children transferred to Stage Two as well as children http:\/\/www.acf.hhs.gov\/programs\/ofa\/programs\/tanf\/data-reports http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG281.htm http:\/\/www.cde.ca.gov\/sp\/cd\/ci\/cdd801ainfo.asp http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG298.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG288.htm http:\/\/www.cdss.ca.gov\/research\/PG289.htm California Department of Social Services CalWORKs Annual Summary Appendix B January 2017 California Families on the Road to Self-Sufficiency 140 waiting to be transferred. Data for Two-Parent Families is reported on the CW 115A, while data for All Other Families is reported on the CW 115. Medi-Cal Eligibility Data System (MEDS) This data system is a statewide database containing client eligibility information for processing Medi-Cal, CalFresh, and CalWORKs administrative records. Research and Development Enterprise Project (RADEP) RADEP is a web-based data collection tool used by county and state staff to report federal Temporary Assistance for N